P

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Writing cursive forms of P

P (named pee /p/[1] ) is the 16th letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.

History[edit]

Phoenician
P
Archaic Greek
Pi
Greek
Pi
Cyrillic
Pe
Etruscan
P
Latin
P
PhoenicianP-01.svg GreekP-02.svg Pi uc lc.svg Cyrillic letter Pe - uppercase and lowercase.svg EtruscanP-01.svg RomanP-01.png

Use in writing systems[edit]

In English orthography and most other European languages, ⟨p⟩ represents the sound /p/.

A common digraph in English is ⟨ph⟩, which represents the sound /f/, and can be used to transliterate ⟨φ⟩ phi in loanwords from Greek. In German, the digraph ⟨pf⟩ is common, representing a labial affricate /pf/.

Most English words beginning with ⟨p⟩ are of foreign origin, primarily French, Latin, Greek, and Slavic;[citation needed] these languages preserve Proto-Indo-European initial *p. Native English cognates of such words often start with ⟨f⟩, since English is a Germanic language and thus has undergone Grimm's law; a native English word with initial /p/ would reflect Proto-Indo-European initial *b, which is so rare that its existence as a phoneme is disputed.

However, native English words with non-initial ⟨p⟩ are quite common; such words can come from either Kluge's law or the consonant cluster /sp/ (PIE *p has been preserved after s).

In the International Phonetic Alphabet, /p/ is used to represent the voiceless bilabial plosive.

Related characters[edit]

Ancestors, descendants and siblings[edit]

The Latin letter P represents the same sound as the Greek letter Pi, but it looks like the Greek letter Rho.

  • 𐤐 : Semitic letter Pe, from which the following symbols originally derive
    • Π π : Greek letter Pi
      • 𐌐 : Old Italic and Old Latin P, which derives from Greek Pi, and is the ancestor of modern Latin P. The Roman P had this form (𐌐) on coins and inscriptions until the reign of Claudius, ca. 50 AD (See also Claudian letters).
      • 𐍀 : Gothic letter pertra/pairþa, which derives from Greek Pi
      • П п : Cyrillic letter Pe, which also derives from Pi
    • Ⲡ ⲡ : Coptic letter Pi
  • P with diacritics: Ṕ ṕ Ṗ ṗ Ᵽ ᵽ Ƥ ƥ [2] [3]
  • Uralic Phonetic Alphabet-specific symbols related to P:[4]
    • U+1D18 LATIN LETTER SMALL CAPITAL P
    • U+1D3E MODIFIER LETTER CAPITAL P
    • U+1D56 MODIFIER LETTER SMALL P
  • ₚ : Subscript small p was used in the Uralic Phonetic Alphabet prior to its formal standardization in 1902[5]

Derived ligatures, abbreviations, signs and symbols[edit]

Computing codes[edit]

Character P p
Unicode name LATIN CAPITAL LETTER P     LATIN SMALL LETTER P
Encodings decimal hex decimal hex
Unicode 80 U+0050 112 U+0070
UTF-8 80 50 112 70
Numeric character reference P P p p
EBCDIC family 215 D7 151 97
ASCII 1 80 50 112 70
1 Also for encodings based on ASCII, including the DOS, Windows, ISO-8859 and Macintosh families of encodings.

Other representations[edit]

NATO phonetic Morse code
Papa ·––·
ICS Papa.svg Semaphore Papa.svg Sign language P.svg {{{Braille}}}
Signal flag Flag semaphore American manual alphabet (ASL fingerspelling) Braille

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "P", Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition (1989); Merriam-Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged (1993); "pee," op. cit.
  2. ^ Constable, Peter (2003-09-30). "L2/03-174R2: Proposal to Encode Phonetic Symbols with Middle Tilde in the UCS" (PDF). 
  3. ^ Constable, Peter (2004-04-19). "L2/04-132 Proposal to add additional phonetic characters to the UCS" (PDF). 
  4. ^ Everson, Michael; et al. (2002-03-20). "L2/02-141: Uralic Phonetic Alphabet characters for the UCS" (PDF). 
  5. ^ Ruppel, Klaas; Aalto, Tero; Everson, Michael (2009-01-27). "L2/09-028: Proposal to encode additional characters for the Uralic Phonetic Alphabet" (PDF). 
  6. ^ Perry, David J. (2006-08-01). "L2/06-269: Proposal to Add Additional Ancient Roman Characters to UCS" (PDF). 
  7. ^ Everson, Michael; Baker, Peter; Emiliano, António; Grammel, Florian; Haugen, Odd Einar; Luft, Diana; Pedro, Susana; Schumacher, Gerd; Stötzner, Andreas (2006-01-30). "L2/06-027: Proposal to add Medievalist characters to the UCS" (PDF). 

External links[edit]

  • Media related to P at Wikimedia Commons
  • The dictionary definition of P at Wiktionary
  • The dictionary definition of p at Wiktionary