|This article needs additional citations for verification. (March 2012)|
Česká Lípa city hall at T. G. Masaryk square
|Official name: The city of Česká Lípa|
|Elevation||258 m (846 ft)|
|Area||66.10 km2 (25.52 sq mi)|
|Density||609 / km2 (1,577 / sq mi)|
|- summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
|Postal code||470 01 - 470 06|
|Wikimedia Commons: Česká Lípa|
Česká Lípa (Czech pronunciation: [tʃɛskaː liːpa] ( listen); German: Böhmisch-Leipa) is a city in the Czech Republic. It is the district seat and the largest city of the district in the Liberec Region. Together with Liberec, it is a part of the Nisa Euroregion. The Ploučnice River flows through the city, approximately 25 mi (40 km) from its source. Česká Lípa comprises about ten neighbourhoods and 14 municipal parts populated by 40,225 permanent residents. Education is offered by several local high schools. Several sports facilities for entertainment were recently built and others renovated. Approximately 9 mi (15 km) south of Česká Lípa lies Máchovo jezero (Mácha lake), a popular summer resort. Česká Lípa lies 23 mi (38 km) west of Liberec and 42 mi (67 km) north of Prague, counting distances between city borders.
The old town of Česká Lípa was built near a ford by the Ploučnice River where a Slavonic colony existed from the 10th century. The line of the Ronovci and Jindřich z Lipé in particular contributed to the founding of the city between 1305 and 1319, and the line of the Berkové z Dubé promoted its development. A hundred years later the city was occupited by the Hussite army of Jan Roháč z Dubé and devastated by fires. Albert of Valdštejn, and later Kaunitzs, contributed to another boom of the city by founding a monastery and school. The modern urban development of the city was influenced by industrial production and uranium mining in the region. Residential neighborhoods consisting of prefab housing in large were built on the outskirts while the city center was preserved and enunciated as an urban heritage zone.
- 1 History
- 2 Emblem and Flag of the city
- 3 Monuments
- 4 Nature Protection
- 5 Education
- 6 Culture
- 7 Press and Media
- 8 Sports
- 9 Largest Companies
- 10 Transport
- 11 Store Network
- 12 Significant Natives and Citizens
- 13 Territorial division of the city
- 14 Neighborhoods
- 15 Administrative Territory
- 16 Twin towns – Sister cities
- 17 References
- 18 External links
The current territory of the city was permanently settled around the 13th century. The first written reference of settlement comes from 1263 and is included in the Doksany Prior's purchase roll. The history of the city is associated with Chvala ze Žitavy of the Ronovci ancestry, who founded the Lipý Castle, and mainly his grandson Jindřich z Lipé (1270–1329), a significant royal aristocrat. As rolls have not been preserved, it is not clear who exactly of the ancestry founded the castle and settlement around. Thus the Lipý Castle became another fortified seat in North Bohemia on the trade routes of that time. There was a Slavonic colony near the castle, later renamed to Stará Lípa (a part of the city today). There is a reference of Arnold, said to come from Stará Lípa, who used to be a citizen in Kravaře (a small town today). Historians derive from the reference of Stará Lípa that the Lipý Castle and the colony were established around. Jindřich z Lipé moved to Moravia in 1319 after he had sold the castle with its surroundings to his cousin Hynek Berka. According to other news, in 1327 the mentioned Hynek Berka z Dobé, also a member of the ancestry of Ronovci, was the lord of Lipá and its wider surroundings. When he died in 1348, his son of the same name took the grip and after his death the second of sons Jindřich succeeded him. Then his nephew Hynek Berka z Dubé reigned the area. The eldest city charter, which he issued on 23 March 1381, documents that discretions were granted to the city of Lipá and that it was he who contributed the most to the boom of the city and the castle bearing the same name.
City walls were constructed in the beginning of the 14th century as well as the parish church of St. Paul and Peter, which was destroyed when fires affected the city in 1787. It was canonized by Peter of Aspelt, the Mayence archbishop, in 1312 in the presence of Jan Lucemburský, the Czech king. The Dean's Office of Děčín was delegated to him in 1341.
In the second half of the 14th century the family of Weitmile was concerned significantly in the development of the city even behind its walls. Members of this family used to hold positions of reeve and parsons. Petr z Weitmile was assigned as a witness on the granting of the urban discretions document by Hynek Berka z Dubé in 1381. Development of the city and a larger part of Bohemia was paused by a great plague epidemic in 1389. In the end of the 14th century the castle was controlled by other members of lords of Lipá family, of which a powerful and significant Hynek Hlaváč was often referred, until the beginning of Hussite wars when in May 1426 it was carried by Hussites led by Jan Roháč z Dubé and became a considerable stronghold until 1436. Between 1502 and 1553 a larger part of the city and its surroundings belonged to the Vartenberks. Later, the lords of Dubá / Lipá gained the castle again and kept it for over 100 years. Albrecht of Valdštejn reunited the city in 1622 to 1623. Large parts of the city were destroyed in 1787 and 1820.
In 1938, following the Munich agreement, the city was annexed to Germany.
Emblem and Flag of the city
The emblem of the city originates in the urban seal from 1389. Above the city wall there is a coat of arms of the lords of Lipá with crossed fighting rods. The flag was designed by the Heraldic Committee, the State District Archives of Česká Lípa, in 1992 and adjusted according to a historical artwork from 1937. The emblem proposal was discussed in the city government in June 1992, reviewed by Subcommittee for Heraldics of the Chamber of Deputies in December and 15 July 1993 the Speaker of the Chamber of Deputies granted the emblem to the city.
- Augustinian Monastery on Náměstí svobody, founded by Albrecht of Valdštejn in 1627, it took 150 years to complete. There used to be a school and printhouse. Today, among other things, the Homeland Museum and Gallery of the city of Ceska Lipa is located here.
- Loretan Chapel, built in 1698 in the monastery cloisters
- All Saints Church, after construction of the monastery, completed in 1710
- Mary the Virgin's Birth Church on Palackého náměstí, originally a gothic church from the 14th century, reconstructed in baroque style between 1706 and 1710 by Josef Abondius.
- St. Maria Magdalene Church was built in gothic style in the middle of the 13th century but later damaged by Hussite and Lusatian armies. Jindřich Berka, brother-in-law of George of Poděbrady, had it repaired and reconstructed around 1460, and 30 years later it became a part of the provost seat. It was reconstructed in Late Gothic style in the 16th century.
- Cistorian Provost, today Deanery—Roman Catholic Parish, is adjacent to the church and was completed in 1756,
- St. Cross Promotion Church, built in the second half of the 14th century, later reconstructed in Late Gothic style and even later in 1897 adjusted to neo-Gothic style by Josef Mocker.
- The Evangelic Church was built in 1927 and 1928 by local Protestants and taken over by the Czechoslovak Hussite Church in 1945.
- Mary the Virgin and Holy Trinity Column at T. G. Masaryk Square. Part by part built in 1683 after the plague pandemic which hit the city and surroundings in 1680.
- The place where a synagogue had stood until it was destroyed in 1938 by Nazis is marked with the historical memorial stone installed ceremonially in 2008.
- Nearby the Střelnice train stop and Střelnice bar and disco area there is an enclosed Jewish Cemetery.
- Lipý Water Castle (also Lipá, Lipý) was built in the 13th century by members of the ancestry of Ronovci who later called themselves the Lords of Lipá. In the beginning the construction was made of wood and was built by the Ploučnice river. The river's flow was later deflected. A guard tower of stone was built in the 14th century. It was captured by Hussites and Swedes and ceased in time. There was a sugar refinery inside in the 19th and beginning of the 20th century and the castle was finally demolished after 1945. In 1990 the city began a gradual reconstruction and organizes cultural events in its grounds. The contributory organization Lipý, Česká Lípa has been established by the city for the castle's management and a neighboring recently renovated historical exhibition of Centrum textilního tisku (textile print center) was given in its charge in February 2011.
- The Red House is in vicinity with the Lipý Castle and was built as a hunters' chateau by Jetřich Jiří Berka z Dubé in 1583. This building of Italian renaissance style is decorated outside with sgraffito and had been used for many purposes, such as a dye-house, a tavern, and a city museum branch in 1933. It is unused nowadays.
- The Neo-Renaissance City Hall from 1823 was reconstructed in 1884 and is in use for its purpose at T. G. Masaryk Square downtown. Basements are built in Gothic style as the city hall had been standing here even in past times before several devastating fires. The building had partially served as a saving house, a court and by 1900 also as a museum branch.
- The fountain on T. G. Masaryk Square from 1837, fully functional in Summertime down to this day.
- Špičák Outlook Tower - Špičák hill at the north edge of the city has an elevation of 459 m above sea level, the highest point far and wide. A 14m outlook tower was built there in 1885 for a price of 5,000 guilders and two years later was partially burnt down. However, it was soon renovated and in 1906 only there were 2500 tourists written in its memorial book. It was used for anti-aircraft patrols in the Second World War and then began to cease. In 1997 it was renovated and converted into a radio and cellular phone networks transmitter, unaccessible to the general public. A blue hiking trail leads here from the city centre.
There are several monumental trees and one conservation in the city — Okřešice Meadows.
There was a parochial school in 1391 in the city, then records mention a doom of the school in 1515 during a big fire. The Latin school established in 1627 together with the Augustinian Monastery had been canceled by Empress Maria Theresa. The facility was restored in 1806 as their high school. Education had its boom in the 19th century. In 1824 an evening school for working children was established, then a trade apprentice school was opened in 1838, a business school in 1868, a practice school by the Monastery in 1869, a trade continuation school in 1879 and in 19 October the same year a high school of agriculture was opened. In 1882 the State High School was established and in 1895 girls' and 1900 a boys' public school.
There were 42 schools and kindergartens in 2003 in the city.
There are several cultural centers in Česká Lípa. The most important are the Crystal Culture House, the Jirásek Theater, the Art School with its halls, the Homeland Museum and Gallery with their branches and the Municipal Library with its branches.
Crystal Culture Center
The building comprises a cinema, halls and a restaurant. A contributory organization was established by the city after 1990 bearing the name of Crystal Culture House as its manager and this helps organize Summer events in the Lipý Castle. The city government concluded that the mentioned group would be renamed to Kultura Česká Lípa (Ceska Lipa Culture) effective by 1 January 2011 and thereby a new organization, Lipý Česká Lípa, would be established. This one was given charge of the castle as well as the recently created historic Textile Print Center in the castle vicinity opened in 16 February 2011.
Before the Municipal Information Center was moved to the City Hall it had been a part of Crystal Culture Center as well.
This facility was established in the building called the White House which formerly served to the Communist Party District Committee until 1990. There are several sections and their schoolrooms in this multilevel building while the ground floor with its large hall serves as a seat of the Rainbow Dancing School. There is enough space for plastics exhibitions and the smaller hall is made for production of music files as well as the school activities. It is also used by other non-school music groups.
Museum and Gallery
The Homeland Museum and Gallery of the city of Česká Lípa is located in the grounds of the former Augustinian Monastery. A big Animal World exhibition permanently takes place here. A Loretan courtyard grants place to short-time exhibitions. There is a religious building of Loreta in the middle and other places are occupied with artwork collections. The chapel is also part of the grounds and is used for concerts. This museum has a regional character and holds many objects of the Česká Lípa District area. The museum also owns the Village Magistrate in the town of Kravaře, and the Karel Hynek Mácha Memorial in the town of Doksy including the Fisher and Pond Culture of Ceska Lipa exhibition. It is also in charge of the Breda Summerhouse in the grounds of Lemberk Chateau.
The main three-level building is located on T. G. Masaryk Square. There is an entertainment literature department on the 1st floor; educational literature, public internet access and reading and lecture rooms on the 2nd floor and children department on the 3rd floor.
The library offers consultancy to smaller libraries of the district and has its three branches in the city:
- Branch in Špičák neighborhood, Červeného Kříže St.,
- Branch in Lada neighborhood, 2989 Komenského St.,
- Branch in Holy vrch neighborhood, 1814 Jižní St.
Municipal Summer Festival
The city organizes the Municipal Summer Festival in the grounds of Lipý Castle every year at the beginning of Summer. This event was founded in 2000 when it took place in the city park, then celebrating 125 years from its founding. The next year it took place at the T. G. Masaryk Square. When Lipý Castle was renovated in 2003 the festival moved to its grounds. This event contains an antique fair, concerts, fireworks, theater performances and City Awards are granted.
Lípa Musica Festival
The first annual International Lípa Music Festival was held in 2000, primarily featuring classical music. By 2008 there were 10 places in the Ústí nad Labem and Liberec regions organizing concerts. In the city of Česká Lípa the opening and closing events of the festival are held in the All Saints Basilica, part of the Augustinian Monastery. The Lipa Musica Festival has a significant position among cultural events in Liberecký Region, being the leading musical event of the autumn season. This is not just a regional matter, especially since 2007, when its itinerary changed, it presents top quality concerts which attract listeners from further afield including Prague.
Reggae Ethnic Session
For fans of reggae, ska and world music styles the Reggae Ethnic Session music festival was established in 2000 in Žízníkov, an outer suburb of the city. Since the attendance skyrocketed and the location in Žízníkov ceased to be sufficiently large, the session has moved to the nearby meadows of the Heřmaňičky neighborhood.
Press and Media
After year 1850 the Leipaer Zeitung was released in German language for Česká Lípa readers, and its competition Deutsche Leipaer Zeitung from 1884, both twice a week.
Today's local press includes the Českolipský deník (Ceska Lipa Daily), now part of Vltaba Labe Press Holding, established in 1993, and Městské noviny (Municipal Journal) issued by the city hall. Lípa magazine, new Českolipský Šotek and Zpravodaj OSBD Česká Lípa bring information as well as advertising.
Retail chains of Interspar, Kaufland, OBI, Penny Market, Lidl, Albert Hypermarket (formerly Hypernova) and local OD Andy feed merely advertising press delivered to post boxes. There is also a longer history of Českolipské kapky (Česká Lípa Drops) advertising magazine.
There is no commercial or municipal TV station in Česká Lipa but the Hitradio FM Crystal broadcasts here both for the Česká Lípa and Děčín districts (formerly for Česká Lípa only). The city has an official site on the net, there is also an independent i-noviny district web based newspaper and many other blogs. Almost all institutions, organizations, Public Administration, sport and culture clubs have websites.
Sport Česká Lípa, a contributory organization established by the city, is in charge of the following facilities:
- Municipal Stadium, 3178 Boženy Němcové St., open soccer pitch, tennis hall, outdoor tennis courts, hothouse and solarium.
- Sports Hall (Lokomotiva), 1439 Hrnčířská St.
- Sports Complex by Kaufland, reconstructed winter stadium and indoor pool with water slide.
- Sever Swimmimg Pool, 2520 Školní St.
- Skatepark, in the vicinity of the Sports Complex
Other facilities include:
- OLYMPIA Relax Center, squash, bowling, hothouse,
- Bowling, three places in town
- School gyms and pitches
- TJ Lokomotiva grounds including a soccer pitch near the train station
- Lada Airdrome, an air club and sightseeing flights
- Sosnová Motor-racing Circuit, location of tens of contests including National Championship
- Indoor sports complex by the Kaufland store.
- There is a Municipal Information Center at the T. G. Masaryk Square.
- Boating Ploučnice, used for canoes and kayaks from Stráž pod Ralskem, municipal washtub funny rally from time to time.
Hiking and cycle trails
- There are three cycle paths leading throughout the city, built partially on subsoil of canceled railroads.
- Cycling Path 3053 leads from south from Provodin and Sosnová, though the city, and northwards via Písečná, then to the towns of Nový Bor and Cvikov in the Lusatian Mountains
- Cycling Path 3054 leads from Provodin as well, via Vlčí důl, through the city and northwards in the direction of Skalice and Nový Bor.
- Varhany Cycling Path's construction is still in progress, a part of path 3054. It should be 10.5 mi long in price of 17 mil. CZK. Its first part from Českokamenická Street to Horní Libchava, 3.3 mi in length, was opened ceremonially on June 23, 2008.
- There is a network of hiking trails in the city as well as its surroundings and a guide-post crossing at Bulharská St. leading to the main railway station. The nearest rambler destination is Peklo (hell), a part of the E10 international route, going north-south through the city. The blue trail leads from Bulharská St. to Mácha's Lake, and the yellow from trail 6960 to Holany Ponds.
- There is a Czech Hiking Club with a sign before the train station and the seat in Adela Villa and TOM (Youths Tourist Troop).
District Committee of Czech Union of Physical Education used to be an original administrative association which now is Česká Lípa District Sports Union. The most significant Physical Education Organizations are as follows:
- HC Predators Česká Lípa, hockey
- FK Arsenal Česká Lípa, soccer
- Lokomotiva Česká Lípa, soccer, volleyball, table-tenniss, handball, judo
- Atletic club Česká Lípa, athletics
- FBC Česká Lípa, floorball club with several units
- Klub Sport Relax Znamenáček, karate
There is a number of large automotive companies in the southwest part of the city, mainly in Dubice neighborhood and industrial zone where about 5,000 workers are employed. Those are branches of international holding corporations such as Johnson Controls, Varta, Delphi Packard Electric, Autobaterie, Fehrer Bohemia and Bombardier.
Česká Lípa hlavní nádraží (main railway station) is a junction between the Bakov nad Jizerou - Jedlová and Děčín - Rumburk lines. Three smaller train stops, Česká Lípa-Střelnice, Česká Lípa-Holý vrch and Vlčí důl-Dobranov are located in the suburbs of the city. The centrally located (Česká Lípa město railway station) was closed down in 1979 and the railway connecting it with the main station (at a length of three quarters of a mile) is not in use any more.
Railways and stations have been built by various companies. The first railway was built in 1867 leading to the town of Bakov nad Jizerou. Another railway was opened in 1872 to the town of Benešov nad Ploučnicí and later prolonged to the city of Děčín. Another company then built the Česká Lípa město station out of which the first train went to the town of Litoměřice and in 1903 the railway leading from Česká Lípa to Řetenice u Teplic and in opposite direction leading via the town of Zákupy to the city of Liberec. The railway from Česká Lípa to Česká Kamenice was completed and opened in 1903 and large railway workshops was constructed in the vicinity of the main station. The national corporation of ŽOS (Railway Repair and Engineering Workshops) had its headquarters here until 1980. The railway leading to Česká Kamenice was closed in 1979, and its subsoil was used for building of a part of the Varhany Cycling Path. Railways in the city and peripherals are connected. The Česká Lípa město station built in 1898 is out of service now and Czech Railways are offering it for sale. The railway from this station leading to the neighbourhood of Vlčí důl has been demolished and its subsoil used for construction of cycle path no. 3054. Three short sidings unused and blocked lead from the central station to several former factory and industrial buildings in the Svárov neighborhood.
There are four directions to which trains are dispatched from the central station.
- Route L4 - Railroad 080 Bakov – Česká Lípa – Rumburk, northwards bound
- Route L2 - Railroad 081 Česká Lípa – Děčín, westwards bound
- Route L2 - Railroad 086 Česká Lípa – Liberec, southeastwards bound then northeeastwards bound
- Route U11 - Railroad 087 Česká Lípa – Lovosice, leads southwards
Railways 081 and 086 are joined by many trains. Ordinary passenger trains use them for routes from Liberec to Děčín and express ones from Liberec to Ústí nad Labem.
Regional and intercity transportation is mainly operated by ČSAD Česká Lípa, based at the city bus station from 1986, provides connection in directions to towns of Mimoň, Nový Bor and Prague, and with surrounding towns and villages.
Small transport companies (such as Mirobus for instance) provide transport for commuters of local large companies or offer an alternative transport for Czech Railways in case of lockouts etc. Nevertheless, Municipal transit company of BusLine Co. has taken over most of such services.
There's a wide network of bus routes in Ceska Lipa Municipal Transit. Streets of the city ain't hardwired with an electrical traction so you won't encounter trolley cars or light rail. The Muni transit runs exclusively within the city while further parts of the county are covered with regional bus service. You can get every 12 to 15 minutes to most inhabited neighborhoods on workdays while every 30 minutes to less inhabited. Main routes run every 30 minutes and there're always two for most neighborhoods while their departures are always interlaced. The service frequency is lower in less inhabited parts of the city and limited to a half on weekend operation.
All city buses are low-entry and equipped with an audio visual information system. There's a flip ramp mostly by the middle doors handled by the operator who also assists with loading and securing. There's a commonplace system of announcing the stops from speakers as well as on a display on every bus while external announcement for vision impaired or blind passengers can be activated via a remote.
Municipal transit routes carry numbers up to 235 while higher numbers from 240 are assigned for local regional buses. Effective by the end of February 2015 all city buses have a new yellow blue logo of the city of Ceska Lipa allocated below the windshield. Route designation is based on the Regional Governemt decree and outlined in the Project of IDOL Implementation.
Ceska Lipa Municipal transit is a member of cross region integrated transportation called IDOL from July 2009. IDOL is based on the integrated tariff and the OpusCard contactless smartcard as a uniform fare carrier.
BusLine a.s. is the only transit carrier in Ceska Lipa and this company is engaged in municipal transit in several other cities and towns as well.
There exists the Ceska Lipa Transportation Club, an oranizational constituent of Lípa 2 civic association, which monitors the transit development, negotiates with the city, other authorities as well as carriers, and brings complete information in its website.
The most important of this kind is the straight superlevel I/9 Road leading south to north from Prague to Nový Bor from 1987. From west to east there is the II/262 Road from Děčín to Zákupy. There are junctions and pedestrian crossing with streetlights and several roundabouts in the city.
While small shops remained dominant downtown only in the historic core around the main square, branches of international store chains was built in north part of the city (mainly Špičák neighborhood) such as Interspar, Albert, Penny Market, Lidl, Mountfield. When both market places had been canceled downtown by the city, many stores and shops in the center have been taken over by former stall owners (usually Vietnamese). Kaufland Hypermarket lies near the south bank of Ploučnice River and Parada Shopping Center in Holy Vrch neighborhood by the II/262 Road in direction to Děčín. Two department stores, Andy and Banco are right in the center.
All large stores have their parking lots, some of them under ground level.
- Albert Hypermarket, Šluknovská St., near the road to Nový Bor,
- Albert Hypermarket, Borská St., the same area,
- OBI, Borská St., the same area,
- Kaufland, Mimoňská St., south bank of Ploučnice river
- Parada Shopping, Děčínská Rd., shopping center
- Andy, 2906 Erbenova St., independent proprietor
- Banco, Dr. E. Beneš Sq, opposite to Andy, downtown as well
- Albert, Bardějovská St.
- Albert, Děčínská Rd.
- Penny Market, Žitavská St., Špičák neighborhood
- Mountfield, Žitavská St., by Penny Market
- Lidl, Purkyňova St., near Penny Market
Significant Natives and Citizens
- Josef Bohumír Mikan (1743–1814), physician and professor of botanics and chemistry at Charles Universiti in Prague
- Pavel Konopeus (1596–1636), monastery school director
- Vilém Horn (1809–1891), photography pioneer publisher of the first magazine about photos
- Ernst Kutzer (1880–1965), painter, graphic designer, author and illustrator
- Richard Duschek (1884–1959), painter and illustrator
- Franz Winkler (* 1890), Austrian politician
- Jaroslav Panáček (1908–1992), chronicler, historian, athletics chairman, teacher
- Rudolf de la Vigne (1920–2004), German soccer player
- Rudolf Jürschik (* 1935), chief editor, then art director of DEFA
- Angela Jursitzka (* 1938), German journalist and writer
- Věra Klásková (* 1970), Czech performer of Irish ballads
- Petr Kellner (*1964), conterporary billionaire
- Hugo Salus (1866–1929) doctor, writer and poet.
- Dominika Pštrosová (* 1986) model, actress, designer and philanthropist.
Territorial division of the city
The city is divided into 14 cadastral territories and 14 parts:
- Česká Lípa
- Dolní Libchava, joined on July 14, 1964
- Dubice; also comprising Robeč until 2007, which was canceled administratively.
- Lada, joined on June 30, 1960
- Okřešice (Česká Lípa), joined on November 27, 1971
- Stará Lípa, joined on June 30, 1960
- Vlčí Důl
The inner town of the city is divided into the following neighborhoods as seen in the city map.
- Dolní Libchava
- Stará Lípa
Česká Lípa is a district city as well as a municipality with extended powers and a local authority. Česká Lípa District comprises 57 municipalities, Česká Lípa Municipality with extended powers consists of 47 municipalities.
Twin towns – Sister cities
Česká Lípa is twinned with:
- Aleksandrov, Russia
- Bardejov, Slovakia
- Bolesławiec, Poland
- Mittweida, Germany
- Molde, Norway
- Uzhhorod, Ukraine
Special reference note
Except for one photo and the introductory paragraph this page has been translated from the Wikipedia page of Česká Lípa in Czech language. Any copyright is as stated by the author of the original article in Czech language. When referring to Czech language sources, a reader should opt for Czech language as well.
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