The Śailēndras were active promoters of Mahayana Buddhism and covered the Kedu Plain of Central Java with Buddhist monuments, one of the construction results is the colossal monument of Borobudur, which was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1991.
The Śailēndras are considered to be a thalassocracy and ruled maritime Southeast Asia, however they also relied on agriculture pursuits through intensive rice cultivation on the Kedu Plain of Central Java. The dynasty appeared to be the ruling family of both the Medang Kingdom of Central Java for some period and Srivijaya in Sumatra.
The inscriptions created by Śailēndras uses three languages; Old Malay, Old Javanese and Sanskrit, written either in the Kawi alphabet or pre-Nāgarī script. The use of Old Malay has sparked the speculation of a Sumatran origin or Srivijayan connection of this family; on the other hand, the use of Old Javanese suggests their firm political establishment on Java. The use of Sanskrit usually signifies the official nature and religious significance of the event written on the inscription.
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The Sojomerto inscription (c. 725) discovered in Batang Regency, Central Java, mentioned the name Dapunta Selendra and Selendranamah. The name 'Selendra' was another spelling of Śailēndra, suggested that Dapunta Selendra was the progenitor of Śailēndra family in Central Java. The inscription is Shivaist in nature, which suggests that the family was probably initially Hindu Shivaist before convert to Mahayana Buddhism.
The earliest dated inscription in Indonesia in which clearly mentioned the dynastic name of Śailēndra as Śailēndravamśatilaka appears is the Kalasan inscription (778) of central Java, which commemorates the establishment of a Buddhist shrine for the Buddhist goddess Tara corresponds to candi Kalasan.
The name also appears in several other inscriptions like the Kelurak inscription (782) and the Karangtengah inscription (824). Outside Indonesia, the name Śailēndra is to be found in the Ligor inscription (775) on the Malay peninsula and Nalanda inscription (860) in India.
Although the rise of the Śailēndras occurred in Kedu Plain in the Javanese heartland, their origin has been the subject of discussion. Apart from Java itself; an earlier homeland in Sumatra, India or Cambodia has been suggested. Latest studies apparently in favour of native origin of the dynasty. Despite their connections with Srivijaya in Sumatra and Thai-Malay Peninsula, the Śailēndras were more likely of Javanese origin.
According to Ramesh Chandra Majumdar, an Indian scholar, the Śailēndra dynasty that established itself in the Indonesian archipleago originated from Kalinga in Eastern India. This opinion is also shared by Nilakanta Sastri and J. L. Moens. Moens further describes that the Śailēndra originated in India and established themselves in Palembang before the arrival of Srivijaya's Dapunta Hyang Sri Jayanasa. In 683, the Śailēndra moved to Java because of the pressure exerted by Dapunta Hyang and his troops.
In 1934, the French scholar Coedes proposed a relation with the Funan kingdom in Cambodia. Coedes believed that the Funanese rulers used similar sounding 'mountainlord' titles, but several Cambodia specialists have discounted this. They hold there is no historical evidence for such titles in the Funan period.
Other scholars hold that the expansion of Buddhist kingdom of Srivijaya was involved in the rise of the dynasty in Java. Supporters of this connection emphasize the shared Mahayana patronage; the intermarriages and the Ligor inscription. Also the fact that some of Śailēndra's inscriptions were written in old Malay, which suggested Srivijaya or Sumatran connections. The name 'Selendra' was first mentioned in Sojomerto inscription (725 CE) as "Dapunta Selendra". Dapunta Selendra is suggested as the ancestor of Śailēndras. The title Dapunta is similar to those of Srivijayan King Dapunta Hyang Sri Jayanasa, and the inscription — although discovered in Central Java north coast — was written in old Malay, which suggested the Sumatran origin or Srivijayan connection to this family.
Another theory suggests that Śailēndra was a native Javanese dynasty and the Sanjaya dynasty was actually a branch of the Śailēndra since Sri Sanjaya and his offspring belong to the Śailēndra family that were initially the Shaiva rulers of the Medang Kingdom. The association of Śailēndra with Mahayana Buddhism began after the conversion of Panaraban or Panangkaran to Buddhism. This theory is based on the Carita Parahyangan, which tells of the ailing King Sanjaya ordering his son, Rakai Panaraban or Panangkaran, to convert to Buddhism because their faith in Shiva was feared by the people in favor of the pacifist Buddhist faith. The conversion of Panangkaran to Buddhism also corresponds to the Raja Sankhara inscription, which tells of a king named Sankhara (identified as Panangkaran) converting to Buddhism because his Shaiva faith was feared by the people. Unfortunately, the Raja Sankhara inscription is now missing.
Śailēndras in Java
The Śailēndra rulers maintained cordial relations, including marriage alliances with Srivijaya in Sumatra. For instance, Samaragrawira married Dewi Tara, a daughter of Srivijayan Maharaja Dharmasetu. The mutual alliance between the two kingdoms ensured that Srivijaya had no need to fear the emergence of a Javanese rival and that the Śailēndra had access to the international market.
Karangtengah inscription dated 824 mentioned about king Samaratungga. His daughter named Pramodhawardhani has inaugurated a Jinalaya, a sacred buddhist sanctuary. The inscription also mentioned a sacred buddhist building called Venuvana to place the cremated ashes of King Indra. The Tri Tepusan inscription dated 842 mentioned about the sima (tax free) lands awarded by Śrī Kahulunan (Pramodhawardhani, daughter of Samaratungga) to ensure the funding and maintenance of a Kamūlān called Bhūmisambhāra. Kamūlān itself from the word mula which means 'the place of origin', a sacred building to honor the ancestors. These findings suggested that either the ancestors of the Śailēndras were originated from Central Java, or as the sign that Śailēndra have established their holds on Java. Casparis suggested that Bhūmi Sambhāra Bhudhāra which in Sanskrit means "The mountain of combined virtues of the ten stages of Boddhisattvahood", was the original name of Borobudur.
The received older version holds that the Śailēndra dynasty existed next to the Sanjaya dynasty in Java. Much of the period was characterized by peaceful co-existence and cooperation but towards the middle of the 9th century relations had deteriorated. Around 852 the Sanjaya ruler Pikatan had defeated Balaputra, the offspring of the Śailēndra monarch Samaratunga and princess Tara. This ended the Śailēndra presence in Java and Balaputra retreated to the Srivijaya kingdom in Sumatra, where he became the paramount ruler.
Earlier historians such as N.J. Krom tends to equate Samaragrawira and Samaratungga as the same person. However, later historians such as Slamet Muljana equate Samaratungga with Rakai Garung, mentioned in Mantyasih inscription as fifth monarch of Mataram Kingdom. Which means Samaratungga was the successor of Samaragrawira, and Balaputradewa that is also Samaragrawira's son, is Samaratungga's younger brother and ruled in Suvarnadvipa (Sumatra), and he is not Samaratungga's son. This version holds Balaputra that reign in Sumatra challenged the Pikatan-Pramodhawardhani legitimation in Java, arguing that his niece and her husband has less rights to rule Java compared to his.
Śailēndras in Sumatra
After 824, there are no more references to the Śailēndra house in the Javanese ephigraphic record. Around 860 the name re-appears in the Nalanda inscription in India. According to the text, the king Devapaladeva of Bengala (Pala Empire) had granted 'Balaputra, the king of Suvarna-dvipa' (Sumatra) the revenues of 5 villages to a Buddhist monastery near Bodh Gaya. Balaputra was styled a descendant from the Śailēndra dynasty and grandson of the king of Java.
From Sumatra, the Śailēndras also maintained overseas relations with the Chola kingdom in Southern India, as shown by several south Indian inscriptions. An 11th-century inscription mentioned the grant of revenues to a local Buddhist sanctuary, built in 1005 by the king of the Srivijaya. In spite the relations were initially fairly cordial, hostilities had broken out in 1025. Rajendra Chola I the Emperor of the Chola dynasty conquered some territories of the Śailēndra Dynasty in the 11th century. The devastation caused by Chola invasion of Srivijaya in 1025, marked the end of Śailēndra family as the ruling dynasty in Sumatra. The last king of Śailēndra dynasty — the Maharaja Sangramavijayottunggavarman — was imprisoned and taken as hostage. Nevertheless, amity was re-established between the two states, before the end of the 11th century. In 1090 a new charter was granted to the old Buddhist sanctuary, it is the last known inscription with a reference to the Śailēndras. With the absence of legitimate successor, Śailēndra dynasty seems ceased to rule. Other family within Srivijaya mandala took over the throne, a new Maharaja named Sri Deva according to Chinese source establishing new dynasty to rule Srivijaya. He sent an embassy to the court of China in 1028 CE.
Śailēndras in Bali
Sri Kesari Warmadewa was said to be a Buddhist king of the Śailēndra Dynasty, leading a military expedition, to establishing a Mahayana Buddhist government in Bali. In 914, he left a record of his endeavour in the Belanjong pillar in Sanur in Bali. According to this inscription Warmadewa dynasty was probably the branch of Śailēndras that rule Bali.
List of Śailēndran rulers
Traditionally the Śailēndra period was viewed to span from 8th to 9th century confined only in Central Java, from the era of Panangkaran to Samaratungga. However the recent interpretation suggests the longer period of Śailēndra family might existed, from mid 7th century (edict of Sojomerto inscription) to early 11th century (the fall of Śailēndran dynasty of Srivijaya under Chola invasion). For certain period, Śailēndras ruled both Central Java and Sumatra. Their alliance and intermarriage with Srivijayan ruling family resulted with the merging of two royal houses, with Śailēndran finally emerge as the ruling family of both Srivijaya and Medang Mataram (Central Java).
Some historians tried to reconstruct the order and list of Śailēndra rulers, although there is some disagreement on the list. Boechari tried to reconstruct the early stage of Śailēndra based on Sojomerto inscription, while other historians such as Slamet Muljana and Poerbatjaraka tried to reconstruct the list of Śailēndran king in middle and later period with their connections to Sanjaya and Srivijaya, based on inscriptions and Carita Parahyangan manuscript. However there is some confusion occurred, because the Śailēndra seems to rule many kingdoms; Kalingga, Medang and later Srivijaya. As the result name of the same kings often overlapped and seens to rule these kingdoms simultaneously. The questionmark (?) signify doubt or speculation because of the scarcity of available valid sources.
|Date||King's or ruler's name||Capital||Stone inscription and source of historical account||Event|
|c. 650||Santanu||?||Sojomerto inscription (c. 670—700)||The Shivaist old Malay-speaking family began to settle in coastal Central Java, suggested of Sumatran origin (?) or native Javanese family under Srivijayan influences (vassal)|
|c. 674||Dapunta Selendra||Batang (Central Java north coast)||Sojomerto inscription (c. 670—700)||Establishing ruling family, the first time the name 'Selendra' (Śailēndra) was mentioned|
|674—703||Shima (?)||Kalingga, somewhere between Pekalongan and Jepara||Carita Parahyangan, Chinese account on Hwi-ning visits to Ho-ling kingdom (664) and the reign of queen Hsi-mo (674)||Ruling the kingdom of Kalingga|
|703—710||Mandimiñak (?)||?||Carita Parahyangan|
|710—717||Sanna||?||Canggal inscription (732), Carita Parahyangan||Sanna ruled Java, but after his death the kingdom fell to chaotic disunity by usurper or foreign invasion|
|717—760||Sanjaya||Mataram, Central Java||Canggal inscription (732), Carita Parahyangan||Sanjaya, the nephew of Sanna restore the order and ascend to throne, some early historian took this event as the establishment of new Sanjaya Dynasty, while other hold that this only the continuation of Śailēndras|
|760—775||Rakai Panangkaran||Mataram, Central Java||Raja Sankhara inscription, Kalasan inscription (778), Carita Parahyangan||Rakai Panangkaran converted from Shivaism to Mahayana Buddhism, construction of Kalasan temple|
|775—800||Dharanindra||Mataram, Central Java||Kelurak inscription (782), Ligor B inscription (c. 787)||Also ruled Srivijaya in Sumatra, construction of Manjusrigrha temple, started the construction of Borobudur (c. 770), Java ruled Ligor and Southern Cambodia (Chenla) (c.790)|
|800—812||Samaragrawira||Mataram, Central Java||Ligor B inscription (c. 787)||Also ruled Srivijaya, lost Cambodia (802)|
|812—833||Samaratungga||Mataram, Central Java||Karangtengah inscription (824)||Also ruled Srivijaya, completion of Borobudur (825)|
|833—856||Pramodhawardhani co-reign with her husband Rakai Pikatan||Mamrati, Central Java||Shivagrha inscription (856)||Defeated and expelled Balaputra to Srivijaya (Sumatra). Construction of Prambanan and Plaosan temple. The successors of Pikatan, the series of Medang kings from Lokapala (850—890) to Wawa (924—929) could be considered as the continuation of Śailēndra lineage, although King Balitung (898—910) in Mantyasih inscription (907) sought ancestor only as far as Sanjaya, thus enforced the Sanjaya dynasty theory.|
|833—850||Balaputradewa||Srivijaya, South Sumatra||Shivagrha inscription (856), Nalanda inscription (860)||Defeated by Pikatan-Pramodhawardhani, expelled from Central Java, took refuge in Sumatra and rule Srivijaya, claim as the legitimate successor of Śailēndra dynasty from Java|
|c. 960||Śri Udayadityavarman||Srivijaya, South Sumatra||Embassies to China (960 and 962)||Sending embassies, tribute and trade mission to China|
|c. 980||Haji (Hia-Tche)||Srivijaya, South Sumatra||Embassies to China (980–983)||Sending embassies, tribute and trade mission to China|
|c. 988||Sri Culamanivarmadeva||Srivijaya, South Sumatra||Embassies to China (988-992-1003), Tanjore Inscription or Leiden Inscription (1044)||Sending embassies, tribute and trade mission to China, Javanese King Dharmawangsa invasion on Srivijaya, building of temple for Chinese Emperor, gift of village by Raja-raja I|
|c. 1008||Sri Maravijayottungga||Srivijaya, South Sumatra||Embassies to China (1008)||Sending embassies, tribute and trade mission to China (1008)|
|c. 1017||Sumatrabhumi||Srivijaya, South Sumatra||Embassies to China (1017)||Sending embassies, tribute and trade mission to China (1017)|
|c. 1025||Sangramavijayottungga||Srivijaya, South Sumatra||Chola Inscription on the temple of Rajaraja, Tanjore||Chola raid on Srivijaya, the capital captured by Rajendra Chola|
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- Boechari (1966). "Preliminary report on the discovery of an Old Malay inscription at Sojomerto". MISI III: 241–251.
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- Majumdar, 1933: 121-141
- Moens, 1937: 317-487
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- (Poerbatjaraka, 1958: 254-264)
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- " De Casparis proposed that in 856 Balaputra was defeated by Pikatan, whereupon Balaputra retreated to Srivijaya, the country of his mother, to become the first Sailandra ruler of Srivijaya. Thus in the late 9th century Srivijaya was ruled by a Buddhist Śailēndra ruler, while Java was ruled by Pikatan and his successors who patronized Siva" (cf. De Casparis, 1956; Hall, 1985:111).
- Hall (1985:109)
- Hall (1985:200)
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- K.R. Hall (1985). Maritime Trade and State Development in Early South East Asia. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0-8248-0959-9.
- Claude Jacques (1979). R.B. Smith and W. Watson, ed. "Early South East Asia. Essays in Archaeology, History and Historical Geography". New York/Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press. pp. 371–389.
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- Paul Michel Munoz (2006). Early Kingdoms of the Indonesian Archipelago and the Malay Peninsula. Editions Didier Millet. ISBN 981-4155-67-5.
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