Nuclear decommissioning

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Example of decommissioning work underway.
The reactor pressure vessel being transported away from the site for burial.

Nuclear decommissioning is the process whereby a nuclear power plant site is dismantled to the point that it no longer requires measures for radiation protection. The presence of radioactive material necessitates processes that are occupationally dangerous, hazardous to the natural environment, expensive, and time-intensive.[1]

Decommissioning is an administrative and technical process. It includes clean-up of radioactive materials and progressive demolition of the plant. Once a facility is fully decommissioned, no radiologic danger should persist. The costs of decommissioning are spread over the lifetime of a facility and saved in a decommissioning fund.[citation needed] After a facility has been completely decommissioned, it is released from regulatory control and the plant licensee is no longer responsible for its nuclear safety. Decommissioning may proceed all the way to "greenfield" status.

Options[edit]

The International Atomic Energy Agency has defined three options for decommissioning:

  • Immediate Dismantling (Early Site Release/Decon in the US): This option allows for the facility to be removed from regulatory control relatively soon after shutdown or termination of regulated activities. Final dismantling or decontamination activities begin within a few months or years, and depending on the facility, it could take five years or more.[2] Following removal from regulatory control, the site becomes available for re-use.
  • Safe Enclosure (or Safestor(e) SAFSTOR): This option postpones the final removal of controls for a longer period, usually on the order of 40 to 60 years. The facility is placed into a safe storage configuration until the eventual dismantling and decontamination activities occur.
  • Entombment: This option entails placing the facility into a condition that will allow the remaining radioactive material to remain on-site indefinitely. This option usually involves reducing the size of the area where the radioactive material is located and then encasing the facility in a long-lived material such as concrete, theoretically preventing radiation release.

Experience[edit]

A wide range of nuclear facilities have been decommissioned so far. This includes nuclear power plants (NPPs), research reactors, isotope production plants, particle accelerators, and uranium mines. The number of decommissioned power plants is small. Companies specialize in nuclear decommissioning; decommissioning has become a profitable business. More recently, construction and demolition companies in the UK have also begun to develop nuclear decommissioning services.[3] The current estimate by the United Kingdom's Nuclear Decommissioning Authority is that it will cost at least £100 billion to decommission the 19 existing United Kingdom nuclear sites.[4] Due to the radioactivity in the reactor structure, decommissioning takes place in stages. The plans of the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority for decommissioning reactors have an average 50 year time frame. The long time frame makes reliable cost estimates difficult. Cost overruns are common even for quick projects.

North America[edit]

The Pickering Nuclear Generating Station, viewed from the west. All eight reactors are visible; two units have been shut down

Most nuclear plants currently operating in the United States were designed for a life of about 30–40 years[5] and are licensed to operate for 40 years by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission.[6] The average age of these reactors is 32 years.[6] Many are coming to the end of their licensing period. If their licenses are not renewed, the plants must go through a decontamination and decommissioning process.[5][7]

Several nuclear reactors dismantled in North America, type, power, and decommissioning cost:[8][9][10]

Dismantled nuclear reactors in Canada & USA
Country: Location: Reactor type: Operative life: Decommissioning
phase:
Dismantling
costs:
Canada (Québec) Gentilly-1 CANDU-BWR
250 MWe
180 days
(between 1966 and 1973)
"Static state" since 1986[11][12][13] stage two:
$25 million
Canada
(Ontario)
Pickering NGS
Units A2 and A3
CANDU-PWR
8 x 542 MWe
30 years
(from 1974 to 2004)
Two units currently in "cold standby"
Decommissioning to begin in 2020 [14][15]
(calculated:
$270–430/kWe ?)
United States Fort St. Vrain HTGR
(helium-graphite)
380 MWe
12 years
(1977–1989)
Immediate Decon $195 million
USA Rancho Seco[16] Multiunit:
PWR
913 MWe
12 years
(Closed after a referendum in 1989)
SAFSTOR: 5–10 years
completion 2018[citation needed]
 ?
($200–500/kWe)[17]
USA Three Mile Island 2 Multiunit:
913 MWe PWR
INCIDENT:
core fusion

(in 1979)
Post-Defuelling
Phase 2 (1979)
$805 Million
(estimated)[18]
USA Shippingport (The first BWR)
60 MWe
25 years
(closed in 1989)
Decon completed
dismantled in 5 years
(first small
experimental reactor)
$98.4 million[19]
USA Piqua(Ohio) OCM (Organically Cooled/Moderated) reactor
46 MWe[20]
2 years
(closed in 1966)
ENTOMB
(coolant design inadequate for neutron flux)
 ?
USA Trojan PWR
1,180 MWe
16 years
(Closed in 1993
because nearby to seismic fault)
SAFSTOR
(cooling tower demolished in 2006)
 ?[21]
USA Yankee Rowe PWR 185 MWe 31 years
(1960–1991)
Decon completed - Demolished
(greenfield open to visitors) [22]
$608 million with $8 million per year upkeep
USA Maine Yankee PWR
860 MWe
24 years
(closed in 1996)
Decon completed - Demolished in 2004
(greenfield open to visitors) [23][24]
$635 million[25]
USA Connecticut Yankee PWR
590 MWe
28 years
(closed in 1996)
Decon - Demolished in 2007
(greenfield open to visitors) [26]
$820 million[27]
USA Exelon -
Zion 1 & 2
PWR - Westinghouse
2 x 1040 MWe
25 years
(1973–1998)
(Incident in proceedings,
abandoned because
of the excessive cost of vaporizers substitution)
SAFSTOR-EnergySolutions
(opening of the site to visitors for 2018) [28]
$900–1,100 million
(2007 dollars)[29]
USA Pacific Gas & Electric -
Humboldt Bay Nuclear Power Plant - Unit 3
BWR
1 x 63 MWe
13 years
(1963–1976)
(Shut down due to seismic retrofit)
On July 2, 1976, Humboldt Bay Power Plant (HBPP) Unit 3 was shut down for annual refueling and to conduct seismic modifications. In 1983, updated economic analyses indicated that restarting Unit 3 would probably not be cost-effective, and in June 1983, PG&E announced its intention to decommission the unit. On July 16, 1985, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) issued Amendment No. 19 to the HBPP Unit 3 Operating License to change the status to possess-but-not-operate, and the plant was placed into a SAFSTOR status. Unknown - Closure date: 12/31/2015[30]

Asia[edit]

Reactors not located in Japan[edit]

Several nuclear reactors dismantled in Asia, type, power and decommissioning cost per kilowatt of electric power (source: World Nuclear Association)[31]

Dismantled reactors in Asia
Country: Location: Reactor type: Operative life: Decommissioning
phase:
Dismantling
cost:
China [32] Beijing (CIAE) HWWR 10 MWe (multipurpose)
(Heavy Water Experimental Reactor for the production of plutonium and tritium)
49 years
(1958–2007)
Safestore & Decon in
20 years (until 2027)
proposed:
$ 6 Million for dismantling
$ 5 Million for fuel remotion
North Korea Yongbyon Magnox-type
(reactor for the production of nuclear weapons through PUREX treatment)
20 years
(1985–2005)
Deactivated after a treaty[33][34]
SAFESTORE:
Cooling tower dismantled
 ?
India
,[35][36]
Tarapur-1,2
(Maharashtra)
2x BWR 160 MWe 40 years ?
(1969–2009?)
NOT deactivated  ?
India[37] Rawatbhata Atomic Power Station-1,2
(Rajasthan)
1x PHWR 100 MWe
1x PHWR 200 MWe
(similar to CANDU)
40 years ?
(1970–2011?)
NOT deactivated  ?
Iraq Osiraq/Tammuz-1
[38]
BWR 40 MWe
Nuclear reactor with weapons-grade plutonium production capability
(Destroyed by Israeli Air Force in 1981) Not radioactive:
Never refurbished with uranium
 ?

Japan[edit]

The three damaged reactors at Fukushima Dai-ichi #1,#2,#3 are expected to be decommissioned as well as #4.

Heavily damaged reactors in Japan[39]
Nuclear Power Plant Electric max.
output
(MW)
Type Connection to
electric grid
Situation
Decommissioning costs
Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP
(Unit 1)
439 BWR November 17, 1970 nuclear meltdown
[40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47]


Hydrogen explosion
(INES 7) [48][49]

 ?
Estimated at ¥10 trillion (US$ 100 billion) for decontaminating Fukushima and dismantling all reactors in Japan and considering long time damage to environment and economy, including agriculture, cattle breeding, fishery, water depuration, tourism
(without considering further health care spending & reduction of life expectancy).[50]
Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP
(Unit 2)
760 BWR December 24, 1973 partial nuclear meltdown
(INES 6)
(Risk of going into INES 7)[51][52][53]
 ?
Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP
(Unit 3)
760 BWR October 26, 1974 nuclear meltdown
Hydrogen explosion
(INES 7) [54]
 ?
Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP
(Unit 4)
760 BWR February 24, 1978 Reactor defuelled when tsunami hit
Damage to spent fuel cooling-pool
(INES 4)

(Could worsen if pool collapses) [55][56][57][58][59][60]
(Other specialists disagree about this danger) [61][62]

 ?
Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP
(Unit 5)
760 BWR September 22, 1977 SCRAM  ?
Fukushima Daiichi NPP
(Unit 6)
1067 BWR May 4, 1979 SCRAM  ?
Fukushima Daini NPP
(Unit 1 ) [63]
1067 BWR July 31, 1981 SCRAM
(leakage of coolant) [64]
 ?
Fukushima Daini NPP
(Units 2 - 4)
3 × 1067 BWR June 23, 1983
December 14, 1984
December 17, 1986
3 x SCRAM  ?
Tokai NPP (Reactor 2) 1100 MW BWR/5[65] November 28, 1978 SCRAM
Shutdown since March 2011
(anti-tsunami barrier stopped the waves)
INES 1 (leakage of coolant) [66]
 ?
Safely decommissioned reactors in Japan[39]
Nuclear Power Plant Electric max.
output
(MW)
Type Connection to
electric grid
Situation
Decommissioning costs
Tokai NPP (Reactor 1) 160 MWe Magnox (GCR) (1966–1998) Safstore: 10 years[67][68]
then decon
until 2018

¥93 billion[69]
(€660 million of 2003)

Western Europe[edit]

Several nuclear reactors dismantled in Western Europe, type, power and decommissioning cost per kilowatt of power: European Union Website about Nuclear Decommissioning,[70] World Nuclear Association (reactor building companies),[71] United Kingdom.[72]

Safely decommissioned reactors in Western Europe[39]
Country: Location: Reactor type: Operative Life: Decommissioning
phase:
Dismantling
cost:
Austria[73]
(Nuclear Free Country)[74]
Zwentendorf NPP
Google Maps
PWR
723 MWe
Never activated,[75] after referendum in 1978  ?  ?
Belgium SCK•CEN - BR3,
located at Mol, Belgium
PWR (BR-3)
25 years
(1962–1987)
Decon completed (2011)[76][77]
European pilot project
(underwater cutting and remote operated tools) [78][79]
 ?
France Brennilis HWGCR 70 MWe 12 years
(1967–1979)
Phase 3 €480 million
(20 times the forecasted amount)
France Bugey-1 UNGG
Gas cooled, graphite moderator
1972–1994 postponed  ?
France Chinon 1,2,3 Gas-graphite
(1973–1990)
postponed  ?
France Saint-Laurent Nuclear Power Plant Gas-graphite 1969–1992 postponed  ?
France Superphénix at
Creys-Malville
Fast breeder nuclear reactor
(sodium-cooled)
11 years
(1985–1996)
postponed estimated for the future:
$4000/kWe[citation needed]
United Kingdom Berkeley Magnox
(2 x 138 MWe)
27 years
(1962–1989)
Safestore: 30 years
(internal demolition)
$ 2600/kWe
United Kingdom Sellafield-Windscale
Windscale Advanced Gas Reactor
WAGR
(32 MWe)
18 years
(1963–1981)
Remotion of reactor in 2009
pilot project
(cutting with remote controlled robots, UV lasers)[78][80][81][82]
More than $2600/kWe
(WNI estimates)
So far €117 million
United Kingdom Dorset -Winfrith

Operated in Dorset from 1958 to 1990. Had 9 reactors all mostly dismantled[83] [84]

West Germany Gundremmingen-A BWR
250 MWe

11 years
Immediate
dismantling
pilot project
(underwater cutting)
(~ $300–550/kWe)
Italy Caorso NPP BWR
840 MWe[85][86]
3 years
( 1978 - Closed in 1987 after referendum in 1986 )
Safstore: 30 years
(internal demolition)
€450 million (dismantling)
+ €300 million (fuel reprocessing)[87][88][89][90]
Italy Garigliano NPP (Caserta) BWR
150 MWe[91]
 ? years
(Closed on March 1, 1982)
Safstore: 30 years
(internal demolition)
 ?
Italy Latina NPP (Foce Verde) Magnox
210 MWe Gas-graphite[92]
24 years
( 1962 - Closed in 1986 after referendum )
Safstore: 30 years
(internal demolition)
 ?
Italy Trino Vercellese NPP PWR Westinghouse,
270 MWe[93]
 ?
(Closed in 1986 after referendum)
Safstore: 30 years
(internal demolition)
 ?
Netherlands Dodewaard NPP BWR Westinghouse
58 MWe[94]
28 years
(1969–1997)
Defuelling completed -
Safstore for 40 years
 ?
Slovenia
(former-Yugoslavia)
Krsko NPP[95] PWR (Westinghouse)
696 MWe
40? years
(1981–2021?)
Will be deactivated in 2022  ?
Spain Vandellós NPP-1 UNGG
480 MWe
(gas-graphite)
18 years
Incident:
fire in a turbogenerator
(1989)
Safestore: 30 years
(internal demolition)
Phases 1 and 2:
€93 million
Sweden Barsebäck NPP 1 & 2 BWR 2 x 615 MW Reactor 1: 24 years 1975 - 1999
Reactor 2: 28 years 1977 - 2005
Safestore: demolition will begin in 2020 The Swedish Radiation Safety Authority has assessed that the costs for decommissioning and final disposal for the Swedish nuclear power industry may be underestimated by SKB by at least 11 billion Swedish crowns ($1.63 billion)[96]
Switzerland[97] DIORIT MWe Gas-graphite
(experimental)
 ? Safestore: ? years
(internal demolition)
 ?
Switzerland LUCENS 8,3 MWe CO2-heavy water
(experimental)
(1962–1969)
Incident:
fire in 1969
Entombment for ? years
Safestore & Decon: 24 years
(internal demolition)
 ?
Switzerland SAPHIR 0,01-0,1 MWe
(Light water pool)
39 years
(1955–1994)
(Experimental demonstrator)
(In public display
since inauguration
open to visitors:

"Cherenkov's light")
 ?

Eastern Europe and former Soviet Union[edit]

Several nuclear reactors dismantled in the nations born from the former Soviet Union: (Belarus, Russia, Ukraine and others) and reactors dismantled in countries formerly belonging to "Warsaw Pact" and/or to "Comecon", type, electric power and decommissioning cost per kilowatt of power: World Nuclear Association,[98] OSTI (Russia & USA).[10]

Decommissioned reactors in Eastern Europe
Country: Location: Reactor typr: Operative life: Decommissioning
phase:
Dismantling
cost:
Bulgaria Kozloduy NPP-1,2,3,4[99] PWR VVER-440
(4 x 408 MWe)
Reactors 1,2 closed in 2003,
reactors 3,4 closed in 2006

(Closing forced
by European Union)
De-fuelling  ?
East Germany Greifswald NPP-1,
2,3,4,5,6
VVER-440
5 x 408 MWe
Reactors 1-5 closed in 1989/1990,
reactor 6: finished but never operated
Immediate
dismantling
(underwater cutting)
~ $330/kWe
East Germany Rheinsberg NPP-1 VVER-210
70–80 MWe
24 years
(1966–1990)
In dismantling
since 1996
Safstor (underwater cutting)
~ $330/kWe
East Germany Stendal NPP-1,2,3,4 VVER-1000
(4 x 1000 MWe)
Never activated
(1st reactor 85% completed)
Not radioactive
(Cooling towers
demolished with explosives)
 ?
(Structure in exhibition
inside an
industrial park)
Russia Mayak[100]
(Chelyabinsk-65)
PUREX plant for
uranium enrichment
Several severe incidents
(1946–1956)
 ?  ?
Russia Seversk[101]
(Tomsk-7)
Three plutonium reactors
Plant for uranium enrichment
Two fast-breeder reactors closed (of three),
after disarmaments agreements with USA in 2003.[102]
 ?  ?
Slovakia Jaslovske Bohunice NPP-1,2
(180 km east from Vienna)[103][104]
VVER 440/230
2 X 440 MWe
(1978–2006)
(1980–2008)
 ?  ?
Ukraine Chernobyl NPP-4
(110 km
from Kiev)
RBMK-1000
1000 MWe
hydrogen explosion,
then graphite fire (1986)

(INES 7)
ENTOMBMENT
(armed concrete "sarcophagus")
Past: ?
Future: riding sarcophagus in steel[105]

Legal aspects[edit]

The decommission of a nuclear reactor can only take place after the appropriate licence has been granted pursuant to the relevant legislation. As part of the licensing procedure, various documents, reports and expert opinions have to be written and delivered to the competent authority, e.g. safety report, technical documents and an environmental impact study (EIS).

In the European Union these documents are the basis for the environmental impact assessment (EIA) according to Council Directive 85/337/EEC. A precondition for granting such a licence is an opinion by the European Commission according to Article 37 of the Euratom Treaty. Article 37 obliges every Member State of the European Union to communicate certain data relating to the release of radioactive substances to the Commission. This information must reveal whether and if so what radiological impacts decommissioning – planned disposal and accidental release – will have on the environment, i.e. water, soil or airspace, of the EU Member States.[106] On the basis of these general data, the Commission must be in a position to assess the exposure of reference groups of the population in the nearest neighbouring states.

Cost[edit]

In USA many utility estimates now average $325 million per reactor all-up (1998 $).

In France, decommissioning of Brennilis Nuclear Power Plant, a fairly small 70 MW power plant, already cost €480 million (20x the estimate costs) and is still pending after 20 years. Despite the huge investments in securing the dismantlement, radioactive elements such as Plutonium, Cesium-137 and Cobalt-60 leaked out into the surrounding lake.[107][108]

In the UK, decommissioning of the Windscale Advanced Gas Cooled Reactor (WAGR), a 32 MW prototype power plant, cost €117 million.

In Germany, decommissioning of Niederaichbach nuclear power plant, a 100 MW power plant, amounted to more than €143 million.

Decommissioning funds[edit]

In Europe there is considerable concern over the funds necessary to finance final decommissioning. In many countries either the funds do not appear sufficient to cover decommissioning and in other countries decommissioning funds are used for other activities, putting decommissioning at risk, and distorting competition with parties who do not have such funds available.[109]

Currently the European Commission is looking into this issue. It is estimated, that during the next two decades, the dismantling of the 150 nuclear reactors in Europe will cost around €150 billion, with an average cost of 1 billion per reactor.[110]

Similar concerns exist in the United States, where the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has located apparent decommissioning funding assurance shortfalls and requested 18 power plants to address that issue.[111]

International collaboration[edit]

Organizations that promote the international sharing of information, knowledge, and experiences related to nuclear decommissioning include the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development's Nuclear Energy Agency and the European Atomic Energy Community.[8] In addition, an online system called the Deactivation and Decommissioning Knowledge Management Information Tool was developed under the United States Department of Energy and made available to the international community to support the exchange of ideas and information. The goals of international collaboration in nuclear decommissioning are to reduce decommissioning costs and improve worker safety.[8]

Ships, mobile reactors, military reactors[edit]

Many warships and a few civil ships have used nuclear reactors for propulsion. Former Soviet and American warships have been taken out of service and their power plants removed or scuttled. Dismantling of Russian submarines and ships and American submarines and ships is ongoing. Marine power plants are generally smaller than land-based electrical generating stations.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Benjamin K. Sovacool. "A Critical Evaluation of Nuclear Power and Renewable Electricity in Asia", Journal of Contemporary Asia, Vol. 40, No. 3, August 2010, p. 373.
  2. ^ "Fact Sheets: Decommissioning Of Nuclear Power Plants". National Energy Institute. Retrieved 2014-06-19. 
  3. ^ http://www.corecut.co.uk/services/nuclear.aspx.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  4. ^ House of Commons Committee of Public Accounts (4 February 2013). "Nuclear Decommissioning Authority: Managing risk at Sellafield". London: The Stationery Office Limited. Retrieved 2 Dec 2013. 
  5. ^ a b "Nuclear Decommissioning: Decommission nuclear facilities". World-nuclear.org. Retrieved 2013-09-06. 
  6. ^ a b "How old are U.S. nuclear power plants and when was the last one built? - FAQ - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)". Eia.gov. Retrieved 2013-09-06. 
  7. ^ "NRC: Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities". Nrc.gov. 2013-06-28. Retrieved 2013-09-06. 
  8. ^ a b c Nuclear Decommissioning article by World Nuclear Association (associaciation of nuclear reactors builders: [1]
  9. ^ NRC: Locations of Power Reactor Sites Undergoing Decommissioning
  10. ^ a b OSTI: Appendix A - A Summary of the Shutdown and Decommissioning Experience for Nuclear Power Plants in the United States and the Russian Federation. Appendix B - A Summary of the Regulatory Environment for the Shutdown and Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Plants in the United States and the Russian Federation. Appendix C - Recommended Outlines for Decommissioning Documentation
  11. ^ IAEA: Taking Canada's Gentilly-1 to a "static state (by Balarko Gupta)
  12. ^ ASCE: Gentilly-1 a study in nuclear decommission
  13. ^ A Chernobyl in Québec? (correspondence on the dangers of Québec's only nuclear plant)
  14. ^ Ontario Power Generation: Pickering Nuclear Power
  15. ^ FAIREWINDS: Relicensing Pickering Nuclear Generating Station
  16. ^ OSTI: Energy Citations Database about Rancho Seco nuclear power plant
  17. ^ US-NRC: Rancho Seco nuclear power plant
  18. ^ UNITED STATES NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION: Three Mile Island - Decommissioning Unit 2
  19. ^ OSTI, Office of Scientific and Technical Information - Shippingport station decommissioning project: start of physical decommissioning
  20. ^ US NRC Information Digest 2008-2009
  21. ^ Koberstein, Paul (2005-03-09). "Trojan: PGE's Nuclear Gamble". Willamette Week. p. A1. Retrieved 2007-06-15. 
  22. ^ Yankee Rowe Nuclear Reactor (third nuclear reactor in USA, totally dismantled)
  23. ^ Maine Yankee Nuclear Power Station, ME - Power Technology
  24. ^ Maine Yankee Decommissioning 80% Complete
  25. ^ Maine Yankee Decommissioning Experience Report
  26. ^ Connecticut Yankee Nuclear Reactor - Complete Decommissioning
  27. ^ SEC-INFORMATION: Connecticut Yankee The United Illuminating Company (UI), a wholly owned subsidiary of UIL Holdings Corporation (UIL), owns 9.5% of the equity of Connecticut Yankee Atomic Power Company. Connecticut Yankee has prepared a draft updated estimate of the cost of decommissioning its nuclear unit, as part of its transition to self performance of decommissioning. Connecticut Yankee's draft updated cost estimate includes an increase of approximately $270 million over the cost estimate reported in November 2002
  28. ^ With Exelon's Zion 1 & 2 reactors (2 x 1098 MWe) closed down in 1998 and in Safstor, a slightly different process is envisaged, considerably accelerating the decommissioning. Exelon has contracted with a specialist company - EnergySolutions, to remove the plant and return the site to greenfield status. To achieve this, the plant's licence and decommissioning funds will be transferred to EnergySolutions, which will then be owner and licensee, and the site will be returned to Exelon about 2018. Used fuel would remain on site until taken to the national repository.
  29. ^ WEBWIRE: Exelon Nuclear To Accelerate Decommissioning Of Zion Station
  30. ^ "NRC: Humboldt Bay". Nrc.gov. Retrieved 2013-09-06. 
  31. ^ Nuclear Decommissioning article by the association of nuclear reactor builders http://www.world-nuclear.org
  32. ^ IAEA: Decommissioning in China
  33. ^ PRESS TV (Iranian News Agency): North Korea to decommission nuclear facility
  34. ^ THE GUARDIAN: Nuclear agreement: North Korea halts decommissioning
  35. ^ SCIDEV: India's energy mix needs nuclear boost
  36. ^ ECOWORLD: Nuclear power in India, by Avilash Roul
  37. ^ INDIA - CISED: Economics of Nuclear Power Heavy Water Reactors
  38. ^ Federation of American Scientists: Osiraq/Tammuz Nuclear Reactor
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  40. ^ TEPCO: Unit No. 1 is now “in a state of meltdown” — Suspects there are holes in bottom of reactor (VIDEO)
  41. ^ ALERT: Melted fuel in No. 1 reactor NOT covered with water
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  45. ^ Nuclear Engineer Arnie Gundersen: Fukushima Meltdown May Result in 1 Million Cases of Cancer
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  50. ^ The Japan Times: Whether Tepco fails or not, it’s taxpayers’ tab
  51. ^ Hydrogen levels continue rising at Reactor No. 2 — Now above .50%, highest in months — Explosion risk at 4%
  52. ^ Highest hydrogen levels
  53. ^ Mainichi: Reactors No. 1 and 2 have holes up to 50 square CENTImeters, analysis says — Biggest hurdle now is filling with water — “Caused by hydrogen explosions” — Half million pounds of highly radioactive fuel inside reactors 1-3
  54. ^ Japan Nuclear Expert: “We don’t even know at this point where the melted down core is” under Reactors No. 1, 2 or 3 (VIDEO)
  55. ^ Coalition requests UN intervention to stabilize Spent Fuel Pool No. 4 at Fukushima — Endorsed by nuclear experts
  56. ^ Footage of gov’t official at Fukushima inspecting support posts under Spent Fuel Pool No. 4 (VIDEOS)
  57. ^ “Ability for Unit 4 to withstand another seismic event is rated at zero” -Nuclear Watchdog
  58. ^ The Worst Yet to Come? Why Nuclear Experts Are Calling Fukushima a Ticking Time-Bomb - Experts say acknowledging the threat would call into question the safety of dozens of identically designed nuclear power plants in the U.S.
  59. ^ Japan Nuclear Expert: There are known to be broken fuel rod assemblies in Spent Fuel Pool No. 4 — Large amount of radioactive material has fallen to bottom — “Many years” to get fuel out (VIDEO)
  60. ^ THE GUARDIAN: The Fukushima nuclear plant's slow recovery offers lessons to the US
  61. ^ Adam Curry Exposes Robert Alvarez’s Fukushima Spent Fuel Pool Fable on No Agenda
  62. ^ The Neutron Economy: Overheated rods & rhetoric
  63. ^ The Other Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant
  64. ^ Fukushima Daini Nuclear Power Station all shutdown
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  66. ^ NHK-world (22 March 2012 10:52 +0900 (JST)'Wastewater leakage found at Tokai nuclear plant
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External links[edit]