R1 (New York City Subway car)
|R1 (New York City Subway car)|
|Manufacturer||American Car and Foundry Company|
|Built at||Berwick, Pennsylvania|
|Formation||motorized single units (Half-width operator's cab at each end; conductor controls on exterior)|
|Operator||Independent Subway System
New York City Transit Authority
|Car body construction||Riveted steel|
|Car length||60 ft 6 in (18.44 m)|
|Width||10 ft 0 in (3.05 m)|
|Height||12 ft 1.9375 in (3.71 m)|
|Floor height||3 ft 1.875 in (0.96 m)|
|Maximum speed||55 mph (89 km/h)|
|Weight||84,081 lb (38,139 kg)|
|Traction system||Westinghouse ABF type UP143B switch group, with XM-29 master controller using Westinghouse 570 D-5 traction motors (190 hp each). Two motors per car (both on motor truck, trailer truck not motorized).|
|Power output||190 hp (142 kW) per traction motor|
|Acceleration||1.75 mph/s (2.82 km/(h·s))|
|Electric system(s)||600 V DC Third rail|
|Current collection method||Contact shoe (Top running)|
WABCO Schedule AMUE with UE-5 universal valve, ME-23 brake stand, and simplex clasp brake rigging.(Air Compressor: WABCO D-3-F)
|Coupling system||WABCO H2A|
|Track gauge||4 ft 8 1⁄2 in (1,435 mm)|
The R1 was the first New York City Subway car type built for the IND. 300 cars were manufactured between 1930 and 1931 by the American Car and Foundry Company, numbered 100 through 399. Future passenger stock orders – including contracts R4, R6, R7, R7A, and R9 – were virtually identical, with minor mechanical and cosmetic variations. Therefore, these car classes are frequently referred to collectively as Arnines, or R1-9s.
The R1s were also specifically sometimes referred to as City Cars.
They introduced several improvements to subway car design that greatly sped up the flow of passengers in and out of trains.
Service History and Preservation
The first R1 cars to see passenger service were twenty individual cars to serve for two 8 car trains plus spares that were placed in revenue service on the BMT Sea Beach Line from July to November, 1931 for testing and then returned to the IND the same year. The BMT was to have been paid by the City of New York for the testing but since they were fairly extensively used in service (made up as two 8-car trains), the BMT and City called it even.
Most R1s were retired between 1969 and 1970 and were replaced by the R42s, but some remained past 1970 until those cars were retired and replaced by the R44s. Following their removal from service, the majority of the fleet was scrapped. Few cars remained as work cars and were used until the 1980s. Several other cars have been preserved and remain today, including:
- Car 100 has been restored and is on display at the New York Transit Museum. It is the first car of the Arnine fleet, numerically.
- Car 103 has been preserved by Railway Preservation Corp. and is currently undergoing restoration at 207th Street Yard.
- Car 381 has been preserved by Railway Preservation Corp. and has been restored. It is currently stored at 207th Street Yard.
Car 175 is at the Seashore Trolley Museum, but is used only for storage. It does not have trucks, and two of its side doors were donated to R4 #401 which has been preserved by Railway Preservation Corp. and restored.
The R1s were the first "R" type contract order (referring to the practice of naming a car class by the letter "R" - which stands for revenue - followed by a number derived from the actual contract number). Note: The R2 contract order was for trucks and motors for the R1 fleet. In 1930, each new car cost $39,201: $30,483 for the carbody under contract R1, and $8,718 for trucks and motors under contract R2.
- Gene Sansone, New York Subways: An Illustrated History of New York City's Transit Cars, ISBN 0-8018-7922-1, pp. 179 - 189