Natacha Rambova

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Natacha Rambova
Natacha Rambova.jpg
Natacha Rambova
Born Winifred Kimball Shaughnessy
(1897-01-19)January 19, 1897
Salt Lake City, Utah
Died June 5, 1966(1966-06-05) (aged 69)
Pasadena, California
Other names Natasha Rambova
Occupation Costume and set designer, artistic director, screenwriter, producer, actress, fashion designer
Spouse(s) Rudolph Valentino
(m.1923–1926; his death)
Alvaro de Urzaiz
(m.1934–1939; divorced)

Natacha Rambova (January 19, 1897 – June 5, 1966) was an American silent film costume and set designer, artistic director, screenwriter, producer and occasional actress. Later in life she worked as a mildly successful fashion designer and Egyptologist. She is best known as the second wife of film star Rudolph Valentino.

Early years[edit]

Rambova was born Winifred Shaughnessy in Salt Lake City. Her father, Michael Shaughnessy, was an Irish Catholic who fought for the Union during the American Civil War. Her mother, Winifred Kimball, was nicknamed "Muzzie" and was a granddaughter of Mormon leader Heber C. Kimball.[1] Her father was a businessman who partook in mining interests, but eventually his alcohol and gambling problems became too much for her mother. Her mother became an interior designer and moved to San Francisco. She was married four times (Michael was her second husband), eventually settling on millionaire perfume mogul Richard Hudnut. Rambova was adopted by her stepfather, making her legal name Winifred Hudnut.[1] Before her marriage to Hudnut, Rambova's mother married Edgar De Wolfe, brother of Elsie De Wolfe, a prominent interior decorator. With this marriage her mother became socially successful and wealthy. Rambova was rebellious, and mocked her stepfather for being passive. She was sent home from a boarding school for "conduct unbecoming of a lady". She was sent to a strict British boarding school, where she learned ballet, French, drawing, and studied mythology.[2]

Ballet career[edit]

Rambova was gifted at ballet, and trained with Rosita Mauri at the Paris Opéra during the summers. She traveled to London frequently to watch other performers including Pavlova, Nijinsky, and Theodore Kosloff. Right before World War I broke out, Rambova returned to San Francisco where she clashed with her mother once again and insisted she would pursue ballet as a career. Her family had trained her in ballet as a social grace and were appalled at the thought of it becoming a career.[2] Aunt Teresa intervened, offering to move with Rambova to New York where she could study under Kosloff. Rambova, now 17, changed her name to Natacha Rambova at this time. At 5'8" she was too tall to be a classical ballerina, but Kosloff continually gave her leading parts. She performed with him in his Imperial Russian Ballet Company.[3]

Around this time Rambova fell for the 32 year old Kosloff (who had a wife and an invalid daughter in Europe) and the pair began a tumultuous love affair. Muzzie was outraged when she found out, and brought charges of statutory rape and kidnapping against Kosloff hoping to have him deported.[3] Rambova fled New York and hid in Canada, and later England, to hide from her mother. While in England she posed as a governess to Kosloff's wife and child. Muzzie, wanting to bring her daughter home, relented by dropping the charges. She allowed Rambova to keep performing with the company and promised to underwrite the costumes.[3]

Design in film[edit]

Rambova returned and began touring with the Kosloff company. In addition to dancing she began costume designing as well. After the tour ended Kosloff had been hired by Cecil B. DeMille to perform as well as contribute designs. Rambova joined him and was dismayed to find herself as part of Kosloff's "arty harem". Kosloff had taken several lovers amongst the dancers, who would perform with his company, teach at his studio, and assist him uncredited in his film work.[4] Rambova took to researching historical accuracy for her designs, which Kosloff would then use without giving her credit, stealing her sketches and claiming them as his own.[5]

Kosloff met fellow Russian Alla Nazimova and convinced her to use his services for her an upcoming planned project based on Aphrodite. Kosloff sent Rambova to show sketches to Nazimova, claiming they were his own when they were actually Rambova's. Nazimova was impressed and when she asked for revisions to some costumes, Rambova took out a pencil and began to make the revisions, showing that she had done the work. Nazimova offered Rambova a position on her production staff as an art director and costume designer. The work would pay up to $5,000 a picture.[5]

Rambova's work had been used in four DeMille films, including Why Change Your Wife? (1920), which featured Gloria Swanson and Thomas Meighan, before her signing with Nazimova. Metro feared censors' reactions, and thus the Aphrodite picture was never made. Her first film for Nazimova was Billions in 1920. She met Rudolph Valentino on the set of Uncharted Seas in 1921. They began working together on Camille soon after. Hans Poelzig and Emil-Jaques Ruhlmann were her inspiration for various sets on the film. Rambova was determined to bring the art deco look to America, as it was transforming film making in Europe.[6] The film flopped, with many contemporary critics finding it too odd. The failure of "Camille" eventually led Metro to terminate Nazimova's contract.

Rambova took on teaching design and selling some of her jewelry. She wound up earning more than Valentino, who had notoriously bad contract deals.[7] She next designed for a film Nazimova wrote titled, A Doll's House. By 1922 Rambova had left Metro to join Nazimova on her artistic productions.[8] Valentino negotiated a slightly better contract and was now earning more than Rambova. Rambova's designs for Salome were based on drawings by Aubrey Beardsley for Oscar Wilde's version.[8] In addition to costume design, Rambova contributed to the film's scenario under the alias "Peter M. Winters". The film cost $350,000 to make and flopped at the box office. It was one of Nazimova's last releases. It was also the last film Nazimova and Rambova would work on together.[citation needed]

Role in Valentino's career[edit]

After they moved in together the pair devised a plan to sell Valentino's autograph for 25 cents. It kept them afloat between paychecks.[9] Valentino signed with Famous Players-Lasky in 1921. Before their marriage a public controversy over pictures Rambova had taken of Valentino, dressed up as a faun or pan-like God. The pictures had been taken by Rambova as part of a series of faun pictures for a magazine called Shadowland, that featured art and dancer photos.[10] The pictures were damaging to Valentino's image, and also were seen as evidence that he was carrying on with Rambova during his divorce from Acker.[11]

As the bigamy scandal raged on, Rambova began work on costumes for Valentino's next picture, The Young Rajah.[12] The film contained Indian themes and Rambova's costumes were elaborate representations of such. Valentino complained that his separation from Rambova distracted his acting, causing a sub-par performance. He complained to Rambova that everything from the sets to the cast was cheap. The film flopped and was one of the first major flops of Valentino's leading man career.[13]

Outraged over the bigamy trial and the way his wife was treated, Valentino declared a one man strike against his studio with Rambova's support.[14] Valentino also claimed he wasn't making what he was worth, and that artistic control over his films lay at the heart of the matter.[15] Famous Players sued and won an injunction barring Valentino from seeking any form of employment. This was later reduced to employment in pictures. Rambova stated she was not worried, and could keep them afloat with her designs. She mentioned offers of being an actress herself though she had yet to appear as anything more than an extra in film.[16]

Eventually Valentino hired a new manager, George Ullman. At first Rambova worked well with him, but the two eventually clashed.[17] Ullman presented the idea of having Valentino promote Mineralava Beauty Products. He then suggested Valentino and Rambova partake in a dance tour to help the promotion and keep Valentino's name in the spotlight. The pair agreed and the tour was a major success.[18] Rambova was credited under her legal name Winifred Hudnut. During a stop in her hometown, Salt Lake City, promotion for the tour tried to play her up as the local girl returning home, "The Little Pigtailed Shaughnessy Girl". Rambova was angry and erupted in tears.[19]

Once the tour wrapped up, Valentino and Rambova legally married and the press praised Rambova for her "business sense".[20] By 1924 Rambova had negotiated a contracted with J.D. Williams for Valentino to sign with Ritz Carlton Pictures. The deal would require two films to fulfill his obligations to Famous Players, and then four films that he and Rambova could make as they pleased at Ritz Carlton.[21] Rambova would be seen as his artistic collaborator for the first time.[22] By this point in Valentino's career the press began to blame Rambova for his missteps, claiming she was controlling and power hungry. She had become her husband's prime business advisor, because she took charge, he trusted her, and he felt with her English she could understand legal terms better than he could.[23]

Valentino's comeback film was Monsieur Beaucaire about a 17th-century Duke. Rambova was the costume designer and art director on the film. Famous Players was sure the film would be a hit, being Valentino's first screen appearance in two years. They were given a huge budget, with Rambova spending $215,000 on costumes alone.[24] Rambova also managed to upset a journalist and publicist Harry Reichenbach. When the journalist came to interview Valentino, he was told he could speak with "Mrs. Valentino" instead; furious he left without taking an interview and his article was cancelled. Reichenbach was furious and publicly aired his grievances.[25] Rambova claimed that Famous Players made them choose the film. Actually the Valentinos were offered a choice between Monsieur Beaucaire and a sea adventure. Monsieur Beaucaire flopped, and most of the blame went to Rambova.[26] Jesse Lasky held her personally responsible saying, "...she insisted on Valentino doing perfumed parts like Monsieur Beaucaire in powdered wigs and silk stockings. We had to take him on her terms to have him at all."[26]

The Valentinos began work on their next picture, A Sainted Devil, which would follow in Valentino's early Latin lover styled roles. Rambova took control of the production, especially the costumes and the casting.[27] Although Joseph Henabery was the official director, Rambova took over this role unofficially.[28] The costumes were again lavish and Rambova brought on two designers who would go on to successful careers: Norman Norell, and Adrian (who would design for The Wizard of Oz). A Sainted Devil flopped, this time damaging Valentino's career to the point where reviewers dubbed he had lost his great lover title to John Gilbert. Rambova blamed the story, which she claimed had a war element when they originally agreed to make the picture; but the studio removed it fearing it would offend European audiences.[29] The film is now lost.

The Valentinos began work on what they now saw as their chance at a real picture, The Hooded Falcon. Rambova wrote the initial scenario and it was again to be her production. Valentino visited June Mathis and asked her to write the full script, to which she agreed.[30] However the project would be plagued with problems from the beginning. They learned their Ritz Carlton pictures would be distributed via Famous Players-Lasky. Ritz Carlton also did not have much financing, crushing their dreams of filming on location in Spain.[31] To work around this they traveled to first France then Spain in search of costumes and scene ideas. They had a $40,000 budget for costumes and props, yet spent $100,000.[32] The picture had a total budget of $500,000, half of which would be used before the film was finally shelved all together.[33]

During production for The Hooded Falcon, Rambova clashed frequently with Valentino's friends. Rambova and George Ullman were in a battle for control of Valentino's career.[34] Rambova, alongside Valentino and Henabery, decided Mathis' script for The Hooded Falcon would not do and that a script doctor should be used. When Ullman informed Mathis of the decision, Mathis quit speaking to both Rambova and Valentino, ending their long friendship.[35] Valentino and Rambova tried to fight back, by granting interviews claiming that 'Valentino is not a Henpecked Husband'.[36]

With The Hooded Falcon on hold, Williams insisted Valentino began work on Cobra which took place in a modern setting. Most of the crew from The Hooded Falcon worked on Cobra as well. Rambova only took part in two scenes before leaving the film claiming modern stories bored her. In the short time she worked on the film she managed to clash with Mario Carillo and other actors as well.[37] Cobra flopped and Valentino's popularity and career were both in jeopardy. After a final fight between Williams and Valentino over Rambova, Williams announced to the press that The Hooded Falcon would be postponed indefinitely, and Valentino's contract terminated.[38] With the knowledge United Artists would likely be signing Valentino, Rambova went to speak with Ullman about the contract terms. Valentino was finally offered a decent contract, but one of the stipulations was that Rambova would not be allowed on set or any part in his films. Knowing he did not have a choice, Valentino took the offer.[39]

Acting career[edit]

As a peace offering, Ullman offered Rambova $300,000 to create a film of her own choosing. Rambova began work on What Price Beauty? which she wrote, produced, and appeared in. Nita Naldi starred, and a small part was given to future film star Myrna Loy in her first screen appearance.[40] The film ran over budget, costing $100,000 and received limited and delayed release. It is now lost.

After her divorce from Valentino began, Rambova produced and starred in another picture, Do Clothes Make the Woman?. She had brought forty trunks back from Europe for the picture and would act opposite Clive Brook. Eventually it was retitled to When Love Grows Cold much to Rambova's horror. Rambova was reportedly so upset that the distributor promoted the film with her name as "Mrs. Valentino" that she never acted in film again.[41] Most of the film is lost except small fragments from a promotional trailer. After Valentino's death, Rambova appeared on stage via vaudeville and Broadway. She wrote an unproduced play, All that Glitters, supposedly detailing her life with Valentino, although by the end of the play there is a happy ending and the couple reconcile.[42]

Later career[edit]

Rambova opened an elite couture shop on Fifth Avenue in 1927. She urged women to express themselves through fashion. She would later close the shop after meeting her second husband in 1934.[43] With her husband in Mallorca, Rambova began a business of buying up old villas and modernizing them for tourists; a venture she financed with her inheritance from her stepfather who had died in 1928.[43]

After divorcing her second husband, Rambova remained in France, where she remained until the Nazi invasion, at which point she returned to New York. Rambova's interest in the metaphysical grew during the 1940s, with her supporting the Bollingen Foundation, which she believed help her see a past life in Egypt.[43] She published various articles on healing and astrology during this time. Eventually she helped decipher ancient scarabs and tomb inscriptions which led her to edit a series of publications titled, "Egyptian Texts and Religious Representations". She also conducted classes in her apartment about myths, symbolism, and comparative religion.[43]

She never spoke of Valentino publicly, turning away reporters on the 25th anniversary of his death and threatening to sue if an upcoming picture about him had a caricature of her in it.[citation needed]

Influence and style[edit]

Rambova's designing career began in 1918 when she toured with Kosloff's company.[3] She favored designers such as Paul Poiret, Léon Bakst and the long dead Aubrey Beardsley. She specialized in "exotic" and "foreign" effects in both costume and stage design. For costumes she favored bright colors, baubles, bangles, shimmering draped fabrics, sparkles, and feathers.[3] She also used the effect of sparkle on half nude bodies slathered in paint. When Rambova began work in film costume design she took to researching historical accuracy for her designs.

During her marriage to Valentino, Rambova was seen as a fashion icon. During a trip to Paris her shopping trips caused a sensation with the press reporting on her outfits.[44]

Personal life[edit]

Rambova loathed the world of high society, and even though her mother had married well she refused to live off her stepfather's money, insisting on making her own living.[45] Valentino was said to be shocked when he first viewed her parents' lavish home, as Rambova had never spoken of their wealth.[45] During Valentino's strike from Famous Players, she still intended to make money herself, and never mentioned her parents as a source of income.[16]

Both Rambova and Valentino were Spiritualists. She had been interested in ancient religions since her teen years. She believed in reincarnation and psychic powers. Later in life she became an Egyptologist, an author on astrology, and a follower of Madame Blavatsky and George Gurdjieff.[46] During her marriage to Valentino they both visited psychics, partook in séances, and automatic writing. Through these practices Valentino was eventually moved to write a book of poetry, Daydreams, with many poems about Rambova.[47] When Valentino died Rambova wrote a book about the time she had spent with him, and also her claims to be in contact with him in the afterlife via psychics.[48]

Relationships and marriages[edit]

Rambova's first relationship was with Theodore Kosloff when she was 17 and he 32. Though her mother protested, Rambova was eventually allowed to continue the relationship which became tumultuous. Kosloff had several lovers, and took credit for all their designs and work he would ask them to do, including Rambova. When Rambova was offered a position by Nazimova she was finally able to leave Kosloff. However Kosloff was controlling and abusive, and Rambova had to proceed in secret as Kosloff would do anything to keep her in his 'harem'.[5] While Kosloff was away on a hunting trip, Rambova packed her bags and called a taxi. However Kosloff returned unexpectedly and caught her leaving; angered, he shot her in the leg. Rambova managed to flee to Metro Studios, where Paul Ivano helped her pick the bits of lead from her leg. Rambova never reported the incident to the police.[5]

Rudolph Valentino[edit]

Rambova met Valentino on the set of Uncharted Seas in 1921. They began working together on the set of Camille shortly after. The pair did not hit it off instantly, as by Rambova's own account she thought he was dumb as he was constantly goofing off and telling jokes...then forgetting the point to them. However she soon realized he was just lonely and trying to be liked, and she took pity on him.[49] They began to take picnics together and attended a costume ball together. They formed a relationship based on a love of reading, art, antiques, and the finer things in life.[50]

The pair moved in together less than a year later but had to separate (or at least pretend to) as the divorce proceedings for Valentino's marriage to Jean Acker began. Once the divorce was final, the pair married on May 13, 1922 in Mexicali, Mexico. However, the law at the time required a year to pass before remarriage and Valentino was jailed as a bigamist. Valentino's studio at the time, Famous Players-Lasky, refused to post bail.[51] June Mathis, George Melford, and Thomas Meighan eventually were able to raise enough to post bail. Rambova had been sent to New York by the studio before Valentino's jailing, and was informed at a stop in Chicago. Throughout the bigamy scandal she refused to speak to the press.[52] The pair had to wait a year to remarry (less risking Valentino being jailed again), forced to live in separate apartments with roommates. In the summer of 1922, they spent their honeymoon at her adopted father's "Great Camp" Foxlair. Located in the Town of Johnsburg N.Y. The press found their seclusion in the mountain stronghold both romantic and baffling. It was possibly the only privacy that Valentino would ever experience, and they treasured their days at Foxlair's natural loveliness and peace.[53] They legally remarried on March 14, 1923.

Though they shared similar passions, Valentino and Rambova held very different views when it came to home and personal life. Valentino cherished old world ideals of a woman being a housewife and mother, while Rambova was a feminist who wanted to continue to work and had no plans of being a housewife. Valentino was known as an excellent cook, while actress Patsy Ruth Miller suspected Rambova didn't know "how to make burnt fudge," although the truth was she did occasionally bake and was an excellent seamstress.[54] Valentino deeply wanted children, Rambova did not.[55]

Rambova did not get along with Valentino's friends and family, with the exception of Paul Ivano. Rambova complained during their trip to Italy, and she never got along with either of his siblings.[56] She eventually sparred with Douglas Gerrad, June Mathis, and George Ullman; costing Valentino his friendship with Mathis. The marriage began to be strained as the press scrutinized Rambova and blamed her for Valentino's failures. Actress Myrna Loy claimed that Rambova was unfairly criticized, that Valentino was like a little boy wanting to please people by saying yes to everything, while Rambova took the blame by going after these people and saying no. After signing with United Artists (which stipulated Rambova could not be present on Valentino's sets or take part in his films), Rambova turned cold and ignored her husband's 30th birthday, mocking him for staying home all day while she went to work (he was waiting for his contract to finalize), sparring with him in public, embarrassing him in front of Hollywood elite on the night of his 'Rudolph Valentino Medal' ceremony, and eventually cheating on him with her cameraman on What Price Beauty?[57] Rambova left four weeks after Valentino began shooting The Eagle and announced the separation soon after, catching Valentino off guard.[58] The pair took to sparring back and forth in the press.[59] When Valentino suddenly took ill, Rambova was in Europe. At Valentino's request, Ullman sent a telegram to Rambova. Rambova believed a reconciliation had taken place and the two sent telegrams right until the final moments of Valentino's life.[60]

Alvaro de Urzaiz[edit]

Rambova met Alvaro de Urzaiz on a trip to Europe in 1934. Urzaiz was a British educated, Spanish aristocrat. After closing her shop, Rambova moved with her husband to the island of Mallorca. When the Spanish Civil War erupted, Urzaiz was on the pro-fascists nationalist side, becoming a naval commander. Rambova fled to Nice, where she suffered a heart attack at age 40. Soon after, she and Urzaiz divorced.[43]

Death[edit]

In the mid-1960s she was struck with scleroderma, and became malnourished and delusional as a result. A cousin brought her to Pasadena, California where she died of a heart attack on June 5, 1966 at the age of 69. Her collection of Egyptian antiquities was donated to the Utah Museum of Fine Arts. She willed a huge collection of Nepali and Lamaistic art to the Philadelphia Museum of Art.[61] Rambova's ashes were scattered in Arizona.

In popular culture[edit]

Rambova was portrayed by Yvette Mimieux in Melville Shavelson's television movie The Legend of Valentino (1975) and by Michelle Phillips in Ken Russell's feature film Valentino (1977), and by Ksenia Jarova in upcoming American silent film Silent Life(2012).

Filmography[edit]

Year Title Role Notes
1917 The Woman God Forgot § Costume designer
1920 Why Change Your Wife? § Costume designer
1920 Something to Think About § Art director, costume designer
1920 Billions Art director, costume designer
1921 Forbidden Fruit § Costume designer
1921 Camille § Art director, costume designer
Uncredited
1921 Aphrodite Art director, costume designer (never made)
1922 Beyond the Rocks § Valentino's costumes
1922 The Young Rajah Costume designer
Uncredited
1923 A Doll's House Art director, costume designer
1923 Salomé § Art director, costume designer, writer
Credited as Peter M. Winters
1924 The Hooded Falcon Costume designer, set decorator, writer (never made)
1924 Monsieur Beaucaire § Costume designer, writer
1924 A Sainted Devil Art director, costume designer, writer
1925 What Price Beauty? Producer, writer
1925 When Love Grows Cold Margaret Benson Only film as an actress

§ Indicates surviving films

Bibliography[edit]

  • Rambova, Natacha Rudy: An Intimate Portrait by His Wife (1926)
  • Rambova, Natacha Rudolph Valentino Recollections by Natacha Rambova (1927)
  • Rambova, Natacha Rudolph Valentino: A Wife's Memories of an Icon ISBN 978-0-9816440-4-2.
  • Volumes 1–4, Egyptian Religious Texts and Representations Bollingen Series XL (1954–1964)
  • Morris, Michael, Madame Valentino. Abbeville Press, 1991. ISBN 978-1-55859-136-3
  • Zumaya, Evelyn, Affairs Valentino. The Rudolph Valentino Society and Publishing LLC, 2011. ISBN 978-0-9827709-5-5

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Leider, Emily. "Dark Lover: The Life and Death of Rudolph Valentino" page 128
  2. ^ a b Leider, Emily. Dark Lover, ibid., p. 130
  3. ^ a b c d e Leider, Emily. "Dark Lover: The Life and Death of Rudolph Valentino" page 131
  4. ^ Leider, Emily. "Dark Lover: The Life and Death of Rudolph Valentino" page 131-132
  5. ^ a b c d Leider, Emily. "Dark Lover: The Life and Death of Rudolph Valentino" page 132
  6. ^ Leider, Emily. "Dark Lover: The Life and Death of Rudolph Valentino" page 135
  7. ^ Leider, Emily. "Dark Lover: The Life and Death of Rudolph Valentino" page 140
  8. ^ a b Leider, Emily. "Dark Lover: The Life and Death of Rudolph Valentino" page 199
  9. ^ Leider, Emily. "Dark Lover: The Life and Death of Rudolph Valentino" page 141
  10. ^ Leider, Emily. "Dark Lover: The Life and Death of Rudolph Valentino" page 185
  11. ^ Leider, Emily. "Dark Lover: The Life and Death of Rudolph Valentino" page 184-185
  12. ^ Leider, Emily. "Dark Lover: The Life and Death of Rudolph Valentino" page 215
  13. ^ Leider, Emily. "Dark Lover: The Life and Death of Rudolph Valentino" page 217
  14. ^ Leider, Emily. "Dark Lover: The Life and Death of Rudolph Valentino" page 228-229
  15. ^ Leider, Emily. "Dark Lover: The Life and Death of Rudolph Valentino" page 231
  16. ^ a b Leider, Emily. "Dark Lover: The Life and Death of Rudolph Valentino" page 238
  17. ^ Leider, Emily. "Dark Lover: The Life and Death of Rudolph Valentino" page 244
  18. ^ Leider, Emily. "Dark Lover: The Life and Death of Rudolph Valentino" page 232-234
  19. ^ Leider, Emily. "Dark Lover: The Life and Death of Rudolph Valentino" page 249
  20. ^ Leider, Emily. "Dark Lover: The Life and Death of Rudolph Valentino" page 256
  21. ^ Leider, Emily. "Dark Lover: The Life and Death of Rudolph Valentino" page 293-294
  22. ^ Leider, Emily. "Dark Lover: The Life and Death of Rudolph Valentino" page 287
  23. ^ Leider, Emily. "Dark Lover: The Life and Death of Rudolph Valentino" page 293
  24. ^ Leider, Emily. "Dark Lover: The Life and Death of Rudolph Valentino" page 297
  25. ^ Leider, Emily. "Dark Lover: The Life and Death of Rudolph Valentino" page 301
  26. ^ a b Leider, Emily. "Dark Lover: The Life and Death of Rudolph Valentino" page 289
  27. ^ Leider, Emily. "Dark Lover: The Life and Death of Rudolph Valentino" page 308
  28. ^ Leider, Emily. "Dark Lover: The Life and Death of Rudolph Valentino" page 308-309
  29. ^ Leider, Emily. "Dark Lover: The Life and Death of Rudolph Valentino" page 310-311
  30. ^ Leider, Emily. "Dark Lover: The Life and Death of Rudolph Valentino" page 313
  31. ^ Leider, Emily. "Dark Lover: The Life and Death of Rudolph Valentino" page 314
  32. ^ Leider, Emily. "Dark Lover: The Life and Death of Rudolph Valentino" page 317
  33. ^ Leider, Emily. "Dark Lover: The Life and Death of Rudolph Valentino" page 333
  34. ^ Leider, Emily. "Dark Lover: The Life and Death of Rudolph Valentino" page 322
  35. ^ Leider, Emily. "Dark Lover: The Life and Death of Rudolph Valentino" page 323
  36. ^ Leider, Emily. "Dark Lover: The Life and Death of Rudolph Valentino" page 324
  37. ^ Leider, Emily. "Dark Lover: The Life and Death of Rudolph Valentino" page 326
  38. ^ Leider, Emily. "Dark Lover: The Life and Death of Rudolph Valentino" page 331-332
  39. ^ Leider, Emily. "Dark Lover: The Life and Death of Rudolph Valentino" page 334-339
  40. ^ Leider, Emily. "Dark Lover: The Life and Death of Rudolph Valentino" page 330-331
  41. ^ Leider, Emily. "Dark Lover: The Life and Death of Rudolph Valentino" page 351
  42. ^ Leider, Emily. "Dark Lover: The Life and Death of Rudolph Valentino" page 410
  43. ^ a b c d e Leider, Emily. "Dark Lover: The Life and Death of Rudolph Valentino" page 411
  44. ^ Leider, Emily. "Dark Lover: The Life and Death of Rudolph Valentino" page 269
  45. ^ a b Leider, Emily. "Dark Lover: The Life and Death of Rudolph Valentino" page 183
  46. ^ Leider, Emily. "Dark Lover: The Life and Death of Rudolph Valentino" page 240-241
  47. ^ Leider, Emily. "Dark Lover: The Life and Death of Rudolph Valentino" page 241-242
  48. ^ Leider, Emily. "Dark Lover: The Life and Death of Rudolph Valentino" page 407-408
  49. ^ Leider, Emily. "Dark Lover: The Life and Death of Rudolph Valentino" page 137
  50. ^ Leider, Emily. "Dark Lover: The Life and Death of Rudolph Valentino" page 138
  51. ^ Leider, Emily. "Dark Lover: The Life and Death of Rudolph Valentino" page 210
  52. ^ Leider, Emily. "Dark Lover: The Life and Death of Rudolph Valentino" page 209
  53. ^ Elisabeth Hudnut Clarkson."River Rails and Ski Trails" page 84
  54. ^ Leider, Emily. "Dark Lover: The Life and Death of Rudolph Valentino" page 198
  55. ^ Morris, Michael. "Madam Valentino: The Many Lives of Natacha Rambova" page 177
  56. ^ Leider, Emily. "Dark Lover: The Life and Death of Rudolph Valentino" page 279
  57. ^ Leider, Emily. "Dark Lover: The Life and Death of Rudolph Valentino" page336-340
  58. ^ Leider, Emily. "Dark Lover: The Life and Death of Rudolph Valentino" page 344
  59. ^ Leider, Emily. "Dark Lover: The Life and Death of Rudolph Valentino" page 345
  60. ^ Leider, Emily. "Dark Lover: The Life and Death of Rudolph Valentino" page 381
  61. ^ Leider, Emily. "Dark Lover: The Life and Death of Rudolph Valentino" page 412

External links[edit]