|1751 by topic|
|Arts and Science|
|Lists of leaders|
|Birth and death categories|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1751.|
1751 (MDCCLI) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1751st year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 751st year of the 2nd millennium, the 51st year of the 18th century, and the 2nd year of the 1750s decade. As of the start of 1751, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. In Britain and its colonies, 1751 only had 282 days due to the Calendar Act of 1750.
- March 25
- March 31 – Frederick, Prince of Wales dies in London and is succeeded by his son, the future George III of the United Kingdom, as heir-apparent to the British throne and Prince of Wales. George's mother Augusta of Saxe-Gotha becomes Dowager Princess of Wales.
- May 11 – The Pennsylvania legislature grants a charter to Benjamin Franklin and Dr. Thomas Bond, for the establishment in Philadelphia of the first hospital in the Colonies.
- May 27 – Adoption of the Gregorian calendar: Royal assent is given to An Act for Regulating the Commencement of the Year; and for Correcting the Calendar now in Use (the "Calendar Act") passed by the Parliament of Great Britain, introducing the Gregorian Calendar, correcting the eleven-day difference between Old Style and New Style dates and making 1 January legally New Year's Day from 1752 in the British Empire. It is largely promoted by George Parker, 2nd Earl of Macclesfield.
- July 28 – Battle of Kirkhbulakh: The Kingdom of Kartli defeats a large army of the Tabriz Khanate, under Erekle II.
- July 31 – Fire destroys 1,000 houses in Stockholm.
- August 13 – The Academy and College of Philadelphia, predecessor to the private University of Pennsylvania, opens its doors, with Benjamin Franklin as president.
- September 13 – Kalvária Banská Štiavnica in the Kingdom of Hungary is completed.
- October 27 – The Hōreki period begins in Japan.
- December 3 – Battle of Arnee in India (Second Carnatic War): A British East India Company–led force under Robert Clive defeats and routs a much larger Franco-Indian army, under the command of Raza Sahib, at Arni.
- December 14 - The Theresian Military Academy is founded in Wiener Neustadt, Austria.
- In the University of Glasgow (Scotland):
- The Encyclopédie is first published.
- Ferdinando Galiani publishes the first modern economic analysis, Della Moneta.
- Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus publishes his Philosophia Botanica, the first textbook of descriptive systematic botanical taxonomy, and the first appearance of his binomial nomenclature.
- The Maria Theresa thaler is minted; it becomes an international currency.
- 1751–1775 – 13% of appointees to audiencias in the Spanish Empire are Creoles.
- January 12 – Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies (d. 1825)
- February 15 – Johann Heinrich Wilhelm Tischbein, German painter (d. 1829)
- February 20 – Johann Heinrich Voss, German poet (d. 1826)
- March 16 – James Madison, 4th President of the United States (d. 1836)
- April 5 – Marie-Aimée Lullin, Swiss entomologist (d. 1822)
- May 24 – Charles Emmanuel IV of Savoy, King of Sardinia (d. 1819)
- June 4 – John Scott, 1st Earl of Eldon, Lord Chancellor of Great Britain (d. 1838)
- June 17 – Joshua Humphreys, American naval architect (d. 1838)
- July 11 – Caroline Matilda, British princess, queen consort of Denmark (d. 1775)
- July 29 – Elisabetta Caminèr Turra, Venetian writer (d. 1796)
- July 30 (midnight) – Maria Anna Mozart ("Nannerl"), Austrian pianist, singer, composer and violinist, sister of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (d. 1829)
- September 1 – Emanuel Schikaneder, German dramatist, actor and singer (d. 1812)
- September 5 – François Joseph Westermann, French Revolutionary leader, general (d. 1794)
- October 5 – James Iredell, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States (d. 1799)
- October 30 – Richard Brinsley Sheridan, Irish dramatist, politician (d. 1816)
- date unknown
- Armand-Marie-Jacques de Chastenet, Marquis of Puységur, French mesmerist (d. 1825)
- Gregoria Apaza, Bolivian indigenous leader (d. 1782)
- Charlotta Richardy, Swedish industrialist (d. 1831)
- Thomas Sheraton, English furniture designer (d. 1806)
- Maria Antonia Fernandez, Spanish flamenco singer, dancer (d. 1787)
- January 17 – Tomaso Albinoni, Italian composer (b. 1671)
- January 20 – John Hervey, 1st Earl of Bristol, English politician (b. 1665)
- January 25 – Paul Dudley, Massachusetts Attorney-General (b. 1675)
- February 5 – Henri François d'Aguesseau, Chancellor of France (b. 1668)
- February 7 – Albert Borgard, Danish artillery and engineer officer (b. 1659)
- March 24 – János Pálffy, Hungarian field marshal, Palatine (b. 1664)
- March 25 – King Frederick I of Sweden (b. 1676)
- March 29 – Thomas Coram, English sea captain, philanthropist (b. c. 1668)
- March 31 – Frederick, Prince of Wales, Hanoverian-born heir to the British throne (b. 1707)
- April 19 – Peter Lacy, Irish-born Russian Field marshal (b. 1678)
- June 9 – John Machin, English mathematician (b. c.1686)
- June 20 – Adriaan Valckenier, Dutch Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies (1737-1741) (b. 1695)
- August 18 – Samuel von Schmettau, Prussian field marshal (b. 1684)
- August 30 – Christopher Polhem, Swedish scientist (b. 1661)
- October 22 – William IV, Prince of Orange, Stadtholder of the Dutch Republic (b. 1711)
- October 26 – Philip Doddridge, English nonconformist religious leader (b. 1702)
- November 18 – Abraham Vater, German antomist (b. 1684)
- December 12 – Henry St John, 1st Viscount Bolingbroke, English statesman, philosopher (b. 1678)
- December 16 – Leopold II, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau, Prussian general (b. 1700)
- December 19 – Louise of Great Britain, queen of Frederick V of Denmark (b. 1724)
- December 29 – Charles, Count of Armagnac, French noble (b. 1684)
- Williams, Hywel (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. pp. 314–315. ISBN 0-304-35730-8.
- Dagnall, H. (1991). Give us back our eleven days. Edgware: author. p. 19. ISBN 0-9515497-2-3.
- Semple, Clare (2006). A Silver Legend: the story of the Maria Theresa Thaler. Manchester: Barzan Publishing. ISBN 0-9549701-0-1.