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Česká Lípa

Coordinates: 50°41′19″N 14°32′19″E / 50.68861°N 14.53861°E / 50.68861; 14.53861
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Česká Lípa
Town hall and Holy Trinity Column on T. G. Masaryk Square
Town hall and Holy Trinity Column on T. G. Masaryk Square
Flag of Česká Lípa
Coat of arms of Česká Lípa
Česká Lípa is located in Czech Republic
Česká Lípa
Česká Lípa
Location in the Czech Republic
Coordinates: 50°41′19″N 14°32′19″E / 50.68861°N 14.53861°E / 50.68861; 14.53861
Country Czech Republic
DistrictČeská Lípa
First mentioned1263
 • MayorJitka Volfová (ANO)
 • Total66.10 km2 (25.52 sq mi)
258 m (846 ft)
 • Total37,483
 • Density570/km2 (1,500/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal codes
470 01, 470 06, 471 11

Česká Lípa (Czech pronunciation: [tʃɛskaː liːpa] ; German: Böhmisch Leipa) is a town in the Liberec Region of the Czech Republic. It has about 37,000 inhabitants, which makes it the most populated Czech town without the city status. The historic town centre is well preserved and is protected by law as an urban monument zone.

Administrative parts[edit]

Česká Lípa division

The villages of Častolovice, Dobranov, Dolní Libchava, Dubice, Heřmaničky, Lada, Manušice, Okřešice, Písečná, Stará Lípa, Vítkov, Vlčí Důl and Žizníkov are administrative parts of Česká Lípa.[2]


The word Lípa means 'lime tree'. The settlement was probably founded near some old memorial lime tree. Later it was renamed Lipá (adjective from Lípa). After the German name Böhmisch Leipa ('Bohemian Lipá') appeared, the Czech name Česká Lípa was derived from it.[3]


Aerial view of the town centre
Viaduct above the Ploučnice River and the town

Česká Lípa is located about 38 km (24 mi) west of Liberec and 67 km (42 mi) north of Prague. It lies in the Ralsko Uplands. The highest point is the Špičák hill with an altitude of 459 m (1,506 ft). The Ploučnice River flows through the town, approximately 40 km (25 mi) from its source. The southeastern part of the municipal territory extends into the Kokořínsko – Máchův kraj Protected Landscape Area.


The first written mention of the settlement of Lipá is from 1263.[4] It was originally a Slavic settlement on a trade route from Bohemia to Zittau.[3] A town was founded on the site of the settlement probably between 1310 and 1319. The first written mention of the town is from 1337.[5]

The history of the town is associated with Chval of Lipá of the Ronovci family,[6]: 7  who founded Lipý Castle, and his son Henry of Lipá (1270–1329), a significant royal aristocrat.

Thus Lipý Castle became another fortified seat in North Bohemia on the contemporary trade routes. There was a Slavic colony near the castle, later renamed as Stará Lípa (now a neighbourhood of the town).[7] There is a reference to Arnold, said to come from Stará Lípa, who was a citizen of Kravaře in 1263. Historians have deduced from the reference to Stará Lípa that Lipý Castle and accompanying settlement were established around that time.[8]

Town walls were constructed at the beginning of the 14th century as well as the parish Church of Saints Paul and Peter, which was destroyed by a fire in 1787.[6]: 10  In 1319, Henry of Lipá sold the castle with its surroundings to his cousin Hynek Berka. In 1327, Hynek Berka of the Ronovci family, was the lord of Lipá and its wider surroundings. When he died in 1348, his son Hynek took the title, and after his death his second son Henry succeeded him. His nephew Hynek Berka of Dubá then ruled the area. The oldest town charter, which he issued on 23 March 1381, states that discretions were granted to the town of Lipá and that it was he who contributed the most to the growth of the town and the castle bearing the same name. In the second half of the 14th century, the Veitmile family was significantly involved in the development of the town. Members of this family used to hold the positions of reeve and parson.

Development of the town was paused by the plague epidemic in 1389. At the end of the 14th century, the castle was controlled by other members of lords of Lipá family, including a powerful individual named Hynek Hlaváč who was often mentioned in historical accounts, until the beginning of the Hussite Wars, when in May 1426 it was conquered by Hussites led by Jan Roháč of Dubá.[4][9] Between 1502 and 1553, a large part of the town and its surroundings belonged to the Wartenbergs. Later, the lords of Dubá / Lipá regained the castle and it remained in their possession for over 100 years. The first evidence of Jewish settlement in the town dates from 1529. The Jewish community began to grow in 1570.[10] Albrecht von Wallenstein reunited the town in 1622–1623. He, and later the Kaunitzs, contributed to another boom in the town by founding a monastery and school.[11] Large parts of the town were destroyed by fires in 1787 and 1820.

In the mid-19th century, the Jewish community reached its peak and formed 12% of the town's population.[10] The community contributed significantly to the industrialization of the town.[4] Following the compromise of 1867, the town became part of Austria-Hungary until 1918, and seat of the Böhmisch Leipa district, one of the 94 Bezirkshauptmannschaften in Bohemia.[12] In 1918, Česká Lípa became a part of independent Czechoslovakia. The town was ceded to Nazi Germany with the rest of the Sudetenland in October 1938 under the terms of the Munich Agreement and placed under the administration of the Regierungsbezirk Aussig of Reichsgau Sudetenland. Česká Lípa returned to Czechoslovak administration in May 1945 after the liberation of Czechoslovakia.

The modern urban development of the town was influenced by industrial production and uranium mining in the region. Residential neighbourhoods consisting of large amounts of prefabricated housing were built on the outskirts, while the town centre was preserved and declared as an urban monument zone.[5]


The former Česká Lípa město station

Railways and stations have been built by various companies. The first railway was built in 1867 leading to the town of Bakov nad Jizerou. Another railway was opened in 1872 to the town of Benešov nad Ploučnicí and later extended to the city of Děčín. Another company then built the Česká Lípa město station, the first train route from which went to the town of Litoměřice, followed in 1903 by the railway leading from Česká Lípa to Řetenice (part of Teplice) and in the opposite direction via the town of Zákupy to Liberec.[citation needed]

The railway from Česká Lípa to Česká Kamenice was completed and opened in 1903, and large railway workshops were constructed in the vicinity of the main station. The national Railway Repair and Engineering Workshops (ŽOS) corporation had its headquarters here until 1980. The railway leading to Česká Kamenice was closed in 1979, and its subsoil was used to build of a part of the Varhany Cycling Path. Railways in the town and peripheries were connected. The Česká Lípa město station built in 1898 is now out of service, and put up for sale by Czech Railways. The railway from this station leading to Vlčí důl has been demolished and its subsoil used for construction of cycle path no. 3054.[citation needed]


Historical population
Source: Censuses[13][14]


Fehrer Bohemia company in the industrial zone

There are several large industrial companies based in Česká Lípa, especially producers of automotive parts. The town's industry is concentrated in the Dubice industry zone, which has an area of 200 ha (490 acres). The major companies based in the industrial zone include Adient Czech Republic, Fehrer Bohemia and Bombardier Inc.[15] The largest employer is the Adient Czech Republic company, which has its headquarters, development centre and one of factories in Česká Lípa.[16] The factory, which focuses on sewing car seat covers, was founded in 1992 and employs about 1,100 people.[17]

The hospital is the largest non-industrial employer.



Main railway station

Česká Lípa hlavní nádraží (main railway station) is a junction of the LiberecDěčín, KolínRumburk and Česká Lípa–Louny lines. Three smaller train stops, Česká Lípa-Střelnice, Česká Lípa-Holý vrch and Vlčí důl-Dobranov are located in the suburbs of the town.

Bus transport[edit]

Bus station hall

Regional and intercity transportation is mainly operated by ČSAD Česká Lípa, based at the town bus station from 1986,[18] and provides connections to Mimoň, Nový Bor and Prague, as well as surrounding villages.

Small transport companies provide transport for commuters to large local companies, or offer alternative transport for Czech Railways in case of lockouts etc. Nevertheless, the municipal transit company BusLine a.s. has taken over most such services. BusLine a.s. is the only transit carrier in Česká Lípa. The municipal transit runs exclusively within the town while further parts of the county are covered by regional bus services.

Česká Lípa municipal transit has been a member of the IDOL regional integrated transport network since July 2009. IDOL is based on the integrated tariff and the OpusCard contactless smartcard as a uniform fare carrier.


The town's main road transport connection is the straight I/9 road, which connects Prague with the Czech-German border via Česká Lípa.[15] From west to east there is also the II/262 road from Děčín to Zákupy.


The Česká Lípa Primary Art School was established in 1927. Since 1990, it has been located in a building called Bílý dům ("White House"), which had housed the Communist Party District Committee until then.[19] The large hall on the ground floor is the home of the DUHA Dancing School, and the facility is also used for exhibitions and by other external music groups.[20]



Crystal House of Culture
Augustinian monastery garden

The Crystal House of Culture is a multifunctional building in the town centre built in 1975–1990. It contains a cinema, two halls, a restaurant, a ballet hall and a gallery.[21]

The Homeland Museum and Gallery in Česká Lípa is located in the grounds of a former Augustinian monastery. This museum focuses on the history and nature of the Česká Lípa region, zoology, geology, uranium mining in the region, and others. The museum also manages Šatlava – the archeological museum of the Česká Lípa region, the Víska Magistrate in Kravaře, and the Karel Hynek Mácha Memorial in Doksy.[22]

There is a three-floor municipal library on T. G. Masaryk Square, which has three small branches in the town named Špičák, Lada and Holý vrch.[23]

Cultural events[edit]

The town organizes the Town Festivities at the beginning of every summer. This event first took place in the town park in 2000, to celebrate the park's 125th anniversary, moving to T. G. Masaryk Square the following year. After Lipý Castle was renovated in 2003, the festival moved to its grounds, where it has been held since. The festival includes an antique fair, concerts, fireworks and theatre performances, and the Town Awards are presented.[24]

The first annual Lípa Musica international festival was held in 2000, primarily featuring classical music. It is the most important festival of classical music in the North Bohemian region with an overlap to Germany. Concerts are held at several locations throughout the town.[25]


After 1850 the Leipaer Zeitung was released in German for the Česká Lípa area, and its competitor Deutsche Leipaer Zeitung from 1884, both twice a week.[26]

Today, local press includes the Českolipský deník (Česká Lípa Daily), established in 1993 and now part of Vltava Labe Media, and Městské noviny (Municipal Journal) issued by the municipal council.


Winter stadium and neighboring swimming pool

Sport Česká Lípa, a contributory organization established by the town, manages local sports facilities including: U Ploučnice municipal stadium, which includes an open football pitch, 5. května football ground, tennis hall and outdoor tennis courts, Old Sports Hall, New Multi-purpose Hall, Sever Swimming Pool, and a sports complex featuring a winter stadium, an indoor pool with water slide, a sauna and fitness centre.[27]

The town is home to Arsenal Česká Lípa, a football team playing in lower amateur tiers. TJ Lokomotiva Česká Lípa is a sports club with football, swimming, handball, volleyball, judo, rock climbing, table tennis and gymnastics sections.[28]

Between the villages of Lada and Písečná, there is a sports airport where Aeroclub Česká Lípa operates.[29]


Church of the Nativity of the Virgin Mary
Church of Saint Mary Magdalene
Jewish cemetery

Ecclesiastical monuments[edit]

The Augustinian monastery, located on what is today the Svobody Square, was founded by Albrecht von Wallenstein in 1627. The monastery complex was gradually built until the 1760s. The Loretan chapel dates from 1698, the Church of All Saints ws completed in 1707, and the Chapel of the Holy Trinity dates from 1767. The monastery complex also once contained a school and printhouse. The Homeland Museum and Gallery in Česká Lípa is now located in the premises of the former monastery. The museum was founded in 1900 and has been based in the monastery premises since 1968.[30]

The Church of the Nativity of the Virgin Mary on Palackého Square was built in the Baroque style in 1710–1714, but it has a Gothic core. The tower was added in 1873.[31]

An old church was built in 1253 as part of the monastery hospital, but it was probably destroyed during the Hussite Wars. The Church of Saint Mary Magdalene was then founded on the site next to the former church by Jindřich Berka of Dubá around 1460, and was first documented in 1503. In 1514, it was rebuilt into its current late Gothic appearance.[32] The provost office next to the church, today deanery of the Roman Catholic parish, was completed in 1756.[33]

The Church of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross was built in the second half of the 14th century and is the oldest church in Česká Lípa. It has a Gothic core. In 1897, the building was adjusted to the neo-Gothic style by Josef Mocker.[34][35]

The former Evangelic church was built for German Lutherans in 1927–1928. In 1946, it was taken over by the Czechoslovak Hussite Church and was renamed the Church of Master Jan Hus.[36]

A notable monument remarking the Jewish community is the enclosed Old Jewish Cemetery from the 16th century. The site where a synagogue from the 1860s stood until its destruction by the Nazis in 1938 is marked by a historical memorial stone, installed in 2008.[10][37]

Historic centre[edit]

Red House

Lipý Castle is a water castle that was built in the 13th century by members of the Ronovci lineage, who later called themselves the Lords of Lipá. The castle was first documented in 1277. The original wooden building was built on an island between the arms of the Ploučnice river. The river was later rerouted. In 1515, part of the castle was rebuilt into a Renaissance palace. In the mid-17th century, Lipý Castle ceased to be the residence of the nobility and began to deteriorate. There was a sugar refinery in the castle in the 19th and early 20th centuries, and after the collapse of part of the castle, the building was demolished in 1957. In 1992, an archaeological survey and reconstruction of remains of the castle was started. Today, the castle ruin offers a sightseeing tour and the premises are also used for cultural purposes. The "Textile Print Centre" historical exhibition is located next to the castle.[4][9]

The Červený dům ("Red House") near the Lipý Castle was built as a hunting lodge by Jetřich Jiří Berka of Dubá in 1583. It was built in the Renaissance style and decorated with sgraffiti. Currently, the building houses the workplace of the museum.[4][38]

The town hall was built in 1515. In 1884, the façade was reconstructed in the Neo-Renaissance style. On the ground floor is the town information centre with a portal from 1555.[4]

The Holy Trinity Column in the middle of the T. G. Masaryk Square was created in 1689 after the plague pandemic, which hit the town and surroundings in 1680.[39] The second landmark of the town square is the fountain from 1837.[40]

Technical monuments[edit]

Špičák Hill with the observation tower

The Špičák Observation Tower is a 14-metre tower built on the Špičák hill in 1885. However, it was soon renovated and by 1906 there were 2,500 tourists recorded in its memorial book. It was used for anti-aircraft patrols in World War II. In 1997, it was renovated and converted into a radio and cellular phone networks transmitter. It is normally inaccessible, but it has occasionally been opened to the public.[41]

A technical monument is the former hatch bridge weir on the Ploučnice. It was built in connection with the regulation of the river in 1910. The movement of the hatches suspended on the frames under the bridge automatically regulated the water level and the speed of the current with its pressure. It is now used as a footbridge.[4]

Notable people[edit]

Twin towns – sister cities[edit]

Česká Lípa is twinned with:[42]


  1. ^ "Population of Municipalities – 1 January 2024". Czech Statistical Office. 17 May 2024.
  2. ^ "Části obcí". Územně identifikační registr ČR (in Czech). Retrieved 14 November 2023.
  3. ^ a b "Význam názvu města Česká Lípa". Ptejte se knihovny (in Czech). National Library of the Czech Republic. Retrieved 24 October 2022.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g "Okruh městem – Po stopách historie" (in Czech). Město Česká Lípa. Retrieved 24 October 2022.
  5. ^ a b "Česká Lípa a její historie a současnost" (in Czech). Město Česká Lípa. Retrieved 24 October 2022.
  6. ^ a b Jaroslav, Panáček (2002). "Založení České Lípy a městské právo". Bezděz, Vlastivědný Sborník Českolipska (in Czech). 11: 9. ISSN 1211-9172.
  7. ^ Marie, Vojtíšková; Jaroslav, Panáček (1976). Česká Lípa (in Czech). Liberec: Severočeské nakladatelství. p. 11. 40-009-75.
  8. ^ František, Gabriel (1997). "Historické osudy hradu". Hrad Lipý (in Czech). Prague: Společnost přátel starožitností. p. 6. ISBN 80-901258-6-7.
  9. ^ a b "Vodní hrad Lipý – Historie" (in Czech). Lipý Water Castle. Retrieved 24 October 2022.
  10. ^ a b c Polák, Michael (11 November 2013). "Křišťálová noc: Českolipská synagoga shořela nadvakrát". Českolipský deník (in Czech). Deník.cz. Retrieved 24 October 2022.
  11. ^ Jaroslav, Panáček (2004). "Dělení Berků z Dubé v roce 1502". Bezděz, vlastivědný sborník Českolipska (in Czech). Česká Lípa: Vlastivědný spolek Českolipska. ISSN 1211-9172.
  12. ^ Die postalischen Abstempelungen auf den österreichischen Postwertzeichen-Ausgaben 1867, 1883 und 1890, Wilhelm Klein, 1967
  13. ^ "Historický lexikon obcí České republiky 1869–2011 – Okres Česká Lípa" (in Czech). Czech Statistical Office. 21 December 2015. pp. 3–4.
  14. ^ "Population Census 2021: Population by sex". Public Database. Czech Statistical Office. 27 March 2021.
  15. ^ a b "Česká Lípa – Dubice" (in Czech). Liberec Region. Retrieved 24 October 2022.
  16. ^ "Adient Czech Republic" (in Czech). Adient Czech Republic. Retrieved 24 October 2022.
  17. ^ "Česká Lípa výrobní závod" (in Czech). Adient Czech Republic. Retrieved 24 October 2022.
  18. ^ Ladislav Smejkal (October 2004). "Historie města rok po roce (1986)". Městské noviny Česká Lípa (in Czech) (17): 6.
  19. ^ "O škole" (in Czech). Česká Lípa Primary Art School. Retrieved 24 October 2022.
  20. ^ "Taneční škola DUHA" (in Czech). Taneční škola DUHA. Retrieved 24 October 2022.
  21. ^ "Kulturní dům Crystal" (in Czech). Kultura Česká Lípa. Retrieved 24 October 2022.
  22. ^ "Pobočky" (in Czech). Homeland Museum and Gallery in Česká Lípa. Retrieved 24 October 2022.
  23. ^ "Oddělení knihovny" (in Czech). Česká Lípa Regional Library. Retrieved 24 October 2022.
  24. ^ Petr Brambor Nárovec (2007). Véčko (in Czech). VI (2): 84–76. ISSN 1213-7375. {{cite journal}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)
  25. ^ "Lípa Musica" (in Czech). Lípa Musica. Retrieved 24 October 2022.
  26. ^ Robert, Krejcar (2009). "Zmatená doba". Bezděz, Vlastivědný Sborník Českolipska (in Czech) (18): 80. ISSN 1211-9172.
  27. ^ "Naše sportoviště" (in Czech). Sport Česká Lípa. Retrieved 24 October 2022.
  28. ^ "Oddíly" (in Czech). TJ Lokomotiva Česká Lípa. Retrieved 24 October 2022.
  29. ^ "O nás" (in Czech). Aeroclub Česká Lípa. Retrieved 24 October 2022.
  30. ^ "Dějiny augustiniánského kláštera v České Lípě" (in Czech). Homeland Museum and Gallery in Česká Lípa. Retrieved 24 October 2022.
  31. ^ "Kostel Narození Panny Marie" (in Czech). National Heritage Institute. Retrieved 24 October 2022.
  32. ^ "Kostel sv. Máří Magdaleny, Česká Lípa" (in Czech). Liberec Region. Retrieved 24 October 2022.
  33. ^ "Kostel sv. Maří Magdalény" (in Czech). National Heritage Institute. Retrieved 24 October 2022.
  34. ^ "Kostel Nalezení sv. Kříže" (in Czech). National Heritage Institute. Retrieved 24 October 2022.
  35. ^ "Česká Lípa, Kostel Povýšení sv. Kříže" (in Czech). Lípa Musica. Retrieved 24 October 2022.
  36. ^ "'Evangelický kostel' Česká Lípa". Místa reformace (in Czech). Retrieved 24 October 2022.
  37. ^ Hámová, Petra (26 November 2008). "Historický kámen připomíná zničení synagogy". Českolipský Deník (in Czech). Deník.cz. Retrieved 24 October 2022.
  38. ^ "Zámek Červený dům" (in Czech). Kultura.cz. Retrieved 24 October 2022.
  39. ^ "Sloup se sousoším Nejsvětější Trojice" (in Czech). National Heritage Institute. Retrieved 24 October 2022.
  40. ^ "Kašna" (in Czech). National Heritage Institute. Retrieved 24 October 2022.
  41. ^ Polák, Michael (16 March 2015). "Po 15 letech se otevře rozhledna na Špičáku". Českolipský deník (in Czech). Deník.cz. Retrieved 24 October 2022.
  42. ^ "Partnerská města" (in Czech). Město Česká Lípa. Retrieved 25 June 2020.

Further reading[edit]

  • Panáček, Jaroslav; Vojtíšková, Marie; Smejkal, Ladislav (1999). Z dějin České Lípy (in Czech). Česká Lípa: Magdalena Sobotová.
  • Smejkal, Ladislav (2006). Českou Lípou krok za krokem (in Czech). Česká Lípa: Magdalena Sobotová.

External links[edit]