|Member of Parliament
15 October 1964 – 18 June 1970
|Preceded by||Frank Markham|
|Succeeded by||William Benyon|
|Born||Ján Ludvík Hyman Binyamin Hoch
10 June 1923
Slatinské Doly, Czechoslovak Republic
|Died||5 November 1991
Sea around Canary Islands
|Spouse(s)||Elisabeth Meynard Maxwell (m. 1946–1991)|
Philip (b. 1948)
Ann (b. 1949)
Christine, (b. 1951)
Isabel (b. 1951)
Ian (b. 1956)
Kevin (b. 1959)
Ghislaine (b.25 December 1961)
|Occupation||Publisher, media proprietor|
Ian Robert Maxwell, MC (10 June 1923 – 5 November 1991) was a Czechoslovakian-born British media proprietor and Member of Parliament (MP). He rose from poverty to build an extensive publishing empire. His death revealed huge discrepancies in his companies' finances, including the Mirror Group pension fund, which Maxwell had fraudulently misappropriated.
He escaped from Nazi occupation, joining the Czechoslovak Army in exile in World War II and then fighting in the British Army where he was decorated. After the war he worked in publishing, building up Pergamon Press to a major publishing house. After six years as an MP during the 1960s, he again put all his energy into business, successively buying the British Printing Corporation, Mirror Group Newspapers and Macmillan, Inc, among other publishing companies.
He had a flamboyant lifestyle, living in Headington Hill Hall in Oxford from which he often flew in his helicopter, and sailing in his luxury yacht, the Lady Ghislaine. He was notably litigious and often embroiled in controversy, including about his support for Israel at the time of its War of Independence in 1948. In 1989, he had to sell successful businesses including Pergamon Press to cover some of his enormous debts, and in 1991 he was found dead, floating in the Atlantic Ocean having apparently fallen overboard from his yacht. He was given what amounted to a state funeral in Israel.
His death triggered the collapse of his publishing empire as banks called in loans. His sons briefly struggled to keep the business together, but failed as the news emerged that Maxwell had stolen hundreds of millions of pounds from his own companies' pension funds. The Maxwell companies applied for bankruptcy protection in 1992.
Robert Maxwell was born Ján Ludvík Hyman Binyamin Hoch into a poor Yiddish-speaking orthodox Jewish family in the small town of Slatinské Doly (now Solotvino, Ukraine), in the easternmost province of (pre-World War II) Czechoslovakia. His parents were Mechel Hoch and Hannah Slomowitz. He had six siblings. In 1939, the area was reclaimed by Hungary. Most members of his family died in Auschwitz after Hungary was occupied in 1944, by its former ally, Nazi Germany, but he had already escaped to France. In Marseille he joined the Czechoslovak Army in exile in May 1940.
After the defeat in France and the retreat to Great Britain, Maxwell took part in the protest against the leadership of the Czechoslovak Army, and with 500 other soldiers, he was transferred to the British Pioneer Corps, and later to the North Staffordshire Regiment in 1943. He was then involved in action across Europe, from the Normandy beaches to Berlin, and achieved the rank of sergeant. He gained a commission in 1945, and was promoted to captain. In January 1945, he received the Military Cross from Field Marshal Montgomery. Attached to the British Foreign Office, he served in Berlin during the next two years in the press section.
In 1945, he married Elisabeth "Betty" Meynard; a French Protestant, with whom he had nine children, with the goal of "recreating the family he lost in the Holocaust". Five of his children were later employed within his companies. His three-year-old daughter Karine died of leukemia and his eldest son, Michael, was severely injured in 1961 (at the age of 15), after being driven home from a post-Christmas party when his driver fell asleep at the wheel. Michael never regained consciousness and died seven years later.
After the war he used various contacts in the Allied occupation authorities to go into business, becoming the British and United States distributor for Springer Verlag, a publisher of scientific books. In 1951 he bought three quarters of Butterworth-Springer, a minor publisher; the remaining quarter was held by the experienced scientific editor Paul Rosbaud. They changed the name of the company to Pergamon Press and rapidly built it into a major publishing house.
In 1964, representing the Labour Party, he was elected as Member of Parliament (MP) for Buckingham, and re-elected in 1966. He gave an interview to The Times in 1968, in which he said the House of Commons provided him with a problem. "I can't get on with men", he commented. "I tried having male assistants at first. But it didn't work. They tend to be too independent. Men like to have individuality. Women can become an extension of the boss." Maxwell lost his seat in 1970 to the Conservative William Benyon.
At the beginning of 1969, it emerged that Maxwell's attempt to buy the News of the World had failed. The Carr family, which owned the title, had been incensed at the thought of a Czech immigrant with socialist politics gaining ownership, and the company's board had voted against his bid without any dissent. The News of the World's editor Stafford Somerfield wrote about the corporate disquiet in an October 1968 front page leader article, in which he referred to Maxwell's Czech origins and used his birth name. "This is a British paper, run by British people," he wrote. "Let us keep it that way." The tycoon who had gained control was the Australian Rupert Murdoch, who later the same year acquired The Sun, which had also interested Maxwell.
Pergamon lost and regained
In 1969 Saul Steinberg, head of "Leasco Data Processing Corporation", was interested in a strategic acquisition of Pergamon. Steinberg claimed that during negotiations Maxwell had falsely stated that a subsidiary responsible for publishing encyclopedias was extremely profitable. At the same time, Pergamon had been forced to reduce its profit forecasts for 1969 from £21 million to £2.05 million during the period of negotiations, and dealing in Pergamon shares was suspended on the London stock markets.
This caused Maxwell to lose control of Pergamon, and he was expelled from the board in October 1969, along with three other directors in sympathy with him, by the majority owners of the company's shares. Steinberg purchased Pergamon. An inquiry by the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) under the Takeover Code of the time reported in mid-1971: "We regret having to conclude that, notwithstanding Mr Maxwell's acknowledged abilities and energy, he is not in our opinion a person who can be relied on to exercise proper stewardship of a publicly quoted company." It was found that Maxwell had contrived to maximise Pergamon's share price through transactions between his private family companies.
At the same time, the U.S. Congress was investigating Leasco's takeover practices. Justice Forbes in September 1971 was critical of the inquiry: "They had moved from an inquisitorial role to accusatory one and virtually committed the business murder of Mr. Maxwell." He further continued that the trial judge would probably find that the "inspectors had acted contrary to the rules of national justice."  The company performed poorly under Steinberg; Maxwell reacquired Pergamon in 1974 after borrowing funds.
Maxwell established the Maxwell Foundation in Liechtenstein in 1970. He acquired the British Printing Corporation (BPC) in 1981, and changed its name to the British Printing and Communication Corporation (BPCC) and then to the Maxwell Communications Corporation. The company was later sold in a management buy-out, and is now known as Polestar.
Later business activities
In July 1984, Maxwell acquired Mirror Group Newspapers from Reed International plc. for £113million. MGN, now part of Trinity Mirror, published the Daily Mirror, a pro-Labour Party tabloid, and other popular newspapers in England and Scotland. At a press conference to publicise his acquisition, Maxwell said his editors would be "free to produce the news without interference". Meanwhile, at a meeting of Maxwell's new employees, Mirror journalist Joe Haines asserted that he was able to prove that their boss "is a crook and a liar". Haines quickly came under Maxwell's influence and later wrote his authorised biography.
In June 1985, Maxwell announced a takeover of Sir Clive Sinclair's ailing home computer company, Sinclair Research, through Hollis Brothers, a Pergamon Press subsidiary. The deal was aborted in August 1985. In 1987 Maxwell purchased part of IPC Media to create Fleetway Publications. That same year he launched the London Daily News in February, after a delay caused by production problems, but the paper closed in July after sustaining significant losses contemporary estimates put at £25million. At first intended to be a rival to the Evening Standard, Maxwell had made a rash decision for it to be the first 24 hour paper as well.
By 1988, Maxwell's various companies owned, in addition to the Mirror titles and Pergamon Press, Nimbus Records, Macmillan, Inc (of which Collier books was a part), Maxwell Directories, Prentice Hall Information Services, and the Berlitz language schools. He also owned a half-share of MTV in Europe and other European television interests, Maxwell Cable TV and Maxwell Entertainment. Maxwell had purchased Macmillan, Inc, the American publishing firm, during the course of 1988 for $2.6 billion. In the same year he launched an ambitious new project, a transnational newspaper called The European. In 1991, he was forced to sell Pergamon Press and Maxwell Directories to Elsevier for £440 million to cover his debts; he used some of this money to buy an ailing tabloid, the New York Daily News. Also in 1991, Maxwell sold 49% of the stock of Mirror Group Newspapers to the public.
Maxwell's links with Eastern European totalitarian regimes resulted in several biographies (generally considered to be hagiographies) of those countries' then leaders, with interviews conducted by Maxwell, for which he received much derision. At the beginning of an interview with Romania's Nicolae Ceaușescu, then the country's Communist leader, he asked: "How do you account for your enormous popularity with the Rumanian people?"
Maxwell was also the chairman of Oxford United Football Club, saving them from bankruptcy and attempting to merge them with Reading in 1983 to form a club he wished to call "Thames Valley Royals". He look Oxford into the top flight of English football in 1985, and the team won the League Cup a year later. Maxwell bought into Derby County F.C. in 1987. He also attempted to buy Manchester United in 1984, but refused owner Martin Edwards's asking price.
Maxwell was known to be litigious against those who would speak or write against him. The satirical magazine Private Eye lampooned him as "Cap'n Bob" and the "bouncing Czech", the latter nickname having originally been devised by Prime Minister Harold Wilson (under whom Maxwell was an MP). Maxwell took out several libel actions against Private Eye, one resulting in the magazine losing an estimated £225,000 and Maxwell using his commercial power to hit back with a one-off spoof magazine Not Private Eye.
On 5 November 1991, he was last in contact with the crew of the Lady Ghislaine, his luxury yacht, at 4:25 am local time, but was found to be missing later in the morning. Maxwell was presumed to have fallen overboard from the vessel which was cruising off the Canary Islands, and his naked body was subsequently recovered from the Atlantic Ocean. The official ruling at a Madrid inquest held in December 1991 was death by a heart attack combined with accidental drowning, although three pathologists had been unable to agree on the cause of his death at the inquest; he had been found to have been suffering from serious heart and lung conditions. Murder was ruled out by the judge and, in effect, so was suicide. He was buried on the Mount of Olives in Jerusalem.
Then Prime Minister, John Major, said Maxwell had given him "valuable insights" into the situation in the Soviet Union during the attempted coup. He was a "great character", Major added. Neil Kinnock, then Labour Party leader, spoke of him as a man with "a zest for life" who "attracted controversy, envy and loyalty in great measure throughout his rumbustious life."
Production crew researching for Maxwell, an eponymous biographical film by the BBC, uncovered tapes stored in a suitcase owned by Maxwell's former head of security John Pole. Later in his life, Maxwell had become increasingly paranoid of his own employees and had the offices of those he suspected of disloyalty wired so he could hear their conversations. After Maxwell's death, the tapes remained in Pole's suitcase and were only discovered by the researchers in 2007.
Shortly before Maxwell's death, a former employee of Israel's Military Intelligence Directorate intelligence agency Ari Ben-Menashe, had approached a number of news organisations in Britain and the United States with the allegation that Maxwell and the Daily Mirror's foreign editor, Nicholas Davies, were both long-time agents for Mossad. Ben-Menashe also claimed that in 1986 Maxwell had told the Israeli Embassy in London that Mordechai Vanunu had given information about Israel's nuclear capability to The Sunday Times, then to the Daily Mirror. Vanunu was subsequently kidnapped by Mossad and smuggled to Israel, convicted of treason and imprisoned for 18 years.
No news organisation would publish Ben-Menashe's story at first but eventually The New Yorker journalist Seymour Hersh repeated some of the allegations during a press conference in London held to publicise The Samson Option, Hersh's book about Israel's nuclear weapons. On 21 October 1991, two Members of Parliament, Labour MP George Galloway and Conservative MP Rupert Allason (also known as espionage author Nigel West) agreed to raise the issue in the House of Commons (under Parliamentary Privilege protection,) which in turn allowed British newspapers to report events without fear of libel suits. Maxwell called the claims "ludicrous, a total invention", and sacked Nicholas Davies, known also as Nick Davies.
A hint of Maxwell's service to the Israeli state was provided by Loftus and Aarons, who described Maxwell's contacts with Czech anti-Stalinist Communist leaders in 1948 as crucial to the Czech decision to arm Israel in their War of Independence that year. Czech military assistance was both unique and crucial for the fledgling state as it battled for its existence. It was Maxwell's covert help in smuggling aircraft parts into Israel that led to the Jewish state having air supremacy during their 1948 War of Independence. Jewish leaders were also grateful for Maxwell's intervention and material help in securing the freedom and immigration between 1988–1991 of over one million Russian Jews through his friendship with Mikhail Gorbachev.
Others have linked Shamir's cryptic statement to Maxwell's having told the Israeli government that Mordechai Vanunu had leaked details of Israel's secret nuclear weapons programme to Maxwell's Sunday Mirror newspaper, prompting them to kidnap Vanunu.
Aftermath; collapse of a publishing empire
Maxwell's death triggered a flood of instability with banks frantically calling in their massive loans. His two sons Kevin and Ian struggled to hold the empire together, but were unable to prevent its collapse. It emerged that, without adequate prior authorisation, Maxwell had used hundreds of millions of pounds from his companies' pension funds to shore up the shares of the Mirror Group, to save his companies from bankruptcy. Eventually, the pension funds were replenished with monies from investment banks Shearson Lehman and Goldman Sachs, as well as the British government.
This replenishment was limited and also supported by a surplus in the printers' fund which was taken by the government in part payment of £100m required to support the workers' State Pension. The rest of the £100m was waived. Maxwell's theft of pension funds was, therefore, partly repaid from public funds. The result was that, in general, pensioners received about 50% of their company pension entitlement.
The Maxwell companies filed for bankruptcy protection in 1992. Kevin Maxwell was declared bankrupt with debts of £400 million. In 1995, Kevin and Ian Maxwell, and two other former directors, went on trial for conspiracy to defraud, but were unanimously acquitted by a twelve-man jury in 1996.
In 1994, Robert Maxwell's wife Elisabeth published her memoirs, A Mind of Her Own, which sheds light on her life with Maxwell when the publishing magnate was ranked as one of the richest people in the world. She had devoted much of her life to researching the Holocaust and to Judeo-Christian dialogue. She died on 7 August 2013.
- Maxwell, through his software company Mirrorsoft, played a role in the acquisition of the video game Tetris from its developers in the Soviet Union and its eventual marketing and sale in the West.
- A BBC drama titled Maxwell covering his life shortly before his death starring David Suchet was aired on 4 May 2007.
- Haines, Joe (1988). Maxwell. London: Futura. pp. 434 et seq. ISBN 0-7088-4303-4.
- Марк Штейнберг. Евреи в войнах тысячелетий. p. 227. ISBN 5-93273-154-0 (Russian)
- Иван Мащенко (7–13 September 2002). "Медиа-олигарх из Солотвина". Зеркало недели (in Russian) (#34 (409))
- Craig R. Whitney "Robert Maxwell, 68: From Refugee to the Ruthless Builder of a Publishing Empire", New York Times, 6 November 1991, [p.5]
- Ludvík Hoch (Maxwell) in the database of Central Military Archive in Prague
- Alex Witchell (1995-02-15). "Interview with Elisabeth Maxwell". New York Times. Retrieved 2013-10-31.
- Maxwell: The final verdict
- "A mind of my own" by Elisabeth Maxwell
- "Free Research Papers – Information Intelligence, 1991". free-researchpapers.com. 1999-03-28. Retrieved 2013-10-31.
- "Maxwell was a monster – but much more, too". telegraph.co.uk. 2013-05-02. Retrieved 2013-10-31.
- Haines (1988) 135
- Cited by Sandra Barwick "The beast and his beauties", The Independent, 25 October 1994
- "1969: Murdoch wins Fleet Street foothold", BBC On this Day 2 January
- Roy Greenslade Press Gang: How Newspapers Make Profits From Propaganda, London: Pan, 2004 , p.395
- Bill Grundy "The Press: Mr Maxwell and the Ailing Giant", The Spectator, 24 October 1968, p.6
- "The Maxwell Murdoch tabloid rivalry", BBC News, 5 November 2011
- Dennis Barker and Christopher Sylvester "The grasshopper", – Obituary of Maxwell, The Guardian, 6 November 1991. Retrieved on 19 July 2007.
- Nicholas Davenport "Money Wanted: A Board of Trade inquiry", The Spectator, 29 August 1969, p.24
- Nicholas Davenport "Money: The End of the Affair", The Spectator, 17 October 1969, p.22
- Betty Maxwell, p. 542
- "Robert Maxwell: Overview", keputa.net
- "Briton Buys the Mirror Chain", New York Times, 14 July 1984
- Roy Greenslade Press Gang: How Newspapers Make Profits From Propaganda, London: Pan, 2004 , p.395
- "Say It Ain't So, Joe", The Spectator, 22 February 1992, p.15
- Roy Greenslade Press Gang, p.395
- "Sinclair to Sell British Unit". The New York Times. 18 June 1985. Retrieved 4 December 2009.
- "Sinclair: A Corporate History". Planet Sinclair. Retrieved 4 December 2009.
- "Maxwell Closes London Paper", Glasgow Herald, 25 July 1987, p.3
- Duncan Campbell "The London legacy of Cap'n Bob", The Guardian, 28 August 2006
- David Ellis and Sidney Urquhart "Maxwell's Hall of Shame", Time, 8 April 1991
- Editorial: "Breaking the Spell", The Spectator, 21 December 1991, p.3
- "", Headington History
- Reuters "Murdoch conclusion stirs memories of his old foe Maxwell", Chicago Tribune, 1 May 2012
- "Not Private Eye", Tony Quinn, Magforum.com, 6 March 2007
- Ben Laurance and John Hooper, et al "Maxwell's body found in sea", The Guardian, 6 November 1991
- "Robert Maxwell: A Profile". BBC News. 29 March 2001. Retrieved 4 April 2009.
- Robert Verkaik "The Mystery of Maxwell's Death", The Independent, 10 March 2006
- Larry Eichel "Maxwell's Legacy Of Money Troubles Maxwell's Own Daily Mirror Newspaper Now Routinely Calls Him 'The Cheating Tycoon'", Philadelphia Inquirer, 14 December 1991
- Marlise Simons "Autopsy Indicates Maxwell Did Not Drown", New York Times, 12 December 1991
- Clyde Haberman "The Media Business; Maxwell Is Buried In Jerusalem", New York Times, 11 November 1991
- "BBC reveals secret Maxwell tapes". BBC. 25 April 2007.
- which allows MPs to ask questions in Parliament without risk of being sued for defamation
- John Loftus and Mark Aarons, The Secret War Against the Jews.
- MacIntyre, Ben (1 January 1995). "A Match for Robert Maxwell". The New York Times. Retrieved 22 May 2010.
- Roy Greenslade, "Betty, Robert Maxwell's widow, dies aged 92" in The Guardian (9 August 2013)
- Frost, Caroline (2004-02-12). "Tetris: A chip off the old bloc". BBC News. Retrieved 2013-10-31.
- "Suchet in title role of BBC Two's Maxwell". bbc.co.uk. 2007-02-16. Retrieved 2013-10-31.
- Short BBC profile of Robert Maxwell
- Department of Trade and Industry report on Maxwell's purchase of the Mirror Group
- Hersh, Seymour. 1991. The Samson Option
- Thomas, Gordon and Dillon, Martin. (2002). Robert Maxwell: Israel's Superspy : The Life and Murder of a Media Mogul, Carroll and Graf, ISBN 0-7867-1078-0
- Henderson, Albert, (2004) The Dash and Determination of Robert Maxwell, Champion of Dissemination, LOGOS. 15,2, pp. 65–75.
- A book by Martin Dillon, The Assassination of Robert Maxwell, Israeli Superspy
- Joe Haines (1988) Maxwell, Houghton Mifflin, ISBN 0-395-48929-6 .
- Robert N. Miranda (2001) Robert Maxwell: Forty-four years as Publisher, in E.H. Frederiksson ed., A Century of Science Publishing, IOS Press ISBN 1-58603-148-1
- Bower Tom Maxwell the final verdict Harper Collins 1996 ISBN 0-00-638424-2
- Bower Tom Maxwell the outsider
- Roy Greenslade (1992) "Maxwell: The Rise and Fall of Robert Maxwell and His Empire," ISBN 1-55972-123-5
- Roy Greenslade (2011) Pension plunderer Robert Maxwell remembered 20 years after his death. The Guardian, 3 November 2011. Accessed 20 October 2013</ref>
- Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Robert Maxwell
|Parliament of the United Kingdom|
|Member of Parliament for Buckingham