Philip III of France

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Philippe III redirects here. It can also refer to Philippe III de Croÿ and Philippe III, Duke of Orléans.
Philip III the Bold
Miniature Philippe III Courronement.jpg
Coronation of King Philip III
King of France (more...)
Reign 25 August 1270 – 5 October 1285
Coronation 30 August 1271
Predecessor Louis IX
Successor Philip IV
Spouse Isabella of Aragon
Maria of Brabant
Issue Louis of France
Philip IV of France
Charles, Count of Valois
Louis, Count of Évreux
Blanche, Duchess of Austria
Margaret, Queen of England
House House of Capet
Father Louis IX of France
Mother Margaret of Provence
Born (1245-04-30)30 April 1245
Poissy
Died 5 October 1285(1285-10-05) (aged 40)
Perpignan
Burial Initially Narbonne, later Saint Denis Basilica
Religion Roman Catholicism

Philip III (30 April 1245 – 5 October 1285), called the Bold (French: le Hardi),[1] was a Capetian King of France who reigned from 1270 to 1285.

Philip proved indecisive, soft in nature, and timid. The strong personalities of his parents apparently crushed him, and policies of his father dominated him. People called him "the Bold" on the basis of his abilities in combat and on horseback and not on the basis of his political or personal character. He was pious but not cultivated. He followed the dictates of others, first of Pierre de La Broce and then of his uncle King Charles I of Naples, Sicily, and Albania.

Biography[edit]

Early life[edit]

Philip was born in Poissy to King Saint Louis IX of France[2] and Margaret of Provence, queen consort of France. As Count of Orléans, he accompanied his father on the Eighth Crusade to Tunisia in 1270. The plans failed when the French forces were struck by an epidemic which, on 25 August, took the life of King Louis himself.[3] Philip immediately acceded to the kingship at 25 years of age.

Coronation and inheritances[edit]

Philip, proclaimed king, quickly set his uncle, king Charles I of Naples, Sicily, and Albania, on negotiations with Muhammad I al-Mustansir to conclude the crusade with a truce. Charles signed a treaty with the emir, and there was little else to do but return to Sicily. The crusade was postponed until next spring, but a devastating storm off the coast of Sicily dissuaded Philip from any further campaigning. Philip returned to France to claim his throne at the formal coronation of the French monarch at Reims Cathedral on 30 August 1271.

Alphonse, Count of Poitiers and Toulouse, uncle of the newly crowned king Philip III, returning from the crusade, died childless in Italy on 21 August 1271. Philip inherited counties from his nephew and united them to the Crown lands of France, the royal demesne. His inheritance included a portion of Auvergne, then the Terre royale d'Auvergne, later the Duchy of Auvergne. In accordance with wishes of Alphonse, he granted the Comtat Venaissin to Blessed Pope Gregory X in 1274. This inheritance also included the Agenais. Several years of negotiations yielded the Treaty of Amiens (1279) with King Edward I of England, which restored this territory to the English.

Sicilian Vespers[edit]

King Philip III of France meanwhile supported policy of his uncle, King Charles I of Naples, Sicily, and Albania, in Italy.

King Peter III of Aragon and Valencia in 1282 triggered the Sicilian Vespers rebellion against King Charles I of Naples, Sicily, and Albania. The success of rebellion and invasion led to the coronation of Peter III of Aragon as king of Sicily therefore beginning the dynasty of the House of Barcelona in Sicily.

King Peter II of Aragon in 1205 put under his realm the suzerainty of the pope. Pope Martin IV excommunicated king Peter III of Aragon, the conqueror, and declared his kingdom forfeit.[4] The pope then granted Aragon to Charles, Count of Valois, son of Philip III, king of France.

Family matters[edit]

Joan I of Navarre, daughter of the deceased king Henry I of Navarre, reigned as queen regnant of Navarre. Philip IV of France, son of Philip III and heir to the French throne, took her as his wife in 1284.

In 1284, Peter, Count of Perche and Alençon, died without surviving children; therefore, his oldest living brother, Philip III, king of France, inherited his domains.

Marriage of Philip and Marie of Brabant, Queen of France

Aragonese Crusade and death[edit]

Philip III of France in 1284 responded to the Sicilian Vespers in support of his partially dethroned uncle. With his sons, the king entered Roussillon at the head of a large army on the ultimately unsuccessful Aragonese Crusade. The war took the name "crusade" from its papal sanction; nevertheless, one historian labelled it "perhaps the most unjust, unnecessary and calamitous enterprise ever undertaken by the Capetian monarchy.".[5] On 26 June 1285, Philip III the Bold entrenched himself before Girona in an attempt to besiege the city. Despite the strong resistance, the French took Girona on 7 September 1285.

Philip quickly experienced a reversal, however, as an epidemic of dysentery hit hard the French camp. The disease afflicted king Philip III personally. The French retreated, and the Aragonese enemy handily defeated the French at the Battle of the Col de Panissars on 1 October 1285.

Philip III died in dysentery in Perpignan, the capital of his ally James II of Majorca, on 5 October 1285. His son, Philip IV of France the Fair, succeeded him as king of France. The attempt of Philip to conquer Aragon nearly bankrupted the French monarchy, causing challenges for his successor.[6]

Survivors buried king Philip in Narbonne. His body currently lies with that of his wife Isabella of Aragon, Queen of France, in Basilica of St Denis in Paris.

Review from Dante[edit]

In Divine Comedy, Dante envisions the spirit of Philip outside the gates of Purgatory with a number of other contemporary European rulers. Dante does not name Philip directly, but refers to him as "the small-nosed"[7] and "the father of the Pest of France," a reference to king Philip IV of France.

Marriage and children[edit]

French Monarchy
Direct Capetians
Arms of the Kingdom of France (Ancien).svg
Philip III
   Louis of France
   Philip IV
   Charles, Count of Valois
   Louis, Count of Évreux
   Blanche, Duchess of Austria
   Margaret of France, Queen of England

On 28 May 1262, Philip married Isabella of Aragon, Queen of France, daughter of King James I of Aragon and his second wife Yolande of Hungary.[8] They had the following children:

  1. Louis of France (1264–1276) (died May 1276). He was poisoned, possibly by orders of his stepmother.
  2. Philip IV of France (1268 – 29 November 1314), his successor, married Joan I of Navarre
  3. Robert (1269–1271)
  4. Charles, Count of Valois (12 March 1270 – 16 December 1325), Count of Valois from 1284, married first to Margaret of Anjou in 1290, second to Catherine I of Courtenay in 1302, and last to Mahaut of Chatillon in 1308
  5. Stillborn son (1271)

After death of queen consort Isabella, he married on 21 August 1274 Marie of Brabant, Queen of France, daughter of the late Henry III, Duke of Brabant, and Adelaide of Burgundy, Duchess of Brabant. Their children were:

  1. Louis, Count of Évreux (May 1276 – 19 May 1319), Count of Évreux from 1298, married Margaret of Artois
  2. Blanche of France, Duchess of Austria (1278 – 19 March 1305, Vienna), married the duke, the future king Rudolf I of Bohemia and Poland, on 25 May 1300.
  3. Margaret of France, Queen of England (1282 – 14 February 1318), married king Edward I of England on 8 September 1299

Ancestry[edit]

Honours[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Elizabeth M. Hallam, Capetian France: 987-1328, (Longman House, 1980), 275.
  2. ^ Jim Bradbury, The Capetians: The History of a Dynasty, (Continuum, 2007), 237.
  3. ^ The disease in question was either dysentery or typhus; Riley-Smith 2005, pp. 210–211
  4. ^ Jim Bradbury, The Capetians: The History of a Dynasty, 239.
  5. ^ Chaytor, p 105.
  6. ^ Jonathan Sumption, The Hundred Years War:Trial by Battle, Vol. I, (Faber and Faber Limited, 1990), 24.
  7. ^ Philip III, Yolanda de Pontfarcy, The Dante Encyclopedia, ed. Richard Lansing, (Routledge, 2010), 691.
  8. ^ Philip III the Bold, William Chester Jordan, Medieval France: An Encyclopedia, ed. William W. Kibler and Grover A. Zinn, (Routledge, 2007), 727.

Sources[edit]

Philip III of France
Born: 30 April 1245 Died: 5 October 1285
French nobility
Vacant
Royal Domain
Title last held by
Hugh Capet
Count of Orléans Vacant
Royal Domain
Title next held by
Duke of Orléans
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Louis IX
King of France
25 August 1270 – 5 October 1285
Succeeded by
Philip IV