Philip III of France
- Philippe III redirects here. It can also refer to Philippe III de Croÿ and Philippe III, Duke of Orléans.
|Philip III the Bold|
|Coronation of King Philip III|
|King of France (more...)|
|Reign||25 August 1270 – 5 October 1285|
|Coronation||30 August 1271|
|Spouse||Isabella of Aragon
Maria of Brabant
|Issue||Louis of France
Philip IV of France
Charles, Count of Valois
Louis, Count of Évreux
Blanche, Duchess of Austria
Margaret, Queen of England
|House||House of Capet|
|Father||Louis IX of France|
|Mother||Margaret of Provence|
30 April 1245|
|Died||5 October 1285
|Burial||Initially Narbonne, later Saint Denis Basilica|
Philip III (30 April 1245 – 5 October 1285), called the Bold (French: le Hardi), was a Capetian King of France who reigned from 1270 to 1285. His father, Louis IX, died in Tunis during the Eighth Crusade. Philip, who was accompanying him, returned to France to claim his throne and was anointed at Reims in 1271.
Following the Sicilian Vespers, a rebellion triggered by Peter III of Aragon against Philip's uncle Charles I of Naples, Philip led an unsuccessful Aragonese Crusade in support of his uncle. Philip was forced to retreat and died from dysentry in Perpignan in 1285. He was succeeded by his son Philip the Fair.
Philip was born in Poissy to Louis IX (later Saint Louis) and Margaret of Provence. Prior to his accession he was Count of Orleans, and he accompanied his father on the Eighth Crusade to Tunisia in 1270. His father died at Tunis and there Philip was declared king at the age of 25. Philip was indecisive, soft in nature, timid, and apparently crushed by the strong personalities of his parents and dominated by his father's policies. He was called "the Bold" on the basis of his abilities in combat and on horseback and not his character. He was pious but not cultivated. He followed the dictates of others, first of Pierre de la Broce and then of his uncle Charles I of Sicily.
After his succession, he quickly set his uncle on negotiations with the emir to conclude the crusade, while he himself returned to France. A ten-year truce was concluded, and Philip was crowned in France on 12 August 1271. On 21 August, his uncle, Alfonso, Count of Poitou, Toulouse, and Auvergne, died returning from the crusade in Italy. Philip inherited his counties and united them to the royal demesne. The portion of the Auvergne that he inherited became the "Terre royale d'Auvergne", later the Duchy of Auvergne. In accordance with Alfonso's wishes, the Comtat Venaissin was granted to the Pope Gregory X in 1274. Several years of negotiations yielded the Treaty of Amiens with Edward I of England in 1279. Thereby Philip restored to the English the Agenais which had fallen to him with the death of Alfonso. In 1284, Philip also inherited the counties of Perche and Alençon from his brother Pierre. Philip also intervened in the Navarrese succession after the death of Henry I of Navarre and married his son, Philip the Fair, to the heiress of Navarre, Joan I.
Philip all the while supported his uncle's policy in Italy. When, after the Sicilian Vespers of 1282, Peter III of Aragon invaded and took the island of Sicily, pope Martin IV excommunicated the conqueror and declared his kingdom (put under the suzerainty of the pope by Peter II in 1205) forfeit. He granted Aragon to Charles, Count of Valois, Philip's son.
In 1284, Philip and his sons entered Roussillon at the head of a large army. This war, called the Aragonese Crusade from its papal sanction, has been labelled "perhaps the most unjust, unnecessary and calamitous enterprise ever undertaken by the Capetian monarchy." On 26 June 1285, Philip the Bold entrenched himself before Girona in an attempt to besiege it. The resistance was strong, but the city was taken on 7 September. Philip soon experienced a reversal, however, as the French camp was hit hard by an epidemic of dysentery. Philip himself was afflicted. The French retreated and were handily defeated at the Battle of the Col de Panissars. Philip's attempt to conquer Aragon nearly bankrupted the French monarchy.
Referenced by Dante
In the Divine Comedy, Dante sees Philip's spirit outside the gates of Purgatory with a number of other contemporary European rulers. Dante does not name Philip directly, but refers to him as "the small-nosed" and "the father of the Pest of France" (Philip IV).
Marriage and children
|Louis of France|
|Charles, Count of Valois|
|Louis, Count of Évreux|
|Blanche, Duchess of Austria|
|Margaret of France, Queen of England|
- Louis (1265 – May 1276). He was poisoned, possibly by orders of his stepmother.
- Philip IV (1268 – 29 November 1314), his successor, married Joan I of Navarre
- Robert (1269–1271)
- Charles (12 March 1270 – 16 December 1325), Count of Valois, married firstly to Margaret of Anjou in 1290, secondly to Catherine I of Courtenay in 1302, and lastly to Mahaut of Chatillon in 1308
- Stillborn son (1271)
- Louis (May 1276 – 19 May 1319), Count of Évreux, married Margaret of Artois
- Blanche (1278 – 19 March 1305, Vienna), married Rudolf III of Austria on 25 May 1300.
- Margaret (1282 – 14 February 1318), married Edward I of England
|Ancestors of Philip III of France|
- Kingdom of France : Knight of the Order of the Ship ( awarded by his father Saint Louis IX to promote the Crusade in North Africa )
- Elizabeth M. Hallam, Capetian France: 987-1328, (Longman House, 1980), 275.
- Jim Bradbury, The Capetians: The History of a Dynasty, (Continuum, 2007), 237.
- Jim Bradbury, The Capetians: The History of a Dynasty, 239.
- Chaytor, p 105.
- Jonathan Sumption, The Hundred Years War:Trial by Battle, Vol. I, (Faber and Faber Limited, 1990), 24.
- Philip III, Yolanda de Pontfarcy, The Dante Encyclopedia, ed. Richard Lansing, (Routledge, 2010), 691.
- Philip III the Bold, William Chester Jordan, Medieval France: An Encyclopedia, ed. William W. Kibler and Grover A. Zinn, (Routledge, 2007), 727.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Philip III of France.|
- Chaytor, H. J. A History of Aragon and Catalonia. 1933.
Philip III of FranceBorn: 30 April 1245 Died: 5 October 1285
Title last held byHugh Capet
|Count of Orléans||Vacant
Title next held byDuke of Orléans
|King of France
25 August 1270 – 5 October 1285