Nikolayevsk-on-Amur

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Nikolayevsk-on-Amur (English)
Николаевск-на-Амуре (Russian)
-  Town[1]  -
Map of Russia - Khabarovsk Krai (2008-03).svg
Location of Khabarovsk Krai in Russia
Nikolayevsk-on-Amur is located in Khabarovsk Krai
Nikolayevsk-on-Amur
Nikolayevsk-on-Amur
Magnify-clip.png
Location of Nikolayevsk-on-Amur in Khabarovsk Krai
Coordinates: 53°08′N 140°44′E / 53.133°N 140.733°E / 53.133; 140.733Coordinates: 53°08′N 140°44′E / 53.133°N 140.733°E / 53.133; 140.733
Coat of Arms of Nikolaevsk-na-Amure (Khabarovsk kray) (2002).png
Flag of Nikolaevsk-na-Amure (Khabarovsk kray) new.png
Coat of arms
Flag
Administrative status (as of September 2011)
Country Russia
Federal subject Khabarovsk Krai[1]
Administratively subordinated to town of krai significance of Nikolayevsk-on-Amur[1]
Administrative center of town of krai significance of Nikolayevsk-on-Amur,[2] Nikolayevsky District[2]
Municipal status (as of October 2010)
Municipal district Nikolayevsky Municipal District[3]
Urban settlement Nikolayevsk-na-Amure Urban Settlement[3]
Administrative center of Nikolayevsk-na-Amure Urban Settlement[citation needed]
Head[citation needed] Pyotr Volynsky[citation needed]
Statistics
Population (2010 Census) 22,752 inhabitants[4]
Time zone VLAT (UTC+11:00)[5]
Founded August 13, 1850[citation needed]
Town status since 1856[citation needed]
Postal code(s)[6] 682460
Dialing code(s) +7 42135[citation needed]
Nikolayevsk-on-Amur on WikiCommons

Nikolayevsk-on-Amur (Russian: Никола́евск-на-Аму́ре, Nikolayevsk-na-Amure) is a town in Khabarovsk Krai, Russia located on the Amur River close to its liman in the Pacific Ocean. Population: 22,752 (2010 Census);[4] 28,492 (2002 Census);[7] 36,296 (1989 Census).[8]

Geography[edit]

The town is situated on the left bank of the Amur River, 80 kilometers (50 mi) from where it flows into the Amur estuary, 977 kilometers (607 mi) north of Khabarovsk and 582 kilometers (362 mi) from the Komsomolsk-on-Amur railway station. It is the closest significant settlement to the Strait of Tartary separating the mainland from Sakhalin.

History[edit]

Medieval and early-modern history[edit]

In the late Middle Ages, the people living along the lower course of the Amur (Nivkh, Oroch, Evenki) were collectively known in China as the "wild Jurchen". The Yuan Dynasty Mongols sent expeditions to this area with an eye toward using the region as a base for attack on Japan, or for defending against the Sakhalin Ainus. According to the History of Yuan, in 1264 the Nivkhs recognized the Mongol sovereignty. In 1263, the Mongols set up the "Command Post of the Marshal of the Eastern Campaign" near the modern settlement of Tyr, some 100 kilometers (62 mi) upstream from today's Nikolayevsk-on-Amur. At roughly the same time, a shrine was built on the Tyr Rock.[9][10]

From 1411 to 1433, the Ming eunuch Yishiha, a man of Haixi Jurchen origin, led four large missions to win over the allegiance of the "Jurchen" tribes along the Sunggari and Amur Rivers. During this time, the Yongning Temple was constructed at Tyr, and stelae with inscriptions erected.[9]

Russian period[edit]

View of Nikolayevsk, ca. 1900

The Russian settlement, likely preceded by the Manchu village of Fuyori,[11] was founded as Nikolayevsky Post by Gennady Nevelskoy on August 13, 1850 and named for Tsar Nicholas I.[citation needed]

The settlement quickly became one of the main economic centers on the Pacific coast of the Russian Empire. The main Russian Pacific harbor was moved from Petropavlovsk to Nikolayevsk-on-Amur in 1855 after the Siege of Petropavlovsk. It was granted town status and renamed Nikolayevsk-on-Amur in 1856, when Primorskaya Oblast was established.[citation needed] Admiral Vasily Zavoyko supervised the construction of a naval base in Nikolayevsk-on-Amur.

The town emerged as an important commercial harbor; however, due to navigational difficulties caused by the sand banks in the Amur estuary and sea ice making the harbor unusable for five months each year, the main center for Russian shipping were transferred to the better situated Vladivostok in the early 1870s. The town remained the administrative center of this region until 1880, when the governor relocated to Khabarovsk. Anton Chekhov, visiting the town on his journey to Sakhalin in 1890, noted its rapid depopulation, although this trend was slowed somewhat in the late 1890s by the discovery of gold and establishment of salmon fisheries.

During the Russian Civil War, the town's population plummeted from 15,000 to 2,000, as a local partisan leader, later executed by the same Bolsheviks he was supposed to be aligned with, razed the entire town to the ground and massacred the minority Japanese population along with most of the Russian population.

Around 1940, a prison camp of the gulag system was located in the town.[12]

Like many other places in the Russian Far East, the town has seen a drop in population since the dissolution of the Soviet Union, dropping from 36,296 inhabitants recorded in the (1989 Census),[8] to only 22,772 in 2010.[4]

Administrative and municipal status[edit]

Within the framework of administrative divisions, Nikolayevsk-on-Amur serves as the administrative center of Nikolayevsky District,[2] even though it is not a part of it.[1] As an administrative division, it is incorporated separately as the town of krai significance of Nikolayevsk-na-Amure—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, the town of krai significance of Nikolayevsk-na-Amure is incorporated within Nikolayevsky Municipal District as Nikolayevsk-na-Amure Urban Settlement.[3]

Economy[edit]

Fishing and fish processing are the main industries of the town, along with ship maintenance and some agricultural production in the surrounding area.

Transportation[edit]

Nikolayevsk-on-Amur has no land transport connections. Traffic to and from the town enters via the port on the Amur, or the small airport, namely Nikolayevsk-on-Amur Airport (IATA: NLI), which is home to Nikolaevsk-Na-Amure Air Enterprise.

Climate[edit]

Nikolayevsk-on-Amur has a borderline humid continental climate (Köppen Dfb), almost cold enough to be a subarctic climate (Dfc). Precipitation is not as low in the winter as over most of Siberia since the coast in on the fringe of influence from the Aleutian Low. The near-maritime location only marginally—by 5 °C (9.0 °F)—moderates the winters compared to interior Siberia, but makes the summers noticeably cool (especially in May and June) though the Oyashio fogs are less prevalent than on Sakhalin itself and sunshine hours therefore rather longer.

Climate data for Nikolayevsk-on-Amur
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 0.3
(32.5)
5.7
(42.3)
12.6
(54.7)
19.6
(67.3)
30.2
(86.4)
34.3
(93.7)
34.1
(93.4)
35.3
(95.5)
28.9
(84)
22.5
(72.5)
11.4
(52.5)
2.8
(37)
35.3
(95.5)
Average high °C (°F) −18.2
(−0.8)
−13.6
(7.5)
−5.9
(21.4)
2.8
(37)
10.4
(50.7)
19.2
(66.6)
22.0
(71.6)
21.3
(70.3)
16.0
(60.8)
6.5
(43.7)
−6.4
(20.5)
−15.9
(3.4)
3.3
(37.9)
Daily mean °C (°F) −22.5
(−8.5)
−18.8
(−1.8)
−11.9
(10.6)
−2.2
(28)
4.7
(40.5)
13.0
(55.4)
16.7
(62.1)
15.8
(60.4)
10.5
(50.9)
1.8
(35.2)
−10.5
(13.1)
−19.8
(−3.6)
−1.8
(28.8)
Average low °C (°F) −26.1
(−15)
−23
(−9)
−17.2
(1)
−6.4
(20.5)
0.6
(33.1)
7.7
(45.9)
12.3
(54.1)
11.5
(52.7)
6.2
(43.2)
−1.8
(28.8)
−14.1
(6.6)
−23.2
(−9.8)
−6
(21)
Record low °C (°F) −47.2
(−53)
−45.9
(−50.6)
−37.6
(−35.7)
−28.8
(−19.8)
−11.9
(10.6)
−3.8
(25.2)
1.3
(34.3)
0.6
(33.1)
−6
(21)
−25.1
(−13.2)
−34
(−29)
−44.2
(−47.6)
−47.2
(−53)
Precipitation mm (inches) 31.1
(1.224)
31.3
(1.232)
32.6
(1.283)
37.9
(1.492)
49.9
(1.965)
39.7
(1.563)
72.2
(2.843)
82.0
(3.228)
88.2
(3.472)
79.7
(3.138)
50.6
(1.992)
45.7
(1.799)
640.9
(25.232)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 5.8 6.2 5.9 7.1 7.9 5.7 8.1 10.0 10.8 10.0 8.2 7.6 93.3
 % humidity 77 75 73 75 76 76 81 82 81 77 76 78 77.3
Mean monthly sunshine hours 130.2 161.0 232.5 210.0 232.5 234.0 238.7 204.6 183.0 142.6 132.0 93.0 2,194.1
Source #1: pogoda.ru.net[13]
Source #2: Hong Kong Observatory[14]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Resolution #143-pr, Article 3
  2. ^ a b c Государственный комитет Российской Федерации по статистике. Комитет Российской Федерации по стандартизации, метрологии и сертификации. №ОК 019-95 1 января 1997 г. «Общероссийский классификатор объектов административно-территориального деления. Код 08 414», в ред. изменения №234/2013 от 1 января 2014 г.. (State Statistics Committee of the Russian Federation. Committee of the Russian Federation on Standardization, Metrology, and Certification. #OK 019-95 January 1, 1997 Russian Classification of Objects of Administrative Division . Code 08 414, as amended by the Amendment #234/2013 of January 1, 2014. ).
  3. ^ a b c Law #191
  4. ^ a b c Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  5. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
  6. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (Russian)
  7. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  8. ^ a b Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года[All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  9. ^ a b В. Ц. Головачёв (V. Ts. Golovachеv), "Тырские стелы и храм «Юн Нин» в свете китайско-чжурчжэньских отношений XIV-XV вв." (ййThe Tyr stelae and the Yongning Temple viewed in as an aspect of Sino-Jurchen relationsйй), Etno-zhurnal, November 14, 2008.
  10. ^ Объекты туризма — Археологические. Тырские храмы (Regional government site explaining the location of the Tyr (Telin) temples: just south of the Tyr village)
  11. ^ [1]
  12. ^ Nikolayevsky-ITL on the website of Memorial (German)
  13. ^ "Климат Николаевска-на-Амуре". Погода и климат. Retrieved 2011-09-17. 
  14. ^ "Climatological Normals of Nikolayevsk-on-Amur". Hong Kong SAR Government. Retrieved 2011-09-17. 

Sources[edit]

  • Правительство Хабаровского края. Постановление №143-пр от 18 июля 2007 г. «Об утверждении реестра административно-территориальных и территориальных единиц Хабаровского края», в ред. Постановления №64-пр от 17 марта 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в реестр административно-территориальных и территориальных единиц Хабаровского края, утверждённый Постановлением Правительства Хабаровского края от 18 июля 2007 г. №143-пр». Вступил в силу 13 августа 2007 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства Хабаровского края", №7(60), 12 августа 2007 г. (Government of Khabarovsk Krai. Resolution #143-pr of July 18, 2007 On the Adoption of the Registry of the Administrative-Territorial and Territorial Units of Khabarovsk Krai, as amended by the Resolution #64-pr of March 17, 2014 On Amending the Registry of the Administrative-Territorial and Territorial Units of Khabarovsk Krai, Adopted by the Resolution #143-pr of the Government of Khabarovsk Krai of July 18, 2007. Effective as of August 13, 2007.).
  • Законодательная Дума Хабаровского края. Закон №191 от 30 июня 2004 г. «О наделении административных центров районов статусом городского, сельского поселения и об установлении их границ», в ред. Закона №172 от 29 февраля 2012 г. «Об упразднении сельского населённого пункта посёлок Фестивальный, находящегося на территории Солнечного района Хабаровского края, и о внесении изменений в отдельные Законы Хабаровского края». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Приамурские ведомости", №№126–127, 15 июля 2004 г. (Legislative Duma of Khabarovsk Krai. Law #191 of June 30, 2004 On Granting the Administrative Centers of the Districts the Status of Urban, Rural Settlements and on Establishing Their Borders, as amended by the Law #172 of February 29, 2012 On the Abolition of the Rural Locality of the Settlement of Festivalny on the Territory of Solnechny District of Khabarovsk Krai and on Amending Various Laws of Khabarovsk Krai. Effective as of the day of the official publication.).
  • Законодательная Дума Хабаровского края. Закон №264 от 14 марта 2005 г «Об административных центрах сельских поселений и муниципальных районов Хабаровского края», в ред. Закона №239 от 28 ноября 2012 г. «О преобразовании городского населённого пункта рабочий посёлок Тырма, находящегося на территории Верхнебуреинского района Хабаровского края, путём изменения его статуса в сельский населённый пункт — посёлок Тырма и о внесении изменений в отдельные Законы Хабаровского края». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Приамурские ведомости", №57, 1 апреля 2005 г. (Legislative Duma of Khabarovsk Krai. Law #264 of March 14, 2005 On the Administrative Centers of the Rural Settlements and the Municipal Districts of Khabarovsk Krai, as amended by the Law #239 of November 28, 2012 On the Transformation of the Urban Locality the Work Settlement of Tyrma, Located on the Territory of Verkhnebureinsky District of Khabarovsk Krai, by Changing Its Status to That of a Rural Locality—the Settlement of Tyrma, and on Amending Various Laws of Khabarovsk Krai. Effective as of the day of the official publication.).