Nigerians in the United Kingdom
88,378 (2001 Census)
181,000 (2013 ONS estimate)
|Regions with significant populations|
|Throughout the United Kingdom
In particular Greater London, Birmingham, Manchester, Leeds, Liverpool, Cardiff, Sheffield
English (British, Nigerian), Igbo, Yoruba, Edo
|Christianity, Islam (Sunni), traditional religions|
Nigerians in the United Kingdom or Nigerian Britons includes British people of Nigerian descent, or residents and citizens of Nigerian descent living in the United Kingdom. Many Nigerians and their British-born descendants in Britain live in South London. They are one of the larger immigrant groups in the country.
Nigerians have formed long-established communities in London, Liverpool and other industrial cities. The earliest known Nigerian presence in London took place over 200 years ago as a direct result of the transatlantic slave trade. Olaudah Equiano, born in what is now Nigeria and a former slave, lived in London and was involved in the debate that occurred in Britain over the abolition of the slave trade.
Prior to Nigeria's independence from Britain, gained in 1960, many Nigerians studied in the UK along with other countries such as France and the United States, with the majority returning to Nigeria upon completion of their studies. In the 1960s, civil and political unrest in Nigeria contributed to many refugees migrating to Britain, along with skilled workers.
Nigerians immigrated in larger numbers in the 1980s, following the collapse of the petroleum boom. This wave of migration has been more permanent than the pre-independence wave of temporary migration. Asylum applications from Nigerians peaked in 1995, when the repression associated with the military dictatorship of Sani Abacha was at its height.
|East of England||3,160|
|North East England||552|
|North West England||2,978|
|South East England||4,719|
|South West England||1,431|
|Yorkshire and the Humber||1,399|
The 2001 UK Census recorded 88,378 Nigerian-born people resident in the UK. More recent estimates by the Office for National Statistics put the figure at 181,000 in 2013. The 2011 UK Census recorded 191,183 Nigerian-born residents in England and Wales.
A Council of Europe report gives a figure of 100,000 Nigerians in the UK but suggests that this is likely to be an underestimate since it does not include irregular migrants or children born outside of Nigeria. Similarly Nigerians with citizenship of another EU member state who then relocated to the UK are not necessarily included in this estimate. The report suggests to multiply the figure by between 3 and 8 to reflect the size of the Nigerian community in the UK.
According to the Institute for Public Policy Research, Nigerian pupils are among best performing student groups in the United Kingdom. Taking data for only England, a 2013 IPPR survey reported that the proportion of British Nigerian pupils gaining 5 A*–C grades at GCSE (including Maths and English) in 2010–2011 was 21.8 percentage points higher than the England mean of 59.6 per cent. This average was calculated using student data, where available, from various local authorities in England.
The number of Nigerian pupils at British private schools is growing. In November 2013, The Spectator noted that Nigerians, along with Russians, "are now the fastest-growing population in British private schools". In 2013, the number of entrants to private schools from Nigeria increased by 16 per cent.
According to Higher Education Statistics Agency data, 17,620 students from Nigeria were studying at British public higher education institutions in the academic year 2011-12. This made them the third largest country-of-origin group behind students from China and India. Of the 17,620, 6,500 were undergraduates, 9,620 taught postgraduates and 1,500 research postgraduates.
Research by Euromonitor International for the British Council indicates that in 2010, the majority (66 per cent) of Nigerian foreign students attended universities in the UK. The students are mainly drawn to these institutions' English language academic system. Their time studying in Britain is also facilitated by an established and large Nigerian community and by "the relative proximity of the UK to Nigeria".
The UK's largest concentration of Nigerians is found in the capital city, London. Peckham is now home to the largest overseas Nigerian community in the UK, with 7 per cent of the population of the Peckham census tract at the time of the 2001 Census having been born in Nigeria. Many of the local establishments are Yoruba owned. Nigerian churches and mosques can be found in the area. As immigrants have become assimilated, English has increasingly become the predominant language of the local Nigerian British population. The Yoruba language is declining in use in the Peckham area despite the growing Nigerian population. Outside London and South East England, the largest Nigerian-born communities are found in the East of England and the North West.
Below is a table showing how many Nigerians were granted British citizenship and the right of abode in the period 1998 to 2008.
|Persons granted citizenship|
- Temko, Ned (2006-05-14). "'Think Jamaica is bad? Try Nigeria...': How Diane Abbott enraged a community". The Observer (London). p. 21. Retrieved 2009-10-25.
- Davies, Christie (2006-12-12). "No apology for slavery – no deep sorrow: Christie Davies explains why apologies for centuries-old wrongs are not in order". Social Affairs Unit. Retrieved 2009-10-25.
- White, Robin (2005-01-25). "Little Lagos in south London". BBC News. Retrieved 2009-10-25.
- "Nigerian London". BBC London. Retrieved 2009-10-25.
- Change Institute (April 2009). "The Nigerian Muslim Community in England: Understanding Muslim Ethnic Communities". London: Communities and Local Government. pp. 23–24. Retrieved 2009-10-25.
- Migration Policy Institute (June 2010). "Nigeria: Multiple Forms of Mobility in Africa's Demographic Giant". Washington: Migration Information Source. p. 1. Retrieved 2012-07-06.
- "Born abroad: Nigeria". BBC News. 2005-09-07. Retrieved 2009-10-25.
- "Country-of-birth database". Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Retrieved 2009-09-29.
- "Estimated overseas-born population resident in the United Kingdom by sex, by country of birth (Table 1.4)". Office for National Statistics. 28 August 2014. Retrieved 2 February 2015. Figure given is the central estimate. See the source for 95 per cent confidence intervals.
- "2011 Census: QS203EW Country of birth (detailed), local authorities in England and Wales". Office for National Statistics. 11 December 2012. Retrieved 3 February 2015.
- "Immigration from sub-Saharan Africa". Report, Committee on Migration, Refugees and Population, Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly, Doc. 11526. 2008-02-11. Retrieved 2009-10-05.
- Rutter, Jill (March 2013). "Back to Basics: Towards a Successful and Cost-effective Integration Policy". Institute for Public Policy Research. p. 43. Retrieved 9 February 2015.
- Robinson, Stephen (30 November 2013). "A British education has become a commodity bought by wealthy foreigners". The Spectator. Retrieved 22 February 2015.
- Paton, Graeme (8 February 2014). "Bid to stop private schools being 'filled by rich foreigners'". Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 22 February 2015.
- "International Higher Education in Facts and Figures". UK HE International Unit. Autumn 2013. p. 5. Retrieved 2 February 2015.
- "The Benefits of the English Language for Individuals and Societies: Quantitative Indicators from Cameroon, Nigeria, Rwanda, Bangladesh and Pakistan". Euromonitor International for the British Council. Retrieved 3 January 2015.
- "London's Little Lagos". The African Courier. 2011-01-06. Retrieved 2011-12-08.
- Chilton, Tony; Kilsby, Peter (1999-04-20). "Persons Granted British Citizenship, United Kingdom, 1998". Home Office. Retrieved 2009-06-10.
- Kilsby, Peter; McGregor, Rod (2000-06-08). "Persons Granted British Citizenship, United Kingdom, 1999". Home Office. Retrieved 2009-06-10.
- Dudley, Jill; Harvey, Paul (2001-05-31). "Persons Granted British Citizenship, United Kingdom, 2000". Home Office. Retrieved 2009-06-10.
- Dudley, Jill; Hesketh, Krystina (2002-06-27). "Persons Granted British Citizenship, United Kingdom, 2001". Home Office. Retrieved 2009-06-10.
- Dudley, Jill; Woollacott, Simon (2003-08-28). "Persons Granted British Citizenship, United Kingdom, 2002". Home Office. Retrieved 2009-06-10.
- Dudley, Jill; Woollacott, Simon (2004-05-24). "Persons Granted British Citizenship, United Kingdom, 2003". Home Office. Retrieved 2009-06-10.
- Woollacott, Simon (2005-05-17). "Persons Granted British Citizenship, United Kingdom, 2004". Home Office. Retrieved 2009-06-10.
- Freelove Mensah, John (2006-05-23). "Persons Granted British Citizenship, United Kingdom, 2005". Home Office. Retrieved 2009-06-10.
- Freelove Mensah, John (2006-05-23). "Persons Granted British Citizenship, United Kingdom, 2006". Home Office. Retrieved 2009-06-10.
- Freelove Mensah, John (2008-05-20). "Persons Granted British Citizenship, United Kingdom, 2007". Home Office. Retrieved 2009-06-10.
- Freelove Mensah, John (2008-05-20). "Persons Granted British Citizenship, United Kingdom, 2008". Home Office. Retrieved 2009-06-10.
- Danzelman, Philip (2010-05-27). "Persons Granted British Citizenship, United Kingdom, 2009". Home Office. Retrieved 2010-06-10.
- Central Association of Nigerians in the UK (CAN-UK)
- Nigerians in Diaspora Organisation Europe (NIDOE)
- National Association of Nigerian Communities (NANC)
- African Foundation for Development (AFFORD-UK)
- Students' Association of Nigerian Students in Diaspora (SAND)
- The Nigerian-British Chamber of Commerce
- British Nigeria Law Forum
- The Association of British-Nigerian Law Enforcement Officers (ABLE)
- Association of Nigerian Academics in the UK
- Nigeria Association of Project Professionals UK (NAPPUK)
- Engineering Forum of Nigerians (EFN-UK)
- Medical Association of Nigerians Across Great Britain (MANSAG)
- Nigerian Nurses Charitable Association UK (NNCA)
- Nigerian Carnival UK
- Language courses for Igbo, Hausa and Yoruba at SOAS
- Festival of Yoruba Arts (FOYA)
- Igbo Cultural & Support Network (ICSN)
- Africa Centre
- UK Black Pride
- - First Ethnic Media platform in Europe, based in UK
- Radio Biafra London
- Nigerian Watch Newspaper
- Voice of Africa Radio