Nadezhda Alliluyeva

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This name uses Eastern Slavic naming customs; the patronymic is Sergeevna and the family name is Alliluyeva.
Nadezhda Alliluyeva
Novodevichy Cemetery
Grave at Novodevichy Cemetery close up under protective covering.

Nadezhda Sergeevna Alliluyeva (Russian: Наде́жда Серге́евна Аллилу́ева; 22 September 1901 – 9 November 1932) was the second wife of Joseph Stalin.

Early life[edit]

Nadezhda was the youngest child of Russian revolutionary Sergei Alliluyev, a railway worker, and his wife Olga, a woman of German and Georgian ancestry who spoke Russian with a strong accent.[citation needed]

Sergei Alliluyev, though Russian, had found work and a second home in the Caucasus. During Stalin's time of exile, the Alliluyev family was a source of assistance and refuge, and during 1917, Stalin lived from time to time in their apartment.

Joseph Stalin[edit]

Nadezhda first met Stalin as a child when her father, Sergei Alliluyev, sheltered him after one of his escapes from Siberian exile during 1911. She may have always been in love with the mysterious swarthy Georgian with the yellowish-colored eyes who saved her life from drowning when she was a child.[1]

After the revolution, Nadezhda worked as a confidential code clerk in Lenin's office. She eschewed fancy dress, makeup, and other trappings that she felt un-befitting of a proper Bolshevik.

The couple married in 1919, when Stalin was already a 41-year-old widower and father of one son, born to his first wife, who died of typhus years earlier. Nadezhda and Joseph had two children together: Vasily, born in 1921, who became a fighter pilot (C.O. of 32 GIAP) at Stalingrad, and Svetlana, their daughter, born 1926.

According to her close friend, Polina Zhemchuzhina, the marriage was strained, and the two argued frequently. She also suffered from a mental illness, possibly bipolar disorder; Molotov recalled that she suffered from mood changes that made her seem like a "mad woman". While she was friendly with Vasily, she was not close to Svetlana, and was stern with both children.

Death[edit]

After a public spat with Stalin at a party dinner, Nadezhda was found dead in her bedroom, a revolver by her side.[2] Regardless, the official announcement was that Nadezhda died from appendicitis. Some claim the gun was found beside the hand she didn't use, apparently indicating a framed suicide; many in Russia allege that Stalin killed her himself.[3][4]

Accounts of contemporaries and Stalin's letters indicate that he was much disturbed by the event.[5][6]

Alliluyeva's daughter Svetlana later emigrated from the Soviet Union and defected to the United States, where she eventually published her autobiography, which included recollections of her parents and their relationship.

In popular culture[edit]

Alliluyeva was portrayed by Julia Ormond in the 1992 television film Stalin.[7]

References[edit]

  1. ^ #S. Ia. Alliluev, "Moi vospominaniia," Krasnaia letopis' 5 (1923); Alliluev, "Vstrechi s tovarishchem Stalinom," Proletarskaia revoliutsiia 8 (1937); Alliluev, Proidennyi put' (Moscow, 1946); the memoirs of Sergei Alliluev's daughter and Nadezhda's sister, Anna Sergeevna Allilueva, were published in two editions, both in the same year, 1946, as Iz vospominanii, published by Pravda and Vospominaniia, published by Sovietskii pisatel'. Stalin was angered by revelations of his personal life and ordered both editions withdrawn from circulation soon after they appeared. Svetlana Allilueva, Dvadtsat' pisem k drugu (New York, 1967), 56–57.
    1. Figure 2: From the Alliluev family album. Stalin's mother-in-law, Ol'ga Evgen'eva Allilueva (1905), and his father-in-law, Sergei Iakovlevich Alliluev (1914), who first met Stalin in Tbilisi during 1904. RGASPI, f.558, op.11, d.1651, nos. 16 and 15.
    2. Figure 3: From the family album of the Alliluevs. Stalin during 1915 during his Siberian exile and his future wife, Nadezhda Allilueva, taken during 1912, about a year after he met her. RGASPI, f.558, op.11, d.1651, nos. 18 and 22.
    Rieber, Alfred J. (December 2001). "Stalin, Man of the Borderlands". The American Historical Review 106 (5). Retrieved 26 March 2007. 
  2. ^ Some time during the evening, over a table of vodka, Georgian wines and Russian cuisine, Stalin and Nadya became angry with each other. Irritated, she started dancing with her louche Georgian godfather, “Uncle Abel” Yenukidze, the official in charge of the Kremlin, who had shocked the party with his affairs with teenage ballerinas. Stalin was flirting with Galya Yegorova, the beautiful wife of a Red Army commander. Galya, 34, was a brash movie actress well-known for her affairs and risqué dresses. Nadya suspected him of having affairs, most recently with a female hairdresser in the Kremlin, and some historians report her discontent heard from her students about the starvation occurring in Ukrainia. Some accounts claim that, sitting opposite Nadya at the table, Stalin upbraided her for not raising her glass to a toast. “Why aren’t you drinking?” he called, tossing an orange peel at her. Other anecdotes report that he flicked cigarettes at her from across the dinner table. “Hey you! Have a drink!” “My name isn’t ‘hey’!” she retorted, and she stormed out screaming: “Shut up! Shut up!” Molotov’s wife Polina followed her out and calmed her down. When they said good night, she seemed “perfectly calm.”
    1. Extracted from Stalin: The Court Of The Red Tsar by Simon Sebag Montefiore
    "Stalin's women". Sunday Times (UK). 29 June 2003. Retrieved 26 March 2007. 
  3. ^ Joseph Stalin Biography 1 of 2 on YouTube
  4. ^ V. Topolyansky. Blow from the past. (Russian: В. Торолянский. Сквозняк из прошлого.) Novaya Gazeta/InaPress. Moscow. 2006. ISBN 5-87135-183-2. The false report was signed by Kremlin's doctors Obrosov and Pogosyants. Obrosov was executed by a firing squad during 1937.
  5. ^ He mourned the loss of Nadezhda but also blamed her in bursts of self-pity: "The children will forget her in a few days, but me she has crippled for life."1 2 He virtually abandoned Zubalovo and became a wanderer again, shifting his residence from place to place
    1. "Dnevnik . . . Svanidze," 177. Characteristically, Stalin's reaction was to rage at the world exactly as he had done when his first wife died. Iremaschwili, Stalin, 40–41. His ritualistic mourning of Nadezhda had much emotional ambivalence. Allilueva, Dvadtsat' pisem, 99–109.
    2. Allilueva, Dvadtsat' pisem, 23, 45.
    Rieber, Alfred J. (December 2001). "Stalin, Man of the Borderlands". The American Historical Review 106 (5). Retrieved 26 March 2007. 
  6. ^ Among the first relatives to arrive were Zhenya and her husband Pavel, who was Nadya’s brother. They were shocked not only by the death of a sister but by the sight of Stalin himself, who had never seemed so vulnerable. He threatened suicide and asked Zhenya: “What’s missing in me?” She temporarily moved in to watch over him. One night she heard screeching and found him lying on a sofa in the half-light, spitting at the wall, which was dripping with trails of saliva
    1. Extracted from Stalin: The Court Of The Red Tsar by Simon Sebag Montefiore
    "Stalin's women". Sunday Times (UK). June 29, 2003. pp. cover story. Retrieved 26 March 2007. 
  7. ^ Robert Duvall as Stalin, the Embodiment of Evil, John J. O'Connor, The New York Times, November 20, 1992