Orders of magnitude (pressure)

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This article is about static pressure. For sound pressure see orders of magnitude (sound pressure)

This is a tabulated listing of the orders of magnitude in relation to pressure expressed in pascals.

Magnitude Pressure lbf/in2 or dB Item
10−17 Pa
10 aPa Pressure in outer space in intergalactic voids (the lowest pressure ever measured)[1][2]
10−15 Pa
1-10 fPa Pressure in outer space between stars in the Milky Way[1][3]
10−12 Pa
1 pPa Lowest pressure obtained in laboratory conditions[4]
10−11 Pa
40 pPa Atmosphere of the Moon at lunar day,[5][6] very approximately (4×10−11 Pa)[citation needed]
10−10 Pa
100 pPa Atmosphere of Mercury, very approximately (1×10−10 Pa)[7]
800 pPa Atmosphere of the Moon at lunar night,[5][6] very approximately (8×10−10 Pa)[citation needed]
10−9 Pa
< 1 nPa Vacuum expected in the beam pipe of the Large Hadron Collider's Atlas experiment[8]
~1 nPa Approximate solar wind pressure at Earth's distance from the Sun[9] (variable)[citation needed]
10−8 Pa
10 nPa Pressure inside a vacuum chamber for laser cooling of atoms (magneto-optical trap)[10]
10-700 nPa Atmospheric pressure in low Earth orbit[11][12]
10−7 Pa
100 nPa Highest pressure still considered ultra high vacuum [13][14]
10−6 Pa
1 µPa Reference pressure for sound in water[15]
1 µPa Pressure inside a vacuum tube (very approximate)[citation needed]
10−5 Pa
10 µPa Radiation pressure of sunlight on a perfectly reflecting surface at the distance of the Earth.[16]
20 µPa 0 dB Reference pressure for sound in air[17]
±20 µPa 0 dB Threshold of human hearing[17]
10−4 Pa
10−3 Pa
1-100 mPa Vacuum pressures used for molecular distillation[18]
10−2 Pa
10−1 Pa
100 mPa Upper limit of high vacuum[13][19]
~200 mPa Atmospheric pressure on Pluto (1988 figure; very roughly)[20]
1 Pa
1 Pa Pressure exerted by a US dollar bill resting flat on a surface[21]
1 Pa Upper limit of molecular distillation, where the mean free path of molecules is larger than the equipment[citation needed]
10 Pa
10 Pa Pressure increase per millimeter of a water column at Earth mean sea level[22]
10 Pa Pressure due to direct impact of a gentle breeze (~9 mph or 14 km/h)[23][24][25]
86 Pa Pressure from the weight of a U.S. penny lying flat[26]
102 Pa
±100 Pa ~130 dB Threshold of pain pressure level for sound. Prolonged exposure may lead to hearing loss.[citation needed]
100 Pa Pressure due to direct impact of a strong breeze (~28 mph or 45 km/h)[23][24][27]
120 Pa Pressure from the weight of a U.S. quarter lying flat[28][29]
133 Pa 1 torr ≈ 1 mmHg.[30]
±300 Pa ±0.043 psi Lung air pressure difference moving the normal breaths of a person (only 0.3% of standard atmospheric pressure)[31][32]
400 to 900 Pa 0.06 to 0.13 psi Atmospheric pressure on Mars, < 1% of atmospheric sea-level pressure on Earth[33]
610 Pa 0.089 psi Partial vapour pressure at the triple point of water (611.73 Pa)[34]
103 Pa
+1-10 kPa Typical explosion peak overpressure needed to break glass windows (approximate)[35]
2 kPa Pressure of popping popcorn (very approximate)[36][37]
2.6 kPa 0.38 psi Pressure to make water boil at room temperature (22 °C) (20 mmHg)[38]
5 kPa 0.8 psi Blood pressure fluctuation (40 mmHg) between heartbeats for a typical healthy adult[39][40]
6.3 kPa 0.9 psi Pressure where water boils at normal human body temperature (37 °C), the pressure below which humans absolutely cannot survive (Armstrong Limit)[41]
+9.8 kPa +1.4 psi Lung pressure that a typical person can exert (74 mmHg)[42]
104 Pa
10 kPa 1.5 psi Pressure increase per meter of a water column[22]
10 kPa 1.5 psi Decrease in air pressure when going from Earth sea level to 1000 m elevation[citation needed]
+13 kPa +1.9 psi High air pressure for human lung, measured for trumpet player making staccato high notes[43]
< +16 kPa +2.3 psi Systolic blood pressure in a healthy adult while at rest (< 120 mmHg) (gauge pressure)[39]
+19.3 kPa +2.8 psi High end of lung pressure, exertable without injury by a healthy person for brief times[citation needed]
+34 kPa +5 psi Level of long-duration blast overpressure (from a large-scale explosion) that would cause most buildings to collapse[44]
+70 kPa +10 psi Pressure for paint exiting an HVLP (low-pressure) paint spray gun[45]
70 kPa Pressure inside an incandescent light bulb[46]
80 kPa 12 psi Pressure inside vacuum cleaner at sea level on Earth (80% of standard atmospheric pressure)[citation needed]
87 kPa 13 psi Record low atmospheric pressure for typhoon/hurricane (Typhoon Tip in 1979) (only 86% of standard atmospheric pressure)[47]
105 Pa
100 kPa 15 psi 1 bar (14.5 psi),[48] approximately equal to the weight of one kilogram (1 kilopond) acting on one square centimeter[30]
101 kPa
15 psi Standard atmospheric pressure for Earth sea level (14.7 psi)[30]
150 to > 550 kPa 25 to > 80 psi Impact pressure of a fist punch (approximate)[citation needed][49]
+180 to +250 kPa +26 to +36 psi Air pressure in an automobile tire relative to atmosphere (gauge pressure)[citation needed]
+210 to +900 kPa +30 to +130 psi Air pressure in a bicycle tire relative to atmosphere (gauge pressure)[50]
300 kPa 50 psi Water pressure of a garden hose[51]
300 to 700 kPa 50 to 100 psi Typical water pressure of a municipal water supply in the US[52]
400 to 600 kPa 60 to 90 psi Carbon dioxide pressure in a champagne bottle[53]
520 kPa 75 psi Partial vapour pressure at the triple point of carbon dioxide[54]
+690 to +830 kPa +100 to +120 psi Air pressure in a heavy truck/bus tire relative to atmosphere (gauge pressure)[citation needed]
800 kPa Vapor pressure of water in a kernel of popcorn when the kernel ruptures[55]
106 Pa
0.8 to 2 MPa 120 to 290 psi Pressure used in boilers of steam locomotives[citation needed]
1.1 MPa 162 psi Pressure of an average human bite[56]
2.8 to 8.3 MPa 400 to 1200 psi Pressure of carbon dioxide propellant in a paintball gun[57]
5 MPa 700 psi Water pressure of the output of a coin-operated car wash spray nozzle[51]
5 MPa 700 psi Military submarine max. rated pressure (est.) of Seawolf class nuclear sub, at depth of 500 m[58][59]
6.9-27 MPa 1000 to 4000 psi Water spray pressure used by pressure washers[60]
9.2 MPa 1300 psi Atmosphere of Venus (92 bar)[61]
107 Pa
> 10 MPa > 1500 psi Pressure exerted by a 45 kg woman wearing stiletto heels when a heel hits the floor[62]
15 MPa 2200 psi Power stroke maximum pressure in diesel truck engine when burning fuel[citation needed]
21 MPa 3000 psi Pressure of a typical aluminium scuba tank of pressurized air (210 bar)[63]
20 MPa 2900 psi Typical pressure used for hydrogenolysis reactions[64]
28 MPa Overpressure caused by the bomb explosion during the Oklahoma City bombing[65]
69 MPa 10000 psi Water pressure withstood by the DSV Shinkai 6500 in visiting ocean depths of > 6500 meters[66]
70 to 280 MPa 10000 to 40000 psi Maximum chamber pressure during a pistol firing[67]
108 Pa
110 MPa 16000 psi Pressure at bottom of Mariana Trench, about 11 km below ocean surface (1100 bar)[68]
100 to 300 MPa 15000 to 44000 psi Pressure inside reactor for the synthesis of high-pressure polyethylene (HPPE)[69]
400 MPa 58,000 psi Chamber pressure of late 1910s .50 Browning Machine Gun discharge[citation needed]
240 to 620 MPa 35000 to 90000 psi Water pressure used in a water jet cutter[70]
109 Pa
1 GPa Extremely high-pressure chemical reactors (10 kbar)[citation needed]
1.5 GPa Diamond melts using a 3 kJ laser without turning into graphite first.[71]
1.5 GPa 220,000 psi tensile strength of Inconel 625 according to Aircraft metal strength tables and the Mil-Hdbk-5[citation needed]
5.8 GPa 840,000 psi Ultimate tensile strength of the polymer Zylon
1010 Pa
10 GPa Pressure at which octaoxygen forms at room temperature (100,000 bar)[72]
18 GPa Pressure needed for the first commercially successful synthesis of diamond[citation needed]
24 to 110 GPa Stability range of enstatite in its perovskite-structured polymorph, possibly the most common mineral inside the Earth[citation needed]
40 GPa Quantum mechanical electron degeneracy pressure in a block of copper[73]
48 GPa Detonation pressure of pure CL-20,[74] The most powerful high explosive in mass production.
69 GPa 10,000,000 psi highest water jet pressure made in research lab[75]
96 GPa Pressure at which metallic oxygen forms (960,000 bar)[72]
1011 Pa
100 GPa Theoretical tensile strength of a carbon nanotube (CNT)[citation needed]
130 GPa Intrinsic strength of monolayer graphene[76]
> 300 GPa Pressure attainable with a diamond anvil cell[77]
360 GPa Pressure inside the core of the Earth (3.64 million bar)[78][79]
1012 Pa
1013 Pa
1014 Pa
540 TPa Pressure inside an Ivy Mike-like nuclear bomb detonation (5.3 billion bar)[80][81]
1015 Pa
6.5 PPa Pressure inside a W80 nuclear warhead detonation (64 billion bar)[80][82]
1016 Pa
25 PPa Pressure inside the core of the Sun (250 billion bar)[83]
57 PPa Pressure inside a uranium nucleus (8 MeV in a sphere of radius 175 pm)[84]
1034 Pa 0.3 to 16×1034 Pa Pressure range inside a neutron star[85]
10113 Pa 4.6×10113 Pa 6.7×10109 psi The Planck pressure (4.63×10108 bar), not reached except shortly after the Big Bang or in a black hole[citation needed]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Li, Yulin. "The ins and out of man-made and natural vacuums". Ask A Scientist!. Cornell Center for Materials Research. Retrieved 1 January 2012. "10^-19 torr" 
  2. ^ Calculated: 10–19 torr × 133 Pa/torr = 10–17 Pa
  3. ^ Calculated: 10–17 torr × 133 Pa/torr = 10–15 Pa
  4. ^ Thompson, W. (1977). "Characteristics of a cryogenic extreme high-vacuum chamber". Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology 14 (1): 643–645. Bibcode:1977JVST...14..643T. doi:10.1116/1.569168. 
  5. ^ a b "The lunar environment". Lunar sourcebook. Cambridge University Press. 1991. ISBN 0-521-33444-6. "The undisturbed gas concentration is only about 2x10^5 molecules/cm^3 during the lunar night, falling to perhaps 10^4 molecules/cm^3 during the lunar day." 
  6. ^ a b "WikiAnswers –". Retrieved 2009-09-26. 
  7. ^ "Mercury Fact Sheet". NASA. Archived from the original on 2008-07-24. "~10^-15 bar" 
  8. ^ "Bringing the vacuum to its lowest value". ATLAS e-News. CERN. 28 July 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2012. "we expect pressures below 10^-9 Pa" 
  9. ^ "Explanation of Solar Wind Dials". NASA. Retrieved 29 December 2011. 
  10. ^ Altin, P. A. & Robins, N. P. (2010). "Rubidium-85 tunable-interaction Bose–Einstein condensate machine". Review of Scientific Instruments 81: 063103. arXiv:1003.4819. Bibcode:2010RScI...81f3103A. doi:10.1063/1.3430538. Retrieved November 21, 2013. 
  11. ^ "Low Earth Orbit Spacecraft Charging Design Handbook" (PDF). NASA. 2007. Retrieved 5 January 2012. "ambient pressure is in the range of 10^-10 to 5x10^-8 Torr." 
  12. ^ Calculated: 10–10 Torr × 133.3 Pa/Torr = 1.3×10−8 Pa. 5×10−8 Torr × 133.3 Pa/Torr = 6.7×10−6 Pa.
  13. ^ a b American Vacuum Society. "Glossary". AVS Reference Guide. Retrieved 2011-12-28. 
  14. ^ Calculated unit conversion: 1e-9 torr * 101325/760 Pa/torr = 1.33e-7 Pa
  15. ^ "Terminology". SURTASS LFA EIS. Retrieved 11 November 2011. 
  16. ^ G. Vulpetti, L. Johnson, G. L. Matloff, Solar Sails: A Novel Approach to Interplanetary Flight, Springer, August 2008
  17. ^ a b "Appendix I:A-3. Sound Propagation". Noise and Hearing Conservation Technical Manual Chapter. OSHA. Retrieved 11 November 2011. 
  18. ^ Sattler, Klaus; Feindt, Hans (1995). Thermal separation processes: principles and design. p. 116. ISBN 3-527-28622-5. "operating pressures in the range 0.1-0.001 Pa" 
  19. ^ Calculated unit conversion: 1e-3 torr * 101325/760 Pa/torr = 0.133 Pa
  20. ^ "Pluto expanding atmosphere". Observatoire de Paris, LESIA. Retrieved 29 December 2011. "deepest layers reach pressures of no more than a few microbars" 
  21. ^ Bala Maheswaran. "Fluid". Physics 1222 Lecture Notes. Retrieved 2011-10-09. 
  22. ^ a b "Pressure". Engineering Toolbox. Retrieved 2 January 2012. "10 kPa - the pressure below 1 m of water" 
  23. ^ a b "Beaufort Scales (Wind Speed)". How Many? A Dictionary of Units of Measurement. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Retrieved 3 January 2012. 
  24. ^ a b "Wind speed and wind pressure". KNMI HYDRA Project. Retrieved 3 January 2012. 
  25. ^ Exact calculation: P = 1/2 * density of air * (wind speed)^2. wind speed = 9 mph * 0.447 (m/s)/mph = 4.02 m/s. P = 1/2 * (1.25 kg/m^3) * (4.0 m/s)^2 = 10.1 Pa.
  26. ^ "Get an intuition for pressure values". Physics. Stack Exchange. Retrieved 28 December 2011. 
  27. ^ Exact calculation: P = 1/2 * density of air * (wind speed)^2. wind speed = 28.3 mph * 0.447 (m/s)/mph = 12.7 m/s. P = 1/2 * (1.25 kg/m^3) * (12.7 m/s)^2 = 101 Pa.
  28. ^ "Coin specifications". United States Mint. Retrieved 2011-12-28. 
  29. ^ Calculated: pressure = mass * g / (pi * diameter^2 / 4) = (5.670e-3 kg) * (9.807 m/s^2) / (3.142 * (19.05e-3 m)^2 / 4) = 120.3 Pa
  30. ^ a b c "Appendix B8—Factors for Units Listed Alphabetically". NIST Guide for the Use of the International System of Units (SI). NIST. Retrieved 2 January 2012. 
  31. ^ "The lung as a low-pressure air pump". Lung Introduction Fundamentals. Retrieved 13 December 2011. "a normal inspiratory breath of say 500ml in an adult requires a distending pressure of under 3cm H2O" 
  32. ^ Calculated: 3 cm H2O * 98.0 Pa/cm H2O = 294 Pa = 3e2 Pa
  33. ^ "Mars Fact Sheet". NASA. Retrieved 5 January 2012. "variable from 4.0 to 8.7 mb" 
  34. ^ CRC handbook of thermophysical and thermochemical data, Volume 1. CRC Press. 1994. ISBN 978-0-8493-0197-1. 
  35. ^ Lee's loss prevention in the process industries: hazard identification, assessment, and control, Volume 1. Elsevier. 2005. ISBN 0-7506-7555-1. "Iverson (1968) gives the range of breaking pressures as 1-10 kPa" 
  36. ^ Episode 124: Car vs. Rain. mythbustersfanclub.com. June 17, 2009
  37. ^ "Transcript". MythBusters - Car vs. Rain - Friday, Dec 25, 2009. Livedash. Retrieved 30 December 2011. "force ... which turns out to be 0.22 psi" 
  38. ^ "Vapor Pressure of Water". Science Help Online for Chemistry. Fordham Preparatory School. Retrieved 11 November 2011. "2.6 kPa" 
  39. ^ a b "Categories for Blood Pressure Levels in Adults". NIH. Retrieved 2 January 2012. 
  40. ^ Calculated as the difference between a typical systolic pressure of < 120mm Hg and diastolic pressure of < 80mm Hg.
  41. ^ NAHF - Harry Armstrong
  42. ^ [1]
  43. ^ Fletcher, N. H.; Tarnopolsky, A. (1999). "Blowing pressure, power, and spectrum in trumpet playing". The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 105 (2): 874–881. doi:10.1121/1.426276. PMID 9972572.  edit
  44. ^ Zipf, Jr, R. Karl; Cashdollar, Kenneth. "Effects of blast pressure on structures and the human body". Retrieved 3 January 2012. 
  45. ^ "Time For HVLP?". Sharpe Manufacturing Company. Retrieved 9 January 2012. "paint exiting the gun at 10 PSI" 
  46. ^ uigi.com - Argon (Ar) Properties, Uses, Applications Argon Gas and Liquid Argon, 2007
  47. ^ "Which is the most intense tropical cyclone on record?". Hurricane Research Division Frequently Asked Questions. NOAA. Retrieved 11 November 2011. 
  48. ^ Gershtein, Sergey; Anna Gershtein. "bar. Metric. Stress and Pressure Conversion Chart". Retrieved 2009-09-26. 
  49. ^ Typical force may total 150 to 500 pounds-force (670 to 2,220 N), applied to area of ~6 square inches (39 cm2). Actual impact pressure depends on strike to bone, soft tissue, padded surface, or brick wall. Also depends upon deflection or resistance of object struck. Heavyweight boxing champions have been shown to strike with over 1,000 pounds-force (4,400 N) of force, which would imply ~170 psi (> 1100 kPa) over same area.
  50. ^ "This Is Your...Tire's Air". Retrieved 25 Jun 2013. "Road tires typically require 80 to 130 psi, mountain tires 30 to 50 psi and hybrid tires 50 to 70 psi." 
  51. ^ a b "Frequently Asked Questions". Power Washers. Generac Power Systems. Retrieved 9 January 2012. "A typical garden hose dispenses water at about 50 PSI, and a coin-operated car wash provides about 700 PSI." 
  52. ^ "How Water Towers Work". HowStuffWorks. Retrieved 3 January 2012. "A typical municipal water supply runs at between 50 and 100 PSI" 
  53. ^ "Pressure in a Champagne Bottle". The Physics Factbook. Retrieved 13 December 2011. 
  54. ^ "Carbon dioxide". NIST Chemistry WebBook. NIST. Retrieved 8 January 2012. "5.185 bar ... uncertainty ... 0.005 bar" 
  55. ^ Byrd, J. E.; Perona, M. J. (2005). "Kinetics of Popping of Popcorn" (PDF). Cereal Chemistry 82: 53. doi:10.1094/CC-82-0053.  edit
  56. ^ "What is the strength of an average human's jaw?". Retrieved 5 April 2012. "the average biting force of the human jaw is 162 PSI" 
  57. ^ Choi, Young. "Beginner's guide to paintball tanks". PaintBall.com. "Co2 pressure output can range from 400 psi up to 1200 psi" 
  58. ^ "Run Silent, Run Deep". US Navy Ships. Federation of American Scientists. Retrieved 8 January 2012. "a normal operating depth of "greater than 800 feet," ... it may be assumed that the ... depth ... is roughly double the official figure" 
  59. ^ Calculated: assume depth of 2x800 ft = 1600 ft. 1600 ft * 0.3048 m/ft = 488 m. Pressure at 488 m = density * g * depth * area = 1025 kg/m^3 * 9.81 m/s^2 * 488 m * 1 m^2 = 4.90e6 Pa. 4.90e6 Pa * 1.45e-4 psi/Pa = 711 psi.
  60. ^ "How to Select a Pressure Washer". New York Times. Retrieved 19 December 2011. "range from about 1,000 p.s.i. to 4,000 or more" 
  61. ^ Williams, David R. (2010-11-17). "Venus Fact Sheet". NASA. Retrieved 2011-10-09. 
  62. ^ "Pressure Under High Heels". The Physics Factbook. Retrieved 2011-10-09. 
  63. ^ "http://www.thescubaguide.com/gear/tanks/". TheScubaGuide. Retrieved 6 January 2012. "when you get your tank filled it will be filled to 3000 psi" 
  64. ^ For hydrogenolysis esters with copper chromite. Paquette, L.A. Encyclopedia of Reagents for Organic Synthesis. Vol. 2, pp. 1337–1339. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, 1995.
  65. ^ Wong, Henry (2002). "Blast-Resistant Building Design Technology Analysis of its Application to Modern Hotel Design". WGA Wong Gregerson Architects, Inc. p. 5. 
  66. ^ "SHINKAI 6500". Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology. Retrieved 13 December 2011. "Pressure at a depth of 6,500 m reaches around 680 atmospheres" 
  67. ^ "SAAMI Pistol Pressure Specifications". SAAMI pressures. Leverguns.Com. Retrieved 7 January 2012. ".45 Colt ... 14,000 ... 9.mm Luger +P ... 38,500" 
  68. ^ George, V. T.; Brooks, G.; Humphrey, T. C. (2007). "Regulation of Cell Cycle and Stress Responses to Hydrostatic Pressure in Fission Yeast". Molecular Biology of the Cell 18 (10): 4168–4179. doi:10.1091/mbc.E06-12-1141. PMC 1995737. PMID 17699598.  edit
  69. ^ The manufacture of polyethylene. nzic.org.nz
  70. ^ "Water Jet Cutting Pumps". KMT Waterjet. Retrieved 8 January 2012. "a pump that delivers up to 90,000 PSI ... pumps that deliver 35,000 PSI to 55,000 PSI" 
  71. ^ National Geographic Channel, The known universe (treasure hunt in space)
  72. ^ a b azonano.com (2008). "Solid Oxygen ε-Phase Crystal Structure Determined Along With The Discovery of a Red Oxygen O8 Cluster". Retrieved 2008-01-10. 
  73. ^ http://www.eng.fsu.edu/~dommelen/quantum/style_a/cboxdp.html
  74. ^ Krause, Horst H.; Ulrich Teipel (editor) (2005). "New Energetic Materials". WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. p. 5. ISBN 3-527-30240-9. Retrieved 25 August 2012. "Substance ... GPa ... CL-20 ... 48.23" 
  75. ^ Summers, David (2012). "Waterjetting 3b: pumps, intensifiers, and cannons". Retrieved 14 November 2012. "the highest pressure jet that we generated in the MS&T [Missouri University of Science and Technology] Laboratories was at around 10 million psi." 
  76. ^ Lee, C.; Wei, X.; Kysar, J. W.; Hone, J. (2008). "Measurement of the Elastic Properties and Intrinsic Strength of Monolayer Graphene" (PDF). Science 321 (5887): 385–388. doi:10.1126/science.1157996. PMID 18635798.  edit
  77. ^ Hemley, R. J.; Ashcroft, N. W. (1998). "The Revealing Role of Pressure in the Condensed Matter Sciences" (PDF). Physics Today 51 (8): 26. Bibcode:1998PhT....51h..26H. doi:10.1063/1.882374.  edit
  78. ^ Dziewonski, A.; Anderson, D. L. (1981). "Preliminary reference Earth model". Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors 25 (4): 297–356. Bibcode:1981PEPI...25..297D. doi:10.1016/0031-9201(81)90046-7.  edit
  79. ^ "Preliminary Reference Earth Model (PREM) (Dziewonski & Anderson, 1981)". Retrieved 2 January 2012. "363.850 GPa" 
  80. ^ a b "4.4 Elements of Thermonuclear Weapon Design". Nuclear Weapons Frequently Asked Questions. Retrieved 3 January 2012. "Mike... Ivy... radiation pressures are 73 and 1400 megabars ... respectively ... Mike ... 5.3 x 10^9 bars ... Ivy ... 6.4 x 10^10 bars" 
  81. ^ Calculated: ablation pressure = 5.3e9 bar * 1.01325e5 Pa/bar = 5.44e14 Pa
  82. ^ Calculated: ablation pressure = 6.4e10 bar * 1.01325e5 Pa/bar = 6.48e14 Pa
  83. ^ Williams, David R. (September 1, 2004). "Sun Fact Sheet". NASA. Retrieved 2008-01-23. 
  84. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=udHyAAAAMAAJ&pg=RA1-PA15&lpg=RA1-PA15&dq=pressure+inside+atomic+nucleus&source=bl&ots=D_3E7T6Fi3&sig=cNHFPBVQTx7HPSSMBWnFxoB_eeE&hl=en&ei=AvSRTvSmOMvb4QTWwZjLAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=6&ved=0CD0Q6AEwBQ#v=onepage&q=pressure%20inside%20atomic%20nucleus&f=false
  85. ^ Neutron degeneracy pressure (Archive). Physics Forums. Retrieved on 2011-10-09.