Philip III of France

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Philippe III redirects here. It can also refer to Philippe III de Croÿ and Philippe III, Duke of Orléans.
Philip III the Bold
Miniature Philippe III Courronement.jpg
Coronation of King Philip III
King of France (more...)
Reign 25 August 1270 – 5 October 1285
Coronation 30 August 1271
Predecessor Louis IX
Successor Philip IV
Spouse Isabella of Aragon
Maria of Brabant
Issue
Louis of France
Philip IV of France
Charles, Count of Valois
Louis, Count of Évreux
Blanche, Duchess of Austria
Margaret, Queen of England
House House of Capet
Father Louis IX of France
Mother Margaret of Provence
Born (1245-04-30)30 April 1245
Poissy
Died 5 October 1285(1285-10-05) (aged 40)
Perpignan
Burial Initially Narbonne, later Saint Denis Basilica
Religion Roman Catholicism

Philip III (30 April 1245 – 5 October 1285), called the Bold (French: le Hardi),[1] was a Capetian King of France who reigned from 1270 to 1285.

His father, Louis IX, died in Tunis during the Eighth Crusade. Philip, who was accompanying him, came back to France to claim his throne and was anointed at Reims in 1271.

Philip made numerous territorial acquisitions during his reign, the most notable being the County of Toulouse which was annexed to the Crown lands of France in 1271.

Following the Sicilian Vespers, a rebellion triggered by Peter III of Aragon against Philip's uncle Charles I of Naples, Philip led an unsuccessful Aragonese Crusade in support of his uncle. Philip was forced to retreat and died from dysentry in Perpignan in 1285. He was succeeded by his son Philip the Fair.

Biography[edit]

Born in Poissy, to Louis IX (the later Saint Louis)[2] and Margaret of Provence, Philip was prior to his accession Count of Orleans. He accompanied his father on the Eighth Crusade to Tunisia in 1270. His father died at Tunis and there Philip was declared king at the age of 25. Philip was indecisive, soft in nature, timid, and apparently crushed by the strong personalities of his parents and dominated by his father's policies. He was called "the Bold" on the basis of his abilities in combat and on horseback and not his character. He was pious, but not cultivated. He followed the dictates of others, first of Pierre de la Broce and then of his uncle Charles I of Sicily.

After his succession, he quickly set his uncle on negotiations with the emir to conclude the crusade, while he himself returned to France. A ten-year truce was concluded and Philip was crowned in France on 12 August 1271. On 21 August, his uncle, Alfonso, Count of Poitou, Toulouse, and Auvergne, died returning from the crusade in Italy. Philip inherited his counties and united them to the royal demesne. The portion of the Auvergne which he inherited became the "Terre royale d'Auvergne", later the Duchy of Auvergne. In accordance with Alfonso's wishes, the Comtat Venaissin was granted to the Pope Gregory X in 1274. Several years of negotiations yielded the Treaty of Amiens with Edward I of England in 1279. Thereby Philip restored to the English the Agenais which had fallen to him with the death of Alfonso. In 1284, Philip also inherited the counties of Perche and Alençon from his brother Pierre. Philip also intervened in the Navarrese succession after the death of Henry I of Navarre and married his son, Philip the Fair, to the heiress of Navarre, Joan I.

Marriage of Philip and Marie

Philip all the while supported his uncle's policy in Italy. When, after the Sicilian Vespers of 1282, Peter III of Aragon invaded and took the island of Sicily, pope Martin IV excommunicated the conqueror and declared his kingdom (put under the suzerainty of the pope by Peter II in 1205) forfeit.[3] He granted Aragon to Charles, Count of Valois, Philip's son.

In 1284, Philip and his sons entered Roussillon at the head of a large army. This war, called the Aragonese Crusade from its papal sanction, has been labelled "perhaps the most unjust, unnecessary and calamitous enterprise ever undertaken by the Capetian monarchy."[4] On 26 June 1285, Philip the Bold entrenched himself before Girona in an attempt to besiege it. The resistance was strong, but the city was taken on 7 September. Philip soon experienced a reversal, however, as the French camp was hit hard by an epidemic of dysentery. Philip himself was afflicted. The French retreated and were handily defeated at the Battle of the Col de Panissars. Philip's attempt to conquer Aragon nearly bankrupted the French monarchy.[5]

Death[edit]

Philip died at Perpignan, the capital of his ally James II of Majorca, and was buried in Narbonne. He currently lies buried with his wife Isabella of Aragon in Saint Denis Basilica in Paris.

Referenced by Dante[edit]

In the Divine Comedy, Dante sees Philip's spirit outside the gates of Purgatory with a number of other contemporary European rulers. Dante does not name Philip directly, but refers to him as "the small-nosed"[6] and "the father of the Pest of France" (Philip IV).

Marriage and children[edit]

French Monarchy
Direct Capetians
Arms of the Kingdom of France (Ancien).svg
Philip III
   Louis of France
   Philip IV
   Charles, Count of Valois
   Louis, Count of Évreux
   Blanche, Duchess of Austria
   Margaret of France, Queen of England

On 28 May 1262, Philip married Isabella of Aragon, daughter of James I of Aragon and his second wife Yolande of Hungary.[7] They had the following children:

  1. Louis (1265 – May 1276). He was poisoned, possibly by orders of his stepmother.
  2. Philip IV (1268 – 29 November 1314), his successor, married Joan I of Navarre
  3. Robert (1269–1271)
  4. Charles (12 March 1270 – 16 December 1325), Count of Valois, married firstly to Margaret of Anjou in 1290, secondly to Catherine I of Courtenay in 1302, and lastly to Mahaut of Chatillon in 1308
  5. Stillborn son (1271)

After Isabella's death, he married on 21 August 1274, Maria of Brabant, daughter of Henry III of Brabant and Adelaide of Burgundy. Their children were:

  1. Louis (May 1276 – 19 May 1319), Count of Évreux, married Margaret of Artois
  2. Blanche (1278 – 19 March 1305, Vienna), married Rudolf III of Austria on 25 May 1300.
  3. Margaret (1282 – 14 February 1318), married Edward I of England

Ancestry[edit]

Honours[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Elizabeth M. Hallam, Capetian France: 987-1328, (Longman House, 1980), 275.
  2. ^ Jim Bradbury, The Capetians: The History of a Dynasty, (Continuum, 2007), 237.
  3. ^ Jim Bradbury, The Capetians: The History of a Dynasty, 239.
  4. ^ Chaytor, p 105.
  5. ^ Jonathan Sumption, The Hundred Years War:Trial by Battle, Vol. I, (Faber and Faber Limited, 1990), 24.
  6. ^ Philip III, Yolanda de Pontfarcy, The Dante Encyclopedia, ed. Richard Lansing, (Routledge, 2010), 691.
  7. ^ Philip III the Bold, William Chester Jordan, Medieval France: An Encyclopedia, ed. William W. Kibler and Grover A. Zinn, (Routledge, 2007), 727.

Sources[edit]

Philip III of France
Born: 30 April 1245 Died: 5 October 1285
French nobility
Vacant
Royal Domain
Title last held by
Hugh Capet
Count of Orléans Vacant
Royal Domain
Title next held by
Duke of Orléans
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Louis IX
King of France
25 August 1270 – 5 October 1285
Succeeded by
Philip IV