Växjö

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Växjö, Sweden
Coat of arms of Växjö, Sweden
Coat of arms
Växjö, Sweden is located in Sweden
Växjö, Sweden
Växjö, Sweden
Coordinates: 56°52′37″N 14°48′33″E / 56.87694°N 14.80917°E / 56.87694; 14.80917Coordinates: 56°52′37″N 14°48′33″E / 56.87694°N 14.80917°E / 56.87694; 14.80917
Country Sweden
Province Småland
County Kronoberg County
Municipality Växjö Municipality
Area[1]
 • City 30.28 km2 (11.69 sq mi)
Elevation 167 m (548 ft)
Population (31 December 2010)[1]
 • City 60,887
 • Density 2,011/km2 (5,210/sq mi)
 • Metro 79,562
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 35x xx
Area code(s) (+46) 47
Website www.vaxjo.se

Växjö ([ˈvɛkːˈɧøː]) is a city and the seat of Växjö Municipality, Kronoberg County, Sweden, 63,479 inhabitants (2013).[1] It is the administrative, cultural and industrial centre of Kronoberg County. Furthermore it is the episcopal see of the Diocese of Växjö. It has a population of about 64,200, out of a municipal a total of 85,000 inhabitants. The town is home to Linnaeus University.

Etymology[edit]

The city's name is believed to be constructed from the words "väg" (road) and "sjö" (lake), meaning the road over the frozen Växjö Lake that farmers took in the winter to get to the marketplace that later became the city.

History[edit]

In contrast to what was believed a century ago,[2] there is no evidence of a special pre-Christian significance of the site. The pagan cultic center of Värend may have been located at Hov, a village nearby.[3][4]

Even though the city has been an Episcopal see since the 12th century, it did not get its city charter until 1342, issued by Magnus Eriksson. During the Middle Ages Växjö did not have many pious institutions. A Franciscan monastery was established in 1485. There was a hospital of the Holy Ghost, first mentioned in 1318. In the 14th century Växjö got its first school, Växjö katedralskola, that was much visited. By 1643 it received gymnasium status.

At the beginning of Gustav Eriksson's war of liberation, the peasantry joined forces under the guidance of the union-hostile bishop Ingemar Pedersson, the mountain men and the peasantry of Dalarna, Hälsingland and Gästrikland, who urged fidelity to the their leader Gustav Eriksson.

During the Dacke War, a peasant uprising, the city was in the hands of Nils Dacke and his supporters, specially David Santander, from the summer of 1542 until after New Year 1543. The city residents and the clergy seem to have adopted a cautious neutrality, even though common sympathies rested with Dacke.

Several times during the Northern Wars, Scanian Wars and thereafter, the city has been plagued by fire (in 1277, 1516, 1570, 1612, 1658, 1690, 1749, 1753, 1799, 1838 and 1843). After the last fire in 1843, when 1140 citizens were rendered homeless, Växjö got its current street plan.[5]

The Barbarella nightclub was prominent in southeastern Sweden in the 1970s, attracting a number of major international bands.

Seen from a plane, Växjö is surrounded by lakes

Demography[edit]

Year Population
1960 22 784
1965 29 354
1970 39 019
1975 40 328
1980 42 632
1985 -
1990 46 735
1995 49 865
2000 51 790
2005 55 600
2010 60 887
2013 64 200

[6]

Environment policy[edit]

The city is widely admired for the policy it adopted in 1996 of eliminating the use of fossil fuels by 2030. This decision was taken in reaction to pollution and eutrophication in the lakes that surround the town. Greenhouse gas emissions have already been cut by 41% since 1993 to 2011, and will be reduced by 55% by 2015. And remarkably, this has not harmed the economy, which has grown meanwhile.

Notable locations[edit]

The city has three municipality ruled secondary schools ("gymnasium"), Teknikum, Katedralskolan, Växjö and Kungsmadskolan. The Linnaeus University campus has 42,000 students (2012).

Industries include Alstom and Aerotech Telub, as well as Volvo Articulated Haulers located in Braås 29 kilometres (18 miles) north of Växjö. One of the most well-known service providers is Visma. Växjö houses Sweden's National Glass Museum [7] and claims to be the capital of the "Kingdom of Crystal" [8] as well as of the "Kingdom of Furniture".[9]

The Swedish Emigrant Institute [10] was established in 1965 and resides in the House of Emigrants near the Växjö lake in the heart of the city. It contains archives, library, museum, and a research center relating to the emigration period between 1846 and 1930, when 1.3 million (or 20%) of the Swedish population emigrated, mainly to the USA. Archives, dating to the 17th century, of birth and death records as well as household records are available on microfiche.

Immediately north of Växjö is Kronoberg Castle, a ruined fortress constructed in the 15th century. This castle was used as base by rebel Nils Dacke during the Dacke War. The fortress has thick walls and an interesting array of artillery portals that face out onto the lake Helgasjön to the north. The city also holds another castle, Teleborg Castle built in 1900 as a morning (wedding) gift and situated near the University. The Teleborg Castle now functions as a hotel and conference facility.

Climate[edit]

Växjö has an oceanic climate.[11] It is milder than most of Sweden, but also wetter and cloudier, with sunshine hours being more associated with the British Isles than with areas further north in the country. Considering its relative distance to all three coasts surrounding South Sweden, the climate is extremely marine, with winter lows being relatively subdued for an inland location. Temperatures have gone up in recent years and for the 1961-1990 reference period Växjö was almost humid continental, however under the standard Köppen classification it is well within the oceanic range for the 2002-2014 period. Compared with sunnier areas inland further north, Växjö actually has relatively cool summers.

Climate data for Växjö
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 9.6
(49.3)
13.8
(56.8)
20.0
(68)
27.9
(82.2)
29.0
(84.2)
32.5
(90.5)
32.9
(91.2)
34.4
(93.9)
27.6
(81.7)
21.9
(71.4)
14.0
(57.2)
11.3
(52.3)
34.4
(93.9)
Average high °C (°F) 0.3
(32.5)
0.9
(33.6)
5.4
(41.7)
12.0
(53.6)
16.6
(61.9)
19.8
(67.6)
22.4
(72.3)
21.0
(69.8)
16.8
(62.2)
10.8
(51.4)
5.5
(41.9)
1.7
(35.1)
11.1
(52)
Average low °C (°F) −4.0
(24.8)
−4.0
(24.8)
−2.5
(27.5)
1.4
(34.5)
6.1
(43)
9.3
(48.7)
12.5
(54.5)
11.8
(53.2)
8.4
(47.1)
4.0
(39.2)
1.3
(34.3)
−2.3
(27.9)
3.5
(38.3)
Record low °C (°F) −34.0
(−29.2)
−28.8
(−19.8)
−29.8
(−21.6)
−19.0
(−2.2)
−6.0
(21.2)
−0.8
(30.6)
3.5
(38.3)
0.0
(32)
−4.8
(23.4)
−10.3
(13.5)
−17.8
(0)
−24.5
(−12.1)
−34.0
(−29.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 52.1
(2.051)
34.9
(1.374)
41.4
(1.63)
39.6
(1.559)
47.6
(1.874)
54.9
(2.161)
76.6
(3.016)
57.4
(2.26)
71.0
(2.795)
57.8
(2.276)
63.4
(2.496)
55.6
(2.189)
652.6
(25.693)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 34 63 100 151 214 218 202 193 125 72 45 23 1,440
Source #1: SMHI[12]
Source #2: SMHI Monthly Data 2002-2014[13]

Notable natives[edit]

The Växjö Theater

Sports clubs[edit]

The following sports clubs are located in Växjö:

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Tätorternas landareal, folkmängd och invånare per km2 2005 och 2010" (in Swedish). Statistics Sweden. 14 December 2011. Archived from the original on 10 January 2012. Retrieved 10 January 2012. 
  2. ^ "Växjö". Nordisk Familjebok. 1922. 
  3. ^ Lars-Olof Larson (1999). "Land och län under kristendomen millennium". Landen kring sjöarna. p. 69. ISBN 91-86870-10-6. 
  4. ^ Martin Hanson (2007). Det medeltida Småland - en arkeologisk guidebok. p. 137. ISBN 978-91-85377-93-0. 
  5. ^ "459-460 (Nordisk familjebok / Uggleupplagan. 33. Väderlek - Äänekoski)". Runeberg.org. Retrieved 2012-12-01. 
  6. ^ "Växjö inhabitants (2013)". www.vaxjo.se. Retrieved 2013-12-01. 
  7. ^ [2][dead link]
  8. ^ [3][dead link]
  9. ^ "Lammhult". Lammhult.se. Retrieved 2012-12-01. 
  10. ^ [4][dead link]
  11. ^ "Vaxjo, Sweden Climate Summary". Weatherbase. Retrieved 3 April 2015. 
  12. ^ "Precipitation Normals 1961-1990". Swedish Metereological and Hydrological Institute (Växjö code 6452). 
  13. ^ "Yearly and Monthly Statistics". SMHI. April 3, 2015. 

External links[edit]