1985 Rome and Vienna airport attacks
|Rome and Vienna airport attacks|
Aftermath in a fast food restaurant in the Leonardo da Vinci International Airport after the attack
Locations of the incidents in Rome, Italy and Vienna, Austria
|Date||27 December 1985 |
9:15 am (UTC+1)
|Target||Israeli targets in Leonardo da Vinci Airport (Rome) and Vienna International Airport (Vienna)|
|Deaths||19 (+4 terrorists)|
|Injured||138 (+1 terrorist)|
|Perpetrators||Abu Nidal Organization (purported)|
The Rome and Vienna airport attacks were two major terrorist attacks carried out on 27 December 1985. Seven Arab terrorists attacked two airports in Rome, Italy, and Vienna, Austria with assault rifles and hand grenades. Nineteen civilians were killed and over a hundred others were injured before four of the terrorists were killed by El Al Security personnel and local police, who captured the remaining three.
At 08:15 GMT, four Arab gunmen walked to the shared ticket counter for Israel's El Al Airlines and Trans World Airlines at Leonardo da Vinci-Fiumicino Airport outside Rome, Italy, fired assault rifles and threw grenades. They killed 16 and wounded 99, including American diplomat Wes Wessels, before three of the attackers were killed by El Al security, while the remaining one, Mohammed Sharam, was wounded and captured by the Italian police. The dead included General Donato Miranda Acosta, Mexican military attache, and his secretary, Genoveva Jaime Cisneros.
Minutes later, at Schwechat Airport (Vienna International Airport) in Vienna, Austria, three terrorists carried out a similar attack. Hand grenades were thrown into crowds of passengers queuing to check in for a flight to Tel Aviv, killing two people instantly and wounding 39 others. A third victim died on 22 January 1986, of hand grenade wounds sustained in the attack. First response came from several Austrian police officers, which opened fire on the terrorists. They were supported by two EL AL security guards who helped to repel the attackers. Over 200 bullets were fired during the fight. The terrorists fled by car, and Austrian police and El Al security guards gave chase. They killed one terrorist and captured the other two.
In all, the two strikes killed 19, including a child, and wounded around 140. Some contemporary reports claimed the gunmen originally intended to hijack El Al jets at the airports and blow them up over Tel Aviv; others concluded that the attack on waiting passengers was the original plan and that the Frankfurt airport was meant to be hit as well.:244
The attacks were first blamed on the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), but its leader, Yasser Arafat, denied the accusations and denounced the strikes. The PLO asserted that the attacks were intended to force Austria and Italy into severing ties with the Palestinians.:246
Responsibility for the two attacks was later claimed by the Abu Nidal Organization (ANO) in retaliation for Operation Wooden Leg, the Israeli bombing of PLO headquarters in Tunis on 1 October 1985. Libya was accused, by the US, of funding the terrorists who carried out the attacks; although they denied the charges, they did praise the assaults. According to published reports, sources close to Abu Nidal said Libyan intelligence supplied the weapons and the ANO's head of the Intelligence Directorate's Committee for Special Missions, Dr. Ghassan al-Ali, organized the attacks. Libya denied these charges as well, notwithstanding that it claimed they were "heroic operations carried out by the sons of the martyrs of Sabra and Shatila.":245 Italian secret services blamed Syria and Iran.
The surviving terrorist in the Rome airport attack, Mahmoud Ibrahim Khaled (Khalid Ibrahim), was sentenced to 30 years imprisonment in 1988. He was released early on good behavior in June 2010 and was living in Rome in 2011. In 1987, an Austrian court sentenced the two surviving terrorists in the Vienna airport attack to life imprisonment.
- Moore, James K. (May 1991). Walking the Line of Death: U.S.-Libyan Relations in the Reagan Decade, 1981-1989 (Master's thesis). San Jose, CA: San Jose State University. pp. 62–73. Document No.1344297ProQuest 303989717.
- Santifort, Charlinda; Sandler, Todd; Brandt, Patrick T (20 August 2012). "Terrorist Attack and Target Diversity". Journal of Peace Research. 50 (1): 75–90. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.1022.6651. doi:10.1177/0022343312445651.
- "Twin Attacks at the Airports of Vienna and Rome (Dec. 27, 1985)". Israeli Security Agency.
- "Abu Nidal Organization (ANO) attacked Airports & Airlines target (Dec. 27, 1985, Austria)". Archived from the original on 25 March 2006. Retrieved 27 December 2005.
- Seale, Patrick (1993). Abu Nidal: A Gun For Hire. Arrow. ISBN 978-0099225713. OCLC 27957973.
- Joyner, Nancy D. (1 December 1992). "Challenges to Security in Air Transportation". Criminal Law Forum. 3 (2): 333–335. doi:10.1007/BF01096207. ISSN 1046-8374.
- Suro, Roberto (6 February 1987). "Italians See Links to Syria in 1985 Airport Attack". The New York Times. NYTimes Co. Archived from the original on 13 November 2017.
- Associated Press (22 February 2011). "Libyan-sponsored attacker now free in Rome". San Diego Union-Tribune.
- Horntrich, Lisa-Sophie (26 December 2015). "Als der Terror nach Wien-Schwechat kam". Die Presse (in German). Retrieved 22 July 2020.
- Terrorist Attack at Vienna Airport in 1985 - ORF Austrian Broadcasting Corporation news
- Terrorists Kill 13 At El Al Offices – published on the Miami News on 27 December 1985
- El Al Attacks; 16 Dead, 100 Hurt – published on Lewiston Journal on 27 December 1985
- Terror raids leave 17 dead at Rome, Vienna airports Attack aimed at Israeli airline – published on the Toronto Star on 27 December 1985
- Terrorists Raid 2 Europe Airports – published on the Pittsburgh Press on 27 December 1985
- BBC: "On This Day"
- New York Times: "ITALY NOW LINKING SYRIANS TO ATTACK AT ROME AIRPORT"