United States House of Representatives elections, 1912

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United States House of Representatives elections, 1912
United States
1910 ←
November 5, 1912
Maine and Vermont held elections in September

→ 1914

All 435 seats to the United States House of Representatives
218 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
  ChampClark.jpg James Robert Mann 1909.jpg
Leader Champ Clark James Mann
Party Democratic Republican
Leader's seat Missouri-9th Illinois-2nd
Last election 229 seats 164 seats
Seats won 290 134
Seat change Increase 61 Decrease 30
Popular vote 8,446,624 6,849,927
Percentage 43.1% 35.0%

  Third party Fourth party
 
Party Progressive Socialist
Last election 0 seats 1 seat
Seats won 10 0
Seat change Increase 10 Decrease 1
Popular vote 2,609,578 1,259,273
Percentage 13.3% 6.4%

Speaker before election

Champ Clark
Democratic

Elected Speaker

Champ Clark
Democratic

Elections to the United States House of Representatives in 1912 were held for members of the 63rd Congress, coinciding with the election of President Woodrow Wilson.

Wilson's victory was partly due to the division of the opposition Republican Party into conservative and progressive factions. While many progressives stayed within the party framework, they maintained lukewarm relationships with Republican leadership. Others formed a third party known as the Progressives and several switched allegiance to the Democrats. A message of unity was portrayed by the Democrats, allowing this group to present themselves as above the bickering and corruption that had become associated with the Republican internal feud. Many of the new seats that were added after the prior census ended up in Democratic hands.

The number of seats in the chamber changed for this election, which is reflected in the seat totals for both sides. Aside from a temporary increase in seats in 1959 to account for the admission of Alaska and Hawaii as states, this was the last election at which the number of seats in the House of Representatives increased.

Election summaries[edit]

41 new seats were added in reapportionment following the 1910 census, bringing the House to its modern size. This would be the last time the size of the House changed, except for a temporary addition of two seats in 1959 after the admission of Alaska and Hawaii and subsequent return to 435 in 1963. 1 state lost 1 seat, 22 states had no change in apportionment, 16 states gained 1 seat each, 5 states gained 2 seats each, 2 states gained 3 seats, 1 state gained 4 seats, and 1 state gained 6 seats. Twelve states used at-large seats in addition to districts to elect new seats.

290 1 10 134
Democratic I P Republican
State Type Total
seats
Democratic Republican Progressive
Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change
Alabama District
+at-large[1]
10 Increase 1 10 Increase 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Arizona At-large 1 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Arkansas District 7 Steady 7 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
California District 11[2] Increase 3 3 Increase 2 5 Decrease 2 2 Increase 2
Colorado District
+2 at-large[1]
4 Increase 1 4 Increase 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Connecticut District[3] 5 Steady 5 Increase 4 0 Decrease 4 0 Steady
Delaware At-large 1 Steady 1 Increase 1 0 Decrease 1 0 Steady
Florida District
+at-large[1]
4 Increase 1 4 Increase 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Georgia District 12 Increase 1 12 Increase 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Idaho At-large 2 Increase 1 0 Steady 2 Increase 1 0 Steady
Illinois District
+2 at-large[1]
27 Increase 2 20 Increase 9 5 Decrease 9 2 Increase 2
Indiana District 13 Steady 13 Increase 1 0 Decrease 1 0 Steady
Iowa District 11 Steady 3 Increase 2 8 Decrease 2 0 Steady
Kansas District 8 Steady 5 Increase 5 3 Decrease 5 0 Steady
Kentucky District 11 Steady 9 Steady 2 Steady 0 Steady
Louisiana District 8 Increase 1 8 Increase 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Maine[4] District 4 Steady 1 Decrease 1 3 Increase 1 0 Steady
Maryland District 6 Steady 6 Increase 1 0 Decrease 1 0 Steady
Massachusetts District 16 Increase 2 7 Increase 3 9 Decrease 1 0 Steady
Michigan District
+at-large[1]
13 Increase 1 2 Steady 10 Steady 1 Increase 1
Minnesota District
+at-large[1]
10 Increase 1 1 Steady 9 Increase 1 0 Steady
Mississippi District 8 Steady 8 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Missouri District 16 Steady 14 Increase 1 2 Decrease 1 0 Steady
Montana At-large 2 Increase 1 2 Increase 2 0 Decrease 1 0 Steady
Nebraska District 6 Steady 3 Steady 3 Steady 0 Steady
Nevada At-large 1 Steady 0 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady
New Hampshire District 2 Steady 2 Increase 2 0 Decrease 2 0 Steady
New Jersey District 12 Increase 2 11 Increase 4 1 Decrease 2 0 Steady
New Mexico At-large 1 Decrease 1 1 Steady 0 Decrease 1 0 Steady
New York District 43 Increase 6 31 Increase 8 11 Decrease 3 1 Increase 1
North Carolina District 10 Steady 10 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
North Dakota District 3 Increase 1 0 Steady 3 Increase 1 0 Steady
Ohio District
+at-large[1]
22 Increase 1 19 Increase 3 3 Decrease 2 0 Steady
Oklahoma District
+3 at-large[1]
8 Increase 3 6 Increase 3 2 Steady 0 Steady
Oregon District 3 Increase 1 0 Steady 3 Increase 1 0 Steady
Pennsylvania District
+4 at-large[1]
36 Increase 4 12 Increase 4 22 Decrease 2 2 Increase 2
Rhode Island District 3 Increase 1 2 Increase 1 1 Steady 0 Steady
South Carolina District 7 Steady 7 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
South Dakota District[5] 3 Increase 1 0 Steady 3 Increase 1 0 Steady
Tennessee District 10 Steady 8 Steady 2 Steady 0 Steady
Texas District
+2 at-large[1]
18 Increase 2 18 Increase 2 0 Steady 0 Steady
Utah At-large 2 Increase 1 0 Steady 2 Increase 1 0 Steady
Vermont[4] District 2 Steady 0 Steady 2 Steady 0 Steady
Virginia District 10 Steady 9 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady
Washington District
+2 at-large[1]
5 Increase 2 0 Steady 3 Steady 2 Increase 2
West Virginia District
+at-large[1]
6 Increase 1 2 Decrease 2 4 Increase 3 0 Steady
Wisconsin District 11[6] Steady 3 Increase 1 8 Steady 0 Steady
Wyoming At-large 1 Steady 0 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady
Total 435 Increase 41 290
66.7%
Increase 61 134
30.8%
Decrease 30 10
2.3%
Increase 10

Two states, with 6 seats between them, held elections early in 1910:

This was the last year that Vermont held early elections.

Parties Seats Popular Vote
1910 1912 +/- Strength Vote  % Change
  Democratic Party 229 290 Increase 61 66.67% 8,446,624 43.14% Decrease 3.55%
  Republican Party 164 134 Decrease 30 30.80% 6,849,927 34.99% Decrease 11.59%
  Progressive Party 0 10 Increase 10 2.30% 2,609,578 13.33% New Party
  Socialist Party 1 0 Decrease 1 0% 1,259,273 6.43% Increase 2.22%
Prohibition Party 0 0 Steady 0% 244,919 1.25% Decrease 0.17%
  Others 0 1 Increase 1 0.2% 169,064 0.86% Decrease 0.24%
Total 394 435 Increase 41 100.0% 19,579,385 100.0% -
House seats
Democratic
  
66.67%
Republican
  
30.80%
Progressive
  
2.30%
Others
  
0.23%
House seats by party holding plurality in state
  80.1-100% Democratic
  80.1-100% Republican
  60.1-80% Democratic
  60.1-80% Republican
  Up to 60% Democratic
  Up to 60% Republican
  6+ Democratic gain
  6+ Republican gain
  3-5 Democratic gain
  3-5 Republican gain
  1-2 Democratic gain
  1-2 Republican gain
  1-2 Progressive gain
  no net change

Complete results[edit]

Party abbreviations

California[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
California 1 William Kent
Redistricted from the 2nd district
Republican 1910 Re-elected as an Independent
Independent gain
William Kent (I) 37.27%
I. G. Zumwalt (D) 34.37%
Edward H. Hart (R) 19.40%
Joseph Bredsteen (S) 8.96%
California 2 John E. Raker
Redistricted from the 1st district
Democratic 1910 Re-elected John E. Raker (D) 62.64%
Frank M. Rutherford (R) 27.17%
J. C. Williams (S) 10.19%
California 3 None (District created) New seat
Republican gain
Charles F. Curry (R) 58.85%
Gilbert McMillan Ross (D) 28.79%
William L. Wilson (S) 12.36%
California 4 Julius Kahn Republican 1898 Re-elected Julius Kahn (R) 56.09%
Bert Schlesinger (D) 32.72%
Norman W. Pendleton (S) 11.19%
California 5 None (District created) New seat
Republican gain
John I. Nolan (R) 52.27%
Stephen V. Costello (D) 34.69%
E. L. Reguin (S) 13.04%
California 6 Joseph R. Knowland
Redistricted from the 3rd district
Republican 1904 Re-elected Joseph R. Knowland (R) 53.70%
J. Stitt Wilson (S) 40.00%
Hiram A Luttrell (D) 6.31%
California 7 James C. Needham
Redistricted from the 6th district
Republican 1898 Lost re-election
Democratic gain
Denver S. Church (D) 44.05%
James C. Needham (R) 42.65%
J. S. Cato (S) 13.30%
California 8 Everis A. Hayes
Redistricted from the 5th district
Republican 1904 Re-elected Everis A. Hayes (R) 50.95%
James B. Holohan (D) 35.18%
Robert Whitaker (S) 13.86%
California 9 None (District created) New seat
Progressive gain
Charles W. Bell (Prog) 47.25%
Thomas H. Kirk (D) 23.87%
Ralph L. Criswell (S) 18.22%
George S. Yarnall (Proh) 10.66%
California 10 William Stephens
Redistricted from the 7th district
Republican 1910 Re-elected
as Progressive
William Stephens (Prog) 53.45%
George Ringo (D) 21.91%
Fred C. Wheeler (S) 20.98%
Emory D. Martindale (Proh) 3.67%
California 11 Sylvester C. Smith
Redistricted from the 8th district
Republican 1904 Retired and died before the Congress ended
Democratic gain
William Kettner (D) 42.69%
Samuel C. Evans (R) 36.85%
Noble A. Richardson (S) 12.14%
Helen M. Stoddard (Proh) 8.33%

Florida[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Florida 1 Stephen M. Sparkman Democratic 1894 Re-elected Stephen M. Sparkman (D) 78.5%
C. C. Allen (S) 12.0%
George W. Beall (R) 4.9%
J. D. Hazzard (Prog) 3.0%
George C. Kelley (Proh) 1.6%
Florida 2 Frank Clark Democratic 1904 Re-elected Frank Clark (D) 81.1%
J. J. Collins (S) 7.3%
John W. Howell (R) 6.7%
C. E. Speir (Prog) 4.9%
Florida 3 Dannite H. Mays Democratic 1908 Lost primary
Democratic hold
Emmett Wilson (D) 86.4%
W. M. Lamberry (S) 6.3%
Thomas F. McGourin (R) 4.7%
John T. Poder (Prog) 2.7%
Florida at-large None (District created) Democratic win Claude L'Engle (D) 77.4%
A. N. Jackson (S) 8.2%
George W. Allen (R) 6.6%
E. R. Gunby (Prog) 6.0%
Frances P. Coffin (Proh) 1.8%

New Mexico[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
New Mexico at-large George Curry Republican 1911 Retired
Democratic gain
Harvey B. Fergusson (D) 45.6%
Nathan Jaffa (R) 36.9%
Andrew J. Eggum (S) 12.1%
Marcos DeBaca (Prog) 5.5%
Harvey B. Fergusson Democratic 1911 Re-elected

South Carolina[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
South Carolina 1 George Swinton Legaré Democratic 1902 Re-elected George Swinton Legaré (D) 97.2%
Aaron P. Prioleau (R) 1.8%
William Eberhard (S) 1.0%
South Carolina 2 James F. Byrnes Democratic 1910 Re-elected James F. Byrnes (D) 100%
South Carolina 3 Wyatt Aiken Democratic 1902 Re-elected Wyatt Aiken (D) 100%
South Carolina 4 Joseph T. Johnson Democratic 1900 Re-elected Joseph T. Johnson (D) 100%
South Carolina 5 David E. Finley Democratic 1898 Re-elected David E. Finley (D) 100%
South Carolina 6 J. Edwin Ellerbe Democratic 1904 Lost primary
Democratic hold
J. Willard Ragsdale (D) 100%
South Carolina 7 Asbury F. Lever Democratic 1901 (special) Re-elected Asbury F. Lever (D) 98.4%
A. D. Dantzler (R) 1.6%

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Additional seat or seats elected at-large due to State not redistricting
  2. ^ 1 Independent elected
  3. ^ At-large seat eliminated in redistricting
  4. ^ a b Elections held early
  5. ^ Changed from at-large
  6. ^ Previous election had 1 Socialist