Robert H. Barrow
|Robert H. Barrow|
27th Commandant of the Marine Corps (1979–1983)
February 5, 1922|
Baton Rouge, Louisiana, U.S.
|Died||October 30, 2008
St. Francisville, Louisiana, U.S.
|Allegiance||United States of America|
|Service/branch||United States Marine Corps|
|Years of service||1942–1983|
|Commands held||Commandant of the Marine Corps|
|Battles/wars||World War II
* Battle of Inchon
* Battle of Chosin Reservoir
* Operation Dewey Canyon
Distinguished Service Cross
Defense Distinguished Service Medal
Distinguished Service Medal
Legion of Merit (3)
Bronze Star with Combat "V" (2)
|Other work||Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board|
Robert Hilliard Barrow (February 5, 1922 – October 30, 2008) was an American general, who was the 27th Commandant of the United States Marine Corps (USMC) from 1979 to 1983. Barrow served for 41 years, including overseas command duty in three wars. He was awarded the Navy Cross for actions during the Korean War and the Distinguished Service Cross for actions during the Vietnam War.
Barrow was born on February 5, 1922, in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, and grew up on his family’s Rosale Plantation in West Feliciana Parish, Louisiana. The family’s circumstances were difficult. They had no electricity, so Barrow satisfied an early passion for reading by using a kerosene lamp.
Because it offered free tuition and low boarding costs, Barrow attended Louisiana State University from 1939 to 1942, working as a waiter and a janitor and served in the university's Corps of Cadets.
World War II
In 1942, Barrow left the university early to join the Marine Corps. He attended recruit training at Marine Corps Recruit Depot San Diego and was retained as a Drill Instructor after his graduation. While serving on the drill field, he was selected to attend Officer Candidate School in February 1943. He was commissioned a second lieutenant on May 19, 1943.
During World War II, Barrow served with the Sino-American Cooperative Organization which was a U.S. trained and equipped Chinese guerilla team in Japanese-occupied Central China. For his service, he was awarded the Bronze Star with Combat V.
During the Korean War, Barrow commanded Company A, 1st Battalion 1st Marines in the Inchon-Seoul campaign and in the Chosin Reservoir campaign. For his heroism in holding a pass near Koto-ri on December 9–10, 1950, he was awarded the Navy Cross.
In February 1956, Barrow began an 18-month tour with the 2nd Battalion, 6th Marines at Camp Lejeune, North Carolina. From the summer of 1957 to the summer of 1960, he served as the Marine Officer Instructor, at the Tulane University Naval Reserve Officer Training Corps.In September 1959, he was promoted to lieutenant colonel.
Colonel Barrow graduated from the National War College in June 1968.
After graduating from the National War College, Barrow served in Vietnam, as Commanding Officer, 9th Marines, 3rd Marine Division (Rein) and as Deputy G-3, III Marine Amphibious Force. While in command of the 9th Marines, the regiment saw combat near the DMZ, Khe Sanh, Da Krong Valley, and A Shau Valley. He received the Army Distinguished Service Cross for his extraordinary heroism in Operation Dewey Canyon.
- Distinguished Cross citation
Barrow's Distinguished Service Cross citation reads:
- The President of the United States takes pleasure in presenting the Distinguished Service Cross to Robert H. Barrow (0-23471), Colonel, U.S. Marine Corps, for extraordinary heroism in connection with military operations involving conflict with an armed hostile force in the Republic of Vietnam, while serving with Headquarters, Ninth Marine Regiment, THIRD Marine Division (Reinforced). Colonel Barrow distinguished himself by exceptionally valorous actions during the period from 22 January to 18 March 1969 while commanding a regiment in Operation DEWEY CANYON in Quang Tri Province. Throughout the eight-week campaign in the Da Krong and A Shau Valleys, Colonel Barrow remained with the forward elements of his command, directing their insertion into enemy-held territory. Despite adverse flying conditions, he made numerous low-level reconnaissance flights in his command helicopter. Under his supervision, his troops swept the determined North Vietnamese forces back to the Laotian border, decimating countless fortifications and base camps and confiscating prodigious quantities of communist weapons and munitions. Despite the continuous hostile artillery and rocket bombardment of his command post, he persisted in retaining his position in close proximity to the enemy activity. During one concentrated attack on his post, he repeatedly exposed himself to the withering hostile fusillade in order to direct the repulsion of the enemy. After the two-month operation, his regiment confirmed over one thousand three hundred dead and accounted for tremendous amounts of captured North Vietnamese equipment. Colonel Barrow's extraordinary heroism and devotion to duty were in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit, and the United States Marine Corps.
General officer; Commandant
In August 1969, he was promoted to brigadier general, then deployed to Japan to serve as Commanding General at Camp Butler in Okinawa, Japan. He received a Legion of Merit for his three years of service as CG and left Okinawa as a major general select. On promotion to major general, he became Commanding General, Marine Corps Recruit Depot, Parris Island.
He was promoted to lieutenant general in 1975 and assigned to Headquarters Marine Corps as Deputy Chief of Staff for Manpower. In 1976, he was named Commanding General, Fleet Marine Force, Atlantic, at Norfolk, Virginia. In July 1978, Barrow became the Assistant Commandant of the Marine Corps serving until July 1979, when he became the Commandant of the Marine Corps. From 1978 to 1979, Barrow served as President of the Marine Corps Association.
General Barrow was the first Commandant to serve, by law, as regular full member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. As Commandant, "he was instrumental in acquiring approval of production for the Marine Corps of the American-modified Harrier aircraft, in awakening interest in new and improved naval gunfire support, in getting amphibious ships included in the Navy's new construction programs, and in returning hospital ships to the fleet, especially on station with Marine Corps amphibious task forces."
General Barrow retired from the Marine Corps on 30 June 1983, and was presented with the Distinguished Service Medal on retirement.
General Barrow's medals and decorations included:
|1st Row||Navy Cross||Distinguished Service Cross||Office of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Identification Badge|
|2nd Row||Defense Distinguished Service Medal w/ 2 oak leaf clusters||Navy Distinguished Service Medal||Silver Star||Legion of Merit w/ 3 stars|
|3rd Row||Bronze Star w/ valor device & 1 star||Joint Service Commendation Medal w/ 1 oak leaf cluster||Combat Action Ribbon||Navy Presidential Unit Citation w/1 star|
|4th Row||Army Presidential Unit Citation||Navy Unit Commendation||Navy Meritorious Unit Commendation w/ 1 star||China Service Medal|
|5th Row||American Campaign Medal||Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal w/ 1 star||World War II Victory Medal||National Defense Service Medal w/ 1 star|
|6th Row||Korean Service Medal w/ 4 stars||Vietnam Service Medal w/4 stars||National Order of Vietnam, Knight degree||Vietnam Gallantry Cross w/ 2 palms|
|7th Row||Korean Presidential Unit Citation||Vietnam Gallantry Cross Unit Citation||United Nations Korea Medal||Vietnam Campaign Medal|
After General Barrow's retirement from the Marine Corps, he was appointed by President Ronald Reagan to the Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board and to the president's Blue Ribbon Commission on Defense Management.
In 1983, a letter from Barrow to Caspar W. Weinberger was released by the Pentagon. In the letter, Barrow criticized Israeli soldiers in Lebanon, saying that the Israelis were firing on U.S. troops, among other things. Israel denied the charges.
Barrow’s wife of 53 years, Patty, died in 2005.
Death and funeral
General Barrow died on October 30, 2008 at the age of 86. He was survived by his sons Charles C. Pulliam, of Greenville, South Carolina and Robert H. Barrow, a retired lieutenant colonel of Marines, of Tampa, Florida; his daughters Cathleen P. Harmon, of Killeen, Texas, Barbara B. Kanegaye, of Houston, Texas and Mary B. Hannigan, of Oakton, Virginia, eleven grandchildren and five great-grandchildren. General Barrow was buried with full military honors on November 3, 2008. The service was held at Grace Episcopal Church and Cemetery in St. Francisville, the seat of West Feliciana Parish, Louisiana. The Commandant of the Marine Corps, General James T. Conway delivered the eulogy, recognizing Barrow for his many initiatives ranging from recruiting to training; while former Commandant General Carl Mundy presenting the burial colors to Barrow’s next of kin.
- List of Korean Conflict Bronze Star recipients
- List of United States Marine Corps four-star generals
- Martin, Douglas (October 31, 2008). "Robert Barrow, a Marine Corps Reformer Who Became Commandant, Dies at 86". The New York Times.
- Barrow enlisted in 1942 and was commissioned in 1943.
- Martin, Douglas (October 31, 2008). "Robert Barrow, A Marine Corps Reformer Who Became Commandant, Dies At 86". New York Times. p. B10.
- "General Robert H. Barrow" (PDF). Office of Public Affairs, LSU. Retrieved 2008-01-26. Unknown parameter
- Barrow received an honorary doctorate of science from LSU in 1990.
- "General Robert H. Barrow, USMC". Who's Who in Marine Corps History. United States Marine Corps History Division. Retrieved November 11, 2008.
- Camp, Richard D. (2006). Leatherneck Legends – Conversations with the Marine Corps' Old Breed. Zenith Press. pp. 84–87. ISBN 0-7603-2157-4. OCLC 64743738.
- "U.S. Marine Corps Recipients - Vietnam". Full Text Citations For Award of The Distinguished Service Cross. HomeofHeroes.com. Retrieved 12 January 2009.
- "Marine Corps Association Presidents & Chairmen of the Board (1976–2006)" (PDF). Marine Corps Association. Retrieved 12 January 2009.[dead link]
- "Appointment of General Robert H. Barrow as a Member of the President's Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board". Ronald Reagan Presidential Library. January 6, 1984. Retrieved 2006-11-19.
- Lamothe, Dan (October 31, 2008). "Former commandant Barrow dies at 86". Marine Corp Times. Retrieved November 1, 2008.
- Labranche, Cpl. Frans E. (November 4, 2008). "Marine Corps honor 27th commandant". Marine Corps News (United States Marine Corps). Retrieved November 8, 2008.[dead link]
Gen. Louis H. Wilson, Jr.
|Commandant of the United States Marine Corps
Gen. Paul X. Kelley