K. Pattabhi Jois
July 26, 1915|
Kowshika, Hassan, Karnataka, India
|Died||May 18, 2009
Mysore, Karnataka, India
|Occupation||Yoga teacher, author|
|Known for||Ashtanga Vinyasa Yoga|
|Relatives||R. Sharath Jois (Rangaswamy) (grandson)|
Krishna Pattabhi Jois (Kannada: ಶ್ರೀ ಕೃಷ್ಣ ಪಟ್ಟಾಭಿ ಜೋಯೀಸರು) (July 26, 1915 – May 18, 2009) was an Indian yoga teacher who developed the popular and gymnastic style of yoga referred to as Ashtanga Vinyasa Yoga or Ashtanga Yoga. In 1948, Jois established the Ashtanga Yoga Research Institute (now known as the Shri K Pattabhi Jois Ashtanga Yoga Institute) in Mysore, India. He was also a student of Tirumalai Krishnamacharya.
Early life and education
Jois's father was an astrologer, priest, and landholder. From the age of 5, he was instructed in Sanskrit and rituals by his father, as were all Brahmin boys. No one else in his family had learned yoga or even expressed interest in it.
In 1927, at the age of 12, Jois attended a lecture and demonstration at the Jubilee Hall in Hassan by T. Krishnamacharya and became his student the very next day. For two years Jois remained in Kowshika and practiced with Krishnamacharya every day. Jois never told his family he was practicing yoga. He would rise early, go to practice, and then go to school.
In 1930, Jois ran away from home to Mysore to study Sanskrit, with 2 rupees. Around the same time Krishnamacharya departed Hassan to teach elsewhere. Two years later, Jois was reunited with Krishnamacharya, who had also made his way to Mysore. According to B.K.S. Iyengar, Jois was assigned to teach asana at the Sanskrit Pathshala when the yogashala of Krishnamacharya was opened in 1933 and was "never a regular student." During this time, the Maharaja of Mysore, Krishna Rajendra Wodeyar, had become seriously ill and it is said that Krishnamacharya had healed him, through yoga, where others had failed. The Maharaja became Krisnamacharya's patron and established a Yoga shala for him at the Jaganmohan Palace. Jois often accompanied Krishnamacharya in demonstrations. Jois has stated that he studied with Krishnamacharya from 1927 to 1953 and claimed to teach the same asana system that he originally learned. Jois has claimed that he was B. K. S. Iyengar's guru, which Iyengar has refuted.
Although Jois has claimed that his Ashtanga Vinyasa Yoga system is based on an ancient text called Yoga Korunta, Jois has indicated that he has never read this text. The authenticity of Yoga Korunta is questionable and it is not possible to verify the truth of this claim.
Jois remained in Mysore and married a young woman named Savitramma (but who came to be known as Amma), on the full moon of June 1933 when Jois was 18 years old. In 1948 they, with the help of Jois' students, purchased a home in the section of town called Lakshmipuram, where they lived with their children Saraswathi, Mañju and Ramesh.
He held a teaching position in yoga at the Sanskrit College of Maharaja from 1937 to 1973, becoming vidwan (professor) in 1956, as well as being Honorary Professor of Yoga at the Government College of Indian Medicine from 1976 to 1978. He taught there until 1973, when he left to devote himself fully to teach yoga at his yoga shala. He had studied texts such as the Patañjali Yoga Darśana, Haṭha Yoga Pradīpikā, Yoga Yajñavalkya and the Upaniṣads, and in 1948, he established the Ashtanga Yoga Research Institute at their new home in Lakshmipuram.
In 1964, a Belgian named André Van Lysebeth (1919–2004) spent two months with Jois learning the primary and intermediate asanas of the Ashtanga Vinyasa Yoga system. Not long afterwards, van Lysebeth wrote a book called J'apprends le Yoga (1967, English title: Yoga Self-Taught) which mentioned Jois and included his address. This marked the beginning of westerners coming to Mysore to study yoga. His students included B. K. S. Iyengar, Larry Schultz, Madonna, Sting and Gwyneth Paltrow. All his students, including the celebrities and his grandson, received the same training.
His first trip to the West was in 1974 to South America, to deliver a speech in Sanskrit at an international yoga conference. In 1975 he stayed for four months in Encinitas, California, marking the beginning of Ashtanga Vinyasa Yoga in the US. He would return to the US several times over the next 20 years, to teach yoga at Encinitas and elsewhere. He also regularly travelled to Sydney, Australia, where some of his advanced students were based.
Jois continued to teach at the Ashtanga Yoga Research Institute in Mysore, now located in the neighbourhood of Gokulam, with his only daughter Saraswathi Rangaswamy (b. 1941) and his grandson Sharath (b. 1971), until May 18, 2009 when he died aged 93 of natural causes.
The Economist published an obituary which questioned Jois's adherence to the yogic principle of ahimsa or non-violence and highlighted that "a good number of Mr Jois's students seemed constantly to be limping around with injured knees or backs because they had received his “adjustments”, yanking them into Lotus, the splits or a backbend." The same obituary also questioned Jois's adherence to the yogic principle of brahmacharya or sexual continence and made the accusation that his female students received different "adjustments" from his male students. CounterPunch in a magazine article indicated that Jois was a "reported sexual abuser of students." Accusations of inappropriate touching of women by Jois during yoga classes also surfaced on YogaDork. Elephant Journal published an article entitled When do Yoga Adjustments cross the line? with a photo of Jois adjusting female students and another article entitled Have you Experienced: Sexual Harassment in Yoga Class? showing the same photo. In an article appearing on YogaCity NYC, a female student reported she was groped by Jois during a class in New York.
Adjustments by Jois have been characterized as "overwhelming, producing fear and extreme discomfort in students as they are pushed beyond their physical and psychological comfort zones in often-difficult, even dangerous asana."
Jois' grandson R. Sharath Jois teamed with billionaire hedge fund investor Paul Tudor Jones' wife, Greenwich, Connecticut-based Sonia Klein Jones, to create Jois Yoga in honor of Krishna Pattabhi Jois.
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- The second most famous Mysorean in the world, churumuri
- At the pearly gates in dhoti, vibhuti, pump shoes, Sunaad Raghuram, churumuri
- Krishna Pattabhi Jois, Leading Expert in Yoga, Dies at 93, The New York Times
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- Pattabhi Jois, Founder of Ashtanga Yoga, Passes Away at Age 93, Huffington Post
- Yoga exponent Pattabhi Jois dead, The Hindu
- Yoga pioneer Pattabhi Jois dies, BBC News
- K. Pattabhi Jois, leading teacher of Ashtanga yoga, dies at 94, Los Angeles Times
- Guru, a film by Robert Wilkins
- "Pattabhi Jois", The Economist, June 4, 2009, archived from the original on December 3, 2011
- Lawrence, Stewart (April 19, 2013). "The Travails of Yoga Mogul Bikram Choudhury". CounterPunch. Archived from the original on May 7, 2013. Retrieved May 7, 2013.
- "Good Touch, Bad Touch: Gurus, Power, and Adjusting vs. Groping on the Yoga Mat", YogaDork, December 9, 2010, archived from the original on September 13, 2011
- "Yoga Teacher FAIL…Is that Pattabhi Jois? [photo]", YogaDork, September 14, 2009, archived from the original on July 6, 2012
- "When do Yoga Adjustments cross the line?", Elephant Journal, September 22, 2009, archived from the original on July 21, 2012
- "Have you Experienced: Sexual Harassment in Yoga Class?", Elephant Journal, January 4, 2010
- Lucas, Anneke. "The Question Of Gurus: Who's Got The Power?". YogaCity NYC. Archived from the original on March 27, 2013.
- Singleton, Mark; Byrne, Jean, eds. (2008). Yoga in the Modern World: Contemporary Perspectives (Kindle Edition ed.). New York, USA: Routledge. p. Kindle Locations 4178–4179. ISBN 0415452589.
- Stern, Eddie and Summerbell, Deirdre, Sri K. Pattabhi Jois: A Tribute. New York: Eddie Stern and Gwyneth Paltrow, 2002.