List of members of the Parliament of Finland, 2011–15

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The 36th Eduskunta[1] follows the parliamentary election held on 17 April 2011. There are 200 MPs in the parliament. The current government is 72nd in order,[2] as there have been on average two governments per parliament.

As elected[edit]

Name Party Constituency Number of votes Office
Timo Soini True Finns Uusimaa 43,437 Chairman of the Foreign Affairs Committee
Alexander Stubb National Coalition Party Uusimaa 41,768 Prime Minister
Jyrki Katainen National Coalition Party Uusimaa 23,962
Paavo Arhinmäki Left Alliance Helsinki 17,226 Minister of Culture and Sport
Lauri Ihalainen Social Democratic Party Uusimaa 15,085 Minister of Labour
Jussi Halla-aho True Finns Helsinki 15,074
Maria Guzenina-Richardson Social Democratic Party Uusimaa 14,581 Minister for Health and Social Services
Heli Paasio Social Democratic Party Finland Proper 13,958
Ben Zyskowicz National Coalition Party Helsinki 13,407
Ritva Elomaa True Finns Finland Proper 13,121
Stefan Wallin Swedish People's Party Finland Proper 12,366
Paula Risikko National Coalition Party Vaasa 11,907 Minister for Social Affairs and Health
Jutta Urpilainen Social Democratic Party Vaasa 11,670 Minister of Finance
Jan Vapaavuori National Coalition Party Helsinki 11,203 Minister of Economic Affairs
Petteri Orpo National Coalition Party Finland Proper 11,018 Chairman of the NCP parliamentary group
Hanna Tainio Social Democratic Party Pirkanmaa 10,400
Anne-Mari Virolainen National Coalition Party Finland Proper 10,041
Erkki Tuomioja Social Democratic Party Helsinki 9,970 Minister for Foreign Affairs
Tapani Tölli Centre Party Oulu 9,777
Eero Heinäluoma Social Democratic Party Helsinki 9,501 Speaker of the Parliament
Anne Kalmari Centre Party Central Finland 9,288
Laila Koskela True Finns Pirkanmaa 9,172
Lea Mäkipää True Finns Pirkanmaa 9,034
Pentti Oinonen True Finns Northern Savonia 8,920
Mari Kiviniemi Centre Party Helsinki 8,812
Katja Taimela Social Democratic Party Finland Proper 8,498
Anna-Maja Henriksson Swedish People's Party Vaasa 8,392 Minister of Justice
Mikael Jungner Social Democratic Party Uusimaa 8,380
Saara Karhu Social Democratic Party Pirkanmaa 8,327
Anneli Kiljunen Social Democratic Party Kymi 8,294
Osmo Soininvaara Green League Helsinki 8,285
Sofia Vikman National Coalition Party Pirkanmaa 8,279
Vesa-Matti Saarakkala True Finns Vaasa 8,276
Susanna Huovinen Social Democratic Party Central Finland 8,271
Tuija Brax Green League Uusimaa 7,882 Chairwoman of the Audit Committee
Merja Kyllönen Left Alliance Oulu 7,837 Minister of Transport
Ilkka Kanerva National Coalition Party Finland Proper 7,820
Pia Viitanen Social Democratic Party Pirkanmaa 7,786
Krista Kiuru Social Democratic Party Satakunta 7,730 Minister for Housing and Communications
Annika Lapintie Left Alliance Finland Proper 7,723 Chairwoman of the Left Alliance parliamentary group
Riita Myller Social Democratic Party North Karelia 7,700
Markus Mustajärvi Left Alliance Lapland 7,621 Mustajärvi was expelled from the Left Alliance parliamentary group on 30 June 2011.[3] They later founded a parliamentary group called Left Group (which, however, is not a party).[4]
Johannes Koskinen Social Democratic Party Tavastia 7,603 Chairman of the Constitutional Law Committee
Maarit Feldt-Ranta Social Democratic Party Uusimaa 7,546
Anni Sinnemäki Green League Helsinki 7,513
Pekka Haavisto Green League Helsinki 7,470 Chairman of the Green League parliamentary group
Sari Sarkomaa National Coalition Party Helsinki 7,457
Reijo Hongisto True Finns Vaasa 7,444
Oras Tynkkynen Green League Pirkanmaa 7,406
Thomas Blomqvist Swedish People's Party Uusimaa 7,362
Paula Lehtomäki Centre Party Uusimaa 7,356
Miapetra Kumpula-Natri Social Democratic Party Uusimaa 7,324
Henna Virkkunen National Coalition Party Central Finland 7,127 Minister of Public Administration and Local Government
Kristiina Salonen Social Democratic Party Satakunta 7,124
Mauri Pekkarinen Centre Party Central Finland 7,112 Chairman of the Commerce Committee
Jyri Häkämies National Coalition Party Kymi 7,098
Kimmo Tiilikainen Centre Party Kymi 7,094 Chairman of the Centre Party parliamentary group
Seppo Kääriäinen Centre Party Northern Savonia 7,061
Johanna Ojala-Niemelä Social Democratic Party Lapland 7,052
Arto Satonen National Coalition Party Pirkanmaa 7,021 Chairman of the Transport and Communications Committee
Päivi Räsänen Christian Democrats Tavastia 6,995 Minister of the Interior
Antti Rantakangas Centre Party Oulu 6,994
Elsi Katainen Centre Party Northern Savonia 6,960
Elisabeth Nauclér Swedish People's Party (Independent) Åland 6,925
Tuomo Puumala Centre Party Vaasa 6,898
Mirja Vehkaperä Centre Party Oulu 6,852
Jukka Gustafsson Social Democratic Party Pirkanmaa 6,793 Minister of Education
Tarja Filatov Social Democratic Party Tavastia 6,782 Chairwoman of the Employment and Equality Committee
Kari Rajamäki Social Democratic Party Northern Savonia 6,776
Ari Jalonen True Finns Satakunta 6,721
Lasse Hautala Centre Party Vaasa 6,592
Anssi Joutsenlahti True Finns Satakunta 6,583 2nd Deputy Speaker of the Parliament
Timo Heinonen National Coalition Party Tavastia 6,526
Pertti Virtanen True Finns Pirkanmaa 6,526
Sampsa Kataja National Coalition Party Satakunta 6,425
Olli Immonen True Finns Oulu 6,419
Pertti Hemmilä National Coalition Party Finland Proper 6,413
Christina Gestrin Swedish People's Party Uusimaa 6,408
Ilkka Kantola Social Democratic Party Finland Proper 6,339
Anu Vehviläinen Centre Party North Karelia 6,296
Inkeri Kerola Centre Party Oulu 6,289
Pertti Salolainen National Coalition Party Helsinki 6,205
Lauri Heikkilä True Finns Finland Proper 6,199
Kimmo Sasi National Coalition Party Pirkanmaa 6,164 Chairman of the Finance Committee
Anne Louhelainen True Finns Tavastia 6,160
Martti Korhonen Left Alliance Oulu 6,147 Chairman of the Environment Committee
Ulla-Maj Wideroos Swedish People's Party Vaasa 6,077
Esko Kiviranta Centre Party Finland Proper 6,035
Outi Mäkelä National Coalition Party Uusimaa 6,024
Mikko Savola Centre Party Vaasa 5,985
Jaana Pelkonen National Coalition Party Helsinki 5,897
Sirkka-Liisa Anttila Centre Party Tavastia 5,882
Kari Tolvanen National Coalition Party Uusimaa 5,879
Sanni Grahn-Laasonen National Coalition Party Tavastia 5,866
Lenita Toivakka National Coalition Party Southern Savonia 5,783
Jouni Backman Social Democratic Party Southern Savonia 5,745 Chairman of the Social Democratic parliamentary group
Reijo Tossavainen True Finns Kymi 5,725
Pekka Ravi National Coalition Party North Karelia 5,723 1st Deputy Speaker of the Parliament
Mats Nylund Swedish People's Party Vaasa 5,709
Risto Kalliorinne Left Alliance Oulu 5,669
Lars Gästgivars Swedish People's Party Vaasa 5,650
Jari Leppä Centre Party Southern Savonia 5,570 Chairman of the Agriculture and Forestry Committee
Juha Sipilä Centre Party Oulu 5,543
Juha Rehula Centre Party Tavastia 5,550 Chairman of the Social Affairs and Health Committee
Ville Vähämäki True Finns Oulu 5,534
Arto Pirttilahti Centre Party Pirkanmaa 5,516
James Hirvisaari True Finns Tavastia 5,498 Hirvisaari was expelled from the True Finns in October 2013, after which he joined the Change 2011 party.[5]
Jari Lindström True Finns Kymi 5,450
Sirpa Paatero Social Democratic Party Kymi 5,392
Timo Korhonen Centre Party Oulu 5,369
Ville Niinistö Green League Finland Proper 5,362 Minister of the Environment
Juha Eerola True Finns Kymi 5,350
Peter Östman Christian Democrats Vaasa 5,349 Chairman of the Christian Democrats parliamentary group
Pauli Kiuru National Coalition Party Pirkanmaa 5,340
Eero Reijonen Centre Party North Karelia 5,318
Tytti Tuppurainen Social Democratic Party Oulu 5,313
Mika Kari Social Democratic Party Tavastia 5,280
Kalle Jokinen National Coalition Party Tavastia 5,271
Outi Alanko-Kahiluoto Green League Helsinki 5,240
Jouko Skinnari Social Democratic Party Tavastia 5,186
Timo Kalli Centre Party Satakunta 5,163
Ari Torniainen Centre Party Kymi 5,157
Ismo Soukola True Finns Tavastia 5,059
Mika Lintilä Centre Party Vaasa 5,035
Heiki Autto National Coalition Party Lapland 5,025
Astrid Thors Swedish People's Party Helsinki 4,983
Kauko Tuupainen True Finns Central Finland 4,977
Katri Komi Centre Party Southern Savonia 4,964
Jussi Niinistö True Finns Uusimaa 4,911 Chairman of the Defence Committee
Mikaela Nylander Swedish People's Party Uusimaa 4,906 Chairwoman of the Swedish parliamentary group
Rakel Hiltunen Social Democratic Party Helsinki 4,882
Maria Lohela True Finns Finland Proper 4,873
Lasse Männistö National Coalition Party Helsinki 4,866
Antti Lindtman Social Democratic Party Uusimaa 4,805
Leena Harkimo National Coalition Party Uusimaa 4,782
Eeva Maria Maijala Centre Party Lapland 4,692
Silvia Modig Left Alliance Helsinki 4,681
Osmo Kokko True Finns North Karelia 4,677
Jyrki Yrttiaho Left Alliance Finland Proper 4,634 Yrttiaho was expelled from the Left Alliance parliamentary group on 30 June 2011.[3] They later founded a parliamentary group called Left Group (which, however, is not a party).[4]
Sari Palm Christian Democrats Kymi 4,621
Tapani Mäkinen National Coalition Party Uusimaa 4,592
Harri Jaskari National Coalition Party Pirkanmaa 4,556
Pauliina Viitamies Social Democratic Party Southern Savonia 4,470
Martti Mölsä True Finns Pirkanmaa 4,423
Päivi Lipponen Social Democratic Party Helsinki 4,381 Chairwoman of the Committee for the Future
Tom Packalén True Finns Helsinki 4,380
Kimmo Kivelä True Finns Northern Savonia 4,366
Jukka Kärnä Social Democratic Party Kymi 4,325
Merja Kuusisto Social Democratic Party Uusimaa 4,324
Jukka Kopra National Coalition Party Kymi 4,303
Anna Kontula Left Alliance Pirkanmaa 4,262
Matti Saarinen Social Democratic Party Uusimaa 4,253
Tuula Väätäinen Social Democratic Party Northern Savonia 4,244
Sinuhe Wallinheimo National Coalition Party Central Finland 4,228
Raija Vahasalo National Coalition Party Uusimaa 4,206 Chairwoman of the Education and Culture Committee
Raimo Piirainen Social Democratic Party Oulu 4,187
Annika Saarikko Centre Party Finland Proper 4,185
Jani Toivola Green League Uusimaa 4,174
Aila Paloniemi Centre Party Central Finland 4,146
Mikko Alatalo Centre Party Pirkanmaa 4,140
Suna Kymäläinen Social Democratic Party Kymi 4,098
Markku Rossi Centre Party Northern Savonia 4,068
Jouko Jääskeläinen Christian Democrats Uusimaa 4,026
Anna-Kaisa Pekonen Left Alliance Tavastia 4,010
Eero Lehti National Coalition Party Uusimaa 3,993
Pentti Kettunen True Finns Oulu 3,990
Eila Tiainen Left Alliance Central Finland 3,955
Anne Holmlund National Coalition Party Satakunta 3,952 Chairwoman of the Legal Affairs Committee
Pirkko Mattila True Finns Oulu 3,947 Chairwoman of the Administration Committee
Antti Kaikkonen Centre Party Uusimaa 3,929
Johanna Karimäki Green League Uusimaa 3,887
Sauli Ahvenjärvi Christian Democrats Satakunta 3,880
Simo Rundgren Centre Party Lapland 3,825
Markku Mäntymaa National Coalition Party Vaasa 3,806
Janne Sankelo National Coalition Party Vaasa 3,792
Eeva-Johanna Eloranta Social Democratic Party Finland Proper 3,648
Markus Lohi Centre Party Lapland 3,615
Pia Kauma National Coalition Party Uusimaa 3,551
Esko Kurvinen National Coalition Party Oulu 3,546
Leena Rauhala Christian Democrats Pirkanmaa 3,511
Eero Suutari National Coalition Party Oulu 3,495
Tuula Peltonen Social Democratic Party Central Finland 3,481
Kari Uotila Left Alliance Uusimaa 3,468
Markku Eestilä National Coalition Party Northern Savonia 3,428
Teuvo Hakkarainen True Finns Central Finland 3,371
Marjo Matikainen-Kallström National Coalition Party Uusimaa 3,360
Jari Myllykoski Left Alliance Satakunta 3,321
Sanna Lauslahti National Coalition Party Uusimaa 3,312
Erkki Virtanen Left Alliance Northern Savonia 3,179
Pirkko Ruohonen-Lerner True Finns Uusimaa 3,100 Chairwoman of the True Finns parliamentary group
Hanna Mäntylä True Finns Lapland 3,064
Johanna Jurva True Finns Uusimaa 2,970
Pietari Jääskeläinen True Finns Uusimaa 2,968
Juha Väätäinen True Finns Helsinki 2,914
Maria Tolppanen True Finns Vaasa 2,855
Mika Niikko True Finns Uusimaa 2,703
Kaj Turunen True Finns Southern Savonia 2,631
Merja Mäkisalo-Ropponen Social Democratic Party North Karelia 2,519
Arja Juvonen True Finns Uusimaa 2,553
Satu Haapanen Green League Oulu 2,315
Source: Finnish Election Commission 1, 2, Committee chairs, English names of the committees, Parliamentary group chairs, Speaker and deputy Speakers

The average age of elected MPs was 48. The youngest MP is Olli Immonen, 25 at the time of the election, and the oldest MP is Kauko Tuupainen, 70 at the time of the election – both are True Finns MPs.[6][7]

The Parliament has 115 male MPs and 85 female MPs.[8] Of the parties the True Finns have the highest portion of male MPs in their ranks (72%), while the Social Democratic Party has the highest portion of female MPs (64%).[8]

Government formation[edit]

As the leader of the largest party Jyrki Katainen of the NCP began the negotiations to form a new coalition government. Katainen said that the result of the election supports a coalition based on the three largest parties, i.e. the National Coalition Party, the Social Democratic Party and the True Finns.[9] The most problematic question was believed to be the EU bailout policy, where the True Finns most differ from the other parties.[10]

Formal negotiations were scheduled to start after Easter on 24 April. The National Coalition Party's Alexander Stubb said that a government could be formed by 9 May, though he admitted that it was an optimistic timetable. This was despite EU worries about what effect a new government could have on the bailout.[11] The Kiviniemi government submitted its resignation on 29 April, though it would continue to serve as a caretaker government until a new one was formed.[12]

If the True Finns could not agree to a common platform to provide suitable ministers from the party's elected representatives list, Soini hinted to Yle the possibility of choosing ministers from what he ambiguously called his party's "background groups".[10][13] Although the True Finns said they were ready to enter the negotiations on the formation of a new government, conflicting reports emerged of the True Finns saying that they cannot "in good conscience" support the Portuguese rescue package or the creation of a permanent bailout fund by the EU and that they had toned down criticism of the package saying it may be in the interests of Finland. However, the SDP also wanted the rules for the international financial system to be reformed.[14][15] The NCP's Alexander Stubb said that "It will be very difficult to keep a party with 39 seats out of government. If we can find compromises, we can have the True Finns in government."[16] Amidst ongoing talks Soini backtracked on previous inferences that he would be willing to set aside the issue of the Portugal bailout saying "We can’t vote for this (bailout of Portugal) and we won’t...If Finland can find a majority that can push this through and a government is formed after that, then that will be a different situation." Bloomberg suggested that the True Finns were still taking the government formation talks "seriously" and hoped to be a part of the next government once differences over the Portuguese bailout had been set aside. This was despite Katainen's pledge not to form a government with parties that opposed the bailout measures.[17]

On 11 May, the NCP and the Social Democrats struck a deal by which the Social Democrats would vote in favour of the Portugal bailout. In return, the NCP would support the Social Democrats' demand for the establishment of a bank tax in both Finland and in other European countries.[18] The Social Democrats also set certain conditions for the Portuguese bailout, for example demanding that Portugal sell state property (these conditions were, however, described as meaningless by True Finns and Left Alliance politicians, who accused the SDP of "selling out").[19][20] The following day the True Finns announced that they would withdraw from the government formation negotiations due to the bailout issue. Soini said he would remain true to the True Finns' campaign promises and not compromise on the party's core principles.[21][22]

After Soini's announcement, Jyrki Katainen invited the SDP, the Greens, the Swedish People's Party and the Christian Democrats for negotiations to form a coalition led by his National Coalition Party.[23] The Greens indicated that they would only join the coalition if the other parties agreed to their strict demands: a commitment not to build more nuclear reactors, a new "environmental-friendly" climate law and a 100 euro increase to the smallest welfare benefits.[24]

On 18 May Katainen announced that he would invite the Left Alliance as well to the government formation negotiations, which began on 20 May. The Left Alliance's participation had been demanded by the Social Democrats.[25] The six-party coalition that would comprise the National Coalition Party, Social Democratic Party, the Swedish People’s Party, the Christian Democratic Party, the Green League and the Left Alliance would have 126 seats in the parliament.[26][27]

As six-party talks got underway on 20 May, amid differences on taxation policy between the NCP and SDP. The latter were opposed to the former's plan to raise the turnover tax; the talk also sought to ensure revenue needed to be saved so as continue funding government programmes in the future. The NCP's Katainen said of the talks that "expectations were high," though he did not comment on rumours of six billion euros worth of cuts: "I believe that all necessary means must be used to secure the welfare state. The poor’s best friend is strong government finances." The SDP's Urpilainen commented that the negotiations were being conducted in good spirits and that she thought the atmosphere of the talks was good, though she added that taxation would be the biggest stumbling block and that public spending cuts would not be specifically discussed pending the overall look at economic issues. She also added that a caretaker government could present the Portugal bailout package measure before parliament in the following week with a decision possible at the end of the week. She added a decision might even be forthcoming later on Friday; she said the SDP's support would be determined by added investor responsibility.[28][29] The parliament approved the bailout proposal on 25 May with the True Finns and the Left Alliance dissenting and all the other parties voting in favour of the measure.[30]

On 1 June, the Social Democrats and the Left Alliance quit government formation talks referring to "unsustainable differences" on issues concerning economic growth and employment policies. In response Katainen said that he would continue negotiations with the Greens, the Swedish People's Party and the Christian Democrats and that he would also invite the Centre Party to the negotiations.[31] On 6 June, after consulting its members on a questionnaire, the Centre Party decided to join the government formation talks. However, on the same day the Green League decided to leave the talks referring to the party's election result (which came after four years in a similar centre-right coalition) and doubtful if the proposed coalition could further "green" policies in such a coalition.[32] Amongst those partaking in the talks, a coalition of the NCP, the Centre Party, the SPP and the Christian Democrats would have only 95 MPs – a minority government.[33]

On 7 June, Katainen said that he would still pursue a majority government. All eight parliamentary groups decided to give Katainen time until 10 June to announce a final coalition.[34] On 10 June, Katainen then announced that the same six parties, whose negotiations had broken up earlier in the month (the NCP, the SDP, the SPP, the Christian Democrats, the Green League and the Left Alliance), would return to the negotiation table. He described this as the "only possible coalition."[35] On 14 June, he said that talks were positive and a government would be formed soon.[36]

On 17 June, the six parties came to an agreement on forming a coalition government. Following criticism from incumbent prime minister Kivienmi, Katainen defended his government's platform in parliament and the government survived a motion of no-confidence put forth by the opposition. However, the same two Left Alliance MPs – Markus Mustajärvi and Jyrki Yrttiaho – again broke from the party position and voted against the government – for this they were expelled from the Left Alliance parliamentary group and continue their work as independent MPs.[3] The government, led by Katainen, will have 19 ministers. The ministerial portfolios would be divided with the NCP and the SDP both having six ministers, while the Left Alliance, the Greens and the SPP would each have two ministers and the Christian Democrats would have one.[37] The NCP, SDP, SPP[38] and Christian Democrats[39] announced their candidates for ministerial positions on 18 June, while the Left Alliance, —with some of its notable members opposing joining the government,— confirmed its participation in the government and its nominees for ministeral portfolios on its party council on 19 June.[40] The Green League announced its ministers on 20 June.[41] On 22 June, the parliament elected Katainen as prime minister by a vote of 118–72; two Left Alliance MPs voted against Katainen, for which they were formally reprimanded by the Left Alliance parliamentary group.[42] President Tarja Halonen then formally inaugurated the government at the Government Palace in Helsinki the same afternoon.[42][43]


A TNS Gallup poll commissioned by Helsingin Sanomat found that while two-thirds of True Finns voters feel the party made the right decision to sit in opposition, half of the Green League's voters also felt the same way. Conversely a majority of Social Democratic Party and Centre Party voters felt that the True Finns should have stayed in the government formation talks. Half of the respondents to the poll wanted to see the True Finns to show flexibility over the EU bailout issue to at least for government talks, which was supported by only 16% of TF supporters versus more than two-thirds of voters of the other three major parties. A majority of 52% also felt that a government without the TF could survive the four-year parliamentary tenure.

The True Finns' vice-chairman Vesa-Matti Saarakkala suggested the outcome of the polls show convergence between the True Finns' social policy with those of the SDP and the Centre Party. "With the Greens, the background could be that they don’t want us in the government. However, the most important thing is that our own supporters should understand our decision. The Social Democrats decided the game with their own stance on the EU. There is no point in them crying about how the True Finns are not in the government." He also said that the 52% of people thinking the government could survive without the TF is a "surprisingly" low proportion: "It shows that the times are challenging and uncertain. Anything can happen to the euro and to [the] Economic and Monetary Union.[44]

After the formation of a new government, the Centre Party's leader Kiviniemi commented on the government programme saying that the six-party government "agreeing on increasing consumption taxes, decreasing tax-deductibility on mortgage part payments and cuts on services by municipalities, forgot the (sic) families with children."[45]

Midterm replacements[edit]

Name Party Constituency Date of resignation Reason of resignation Replacement
Jyri Häkämies National Coalition Party Kymi 21 November 2012 became CEO of Confederation of Finnish Industries Anu Urpalainen [46]
Astrid Thors Swedish People's Party Helsinki 5 September 2013 became High Commissioner on National Minorities (HCNM) of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe Jörn Donner .[47]
Henna Virkkunen National Coalition Party Central Finland 4 July 2014 was elected to the European Parliament Mikael Palola .[48]
Jussi Halla-aho True Finns Helsinki 4 July 2014 was elected to the European Parliament Mika Raatikainen .[49]
Miapetra Kumpula-Natri Social Democratic Party Vaasa 4 July 2014 was elected to the European Parliament Harry Wallin .[50]
Merja Kyllönen Left Alliance Oulu 4 July 2014 was elected to the European Parliament Katja Hänninen.[51]
Jyrki Katainen National Coalition Party Uusimaa 4 July 2014 became European Commissioner for Industry and Entrepreneurship at the European Commission Elina Lepomäki .[52]
Mari Kiviniemi Centre Party Helsinki 9 September 2014 became the Deputy Secretary-General of the OECD Terhi Peltokorpi .[53]
Anni Sinnemäki Green League Helsinki 14 January 2015 was elected as Deputy Mayor of Helsinki Johanna Sumuvuori .[54]


  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ [2]
  3. ^ a b c "Mustajärvi ja Yrttiaho ulos vasemmistoliiton eduskuntaryhmästä". Helsingin Sanomat (in Finnish). Sanoma News. 30 June 2011. Retrieved 30 June 2011. 
  4. ^ a b "Pyytämääsi sisältöä ei löydy". Retrieved 2016-12-26. 
  5. ^ "Hirvisaari founds "Change 2011" parliamentary group | Yle Uutiset". Retrieved 2016-12-26. 
  6. ^ Vieras mies kaupungissa – – Nyt
  7. ^ Tuupainen mielissään ikäpuhemiehen roolista | Keski-Suomi |
  8. ^ a b Eduskunta – kansanedustajat
  9. ^ "Katainen: Äänestystulos puoltaa kolmen suurimman neuvotteluja | Vaalit 2011 | Teemat | YLE Uutiset" (in Finnish). 1 January 1970. Archived from the original on 15 May 2011. Retrieved 20 April 2011. 
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  11. ^ "Finland's election: A Suomi shake-up". The Economist. 20 April 2011. Retrieved 3 May 2011. 
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