The African Pygmies (or Congo Pygmies, variously also "Central African foragers", "African rainforest hunter-gatherers" (RHG) or "Forest People of Central Africa") are a group of tribal ethnicities, traditionally subsisting in a forager and hunter-gatherer lifestyle, native to Central Africa, mostly the Congo Basin.
The African Pygmies are divided into three roughly geographic groups:
- the western Bambenga or Mbenga (Cameroon, Gabon, Republic of the Congo, Central African Republic),
- the eastern Bambuti or Mbuti of the Congo basin (DRC)
- the central and southern Batwa or Twa (Rwanda, Burundi, DRC, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Angola and Namibia). The more widely scattered (and more variable in physiology and lifestyle) Southern Twa are also grouped under the term Pygmoid.
They are notable for, and named for, their short stature (described as "pygmyism" in anthropological literature). They are assumed to be descended from the original Middle Stone Age expansion of anatomically modern humans to Central Africa, albeit substantially affected by later migrations from West Africa, from their first appearance in the historical record in the 19th century limited to a comparative small area within Central Africa, greatly decimated by the prehistoric Bantu expansion, and to the present time widely affected by enslavement and cannibalism at the hand of neighboring Bantu groups.
Most contemporary Pygmy groups are only partially foragers and partially trade with neighbouring farmers to acquire cultivated foods and other material items; no group lives deep in the forest without access to agricultural products. A total number of about 900,000 Pygmies were estimated at living in the Central African Forests in 2016, about 60% of this number in the Democratic Republic of Congo. The number does not including Southern Twa populations, who live outside of Central Africa forest environment, partly in open swamp or desert environments.
The term Pygmy, as used to refer to diminutive people, derives from Greek πυγμαίος pugmaios (via Latin Pygmaeus, plural Pygmaei), a term for "dwarf" from Greek mythology. The word is derived from πυγμή pygmē, a term for "cubit" (lit. "fist"), suggesting a diminutive height.
The use of "Pygmy" in reference to the small-framed African hunter-gatherers dates to the early 19th century, in English first by John Barrow, Travels Into the Interior of Southern Africa (1806). However, the term was used diffusely, and treated as unsubstantiated claims of "dwarf tribes" among the Bushmen of the interior of Africa, until the exploration of the Congo basin of the 1870s. A commentator writing in 1892 claimed that, thirty years ago (viz., in the 1860s), "nobody believed in the existence of African dwarf tribes" and that "it needed an authority like Dr. Schweinfurth to prove that pygmies actually exist in Africa" (referencing Georg August Schweinfurth's The Heart of Africa, published 1873). "African Pygmy" is used for disambiguation from "Asiatic Pygmy", a name applied to the Negrito populations of Southeast Asia.
Dembner (1996) reported a universal "disdain for the term 'pygmy'" among the Pygmy peoples of Central Africa: the term is considered a pejorative, and people prefer to be referred to by the name of their respective ethnic or tribal groups, such as Bayaka, Mbuti and Twa. There is no clear replacement for the term "Pygmy" in reference to the umbrella group. A descriptive term that has seen some use since the 2000s is "Central African foragers".
Regional names used collectively of the western group of Pygmies are Bambenga (the plural form of Mbenga), used in the Kongo language and Bayaka (the plural form of Aka/Yaka), used in the Central African Republic.
There are at least a dozen Pygmy groups, sometimes unrelated to each other. They are grouped in three geographical categories:
- the western Bambenga (Mbenga) of Cameroon and Gabon, the Bayaka (Aka and Baka), the Bakola or Bakoya (Gyele and Kola), and the Bongo. These groups are speakers of Bantu and Ubangian languages
- The Bambuti (Mbuti) of the Ituri Rainforest, speakers of Bantu and Central Sudanic languages
- the widely scattered Batwa:
African Pygmies are often assumed to be the direct descendants of the Middle Stone Age hunter-gatherer peoples of the central African rainforest. Genetic evidence for the deep separation of Congo Pygmies from the lineage of West Africans and East Africans, as well as admixture from archaic humans, was found in the 2010s. The lineage of African Pygmies is strongly associated with mitochondrial (maternal line) haplogroup L1, with a divergence time between 170,000 and 100,000 years ago.
They were partially absorbed or displaced by later immigration of agricultural peoples of the Central Sudanic and Ubangian phyla beginning after about 5,500 years ago, and, beginning about 3,500 years ago, by the Bantu, adopting their languages.
Substantial non-Bantu and non-Ubangian substrates have been identified in Aka and in Baka, respectively, on the order of 30% of the lexicon. Much of this vocabulary is botanical, deals with honey harvesting, or is otherwise specialized for the forest and is shared between the two western Pygmy groups. This substrate has been suggested as representing a remnant of an ancient "western Pygmy" linguistic phylum, dubbed "Mbenga" or "Baaka". However, as substrate vocabulary has been widely borrowed between Pygmies and neighboring peoples, no reconstruction of such a "Baaka" language is possible for times more remote than a few centuries ago.
An ancestral Pygmy language has been postulated for at least some Pygmy groups, based on the observation of linguistic substrates. According Merritt Ruhlen (1994), "African Pygmies speak languages belonging to either to the Nilo-Saharan or Niger–Kordofanian families. It is assumed that Pygmies once spoke their own language(s), but that, through living in symbiosis with other Africans, in prehistorical times, they adopted languages belonging to these two families."
Evidence is based on the "forest vocabulary" common between the Mbenga, the neighboring Ubangian-speaking Baka and the Bantu-speaking Aka (there is no such common Mbuti vocabulary). This substrate has been suggested as representing a remnant of an ancient "western Pygmy" linguistic phylum, dubbed "Mbenga" or "Baaka". However, as substrate vocabulary has been widely borrowed between Pygmies and neighboring peoples, no reconstruction of such a "Baaka" language is possible for times more remote than a few centuries ago.
Roger Blench (1997, 1999) criticized the hypothesis of an ancestral "Pygmy language", arguing that even if there is evidence for a common ancestral language rather than just borrowing, it will not be sufficient to establish a specifically "Pygmy" origin rather than any of the several potential language isolates of (former) hunter-gatherer populations that ring the rainforest. He argued that the Pygmies do not form the residue of a single ancient stock of Central African hunter-gatherers, but that they are rather descended from several neighboring ethno-linguistic groups, independently adopting to forest subsistence strategies. Blench adduced the lack of clear linguistic and archaeological evidence for the antiquity the African Pygmies, that the genetic evidence, at the time of writing, was inconclusive, and that there is no evidence of the Pygmies have hunting technology distinctive from that of their neighbors. He argued that the short stature of Pygmy populations can arise relatively quickly (in less than a few millenia) under strong selection pressures.
Genetic studies have found evidence for the African Pygmies being descended from the Middle Stone Age peopling of Central Africa, with a separation time from West and East Africans of the order 130,000 years. African Pygmies in the historical period have been significantly displaced by and assimilated to several waves of Niger-Congo speakers, of the Central Sudanic, Ubangian, and Bantu phyla.
Genetically, African pygmies have some key difference between them and Bantu peoples. African pygmies' uniparental markers display the most ancient divergence from other human groups among anatomically modern humans, second only to those displayed among some Khoisan populations. Researchers identified an ancestral and autochthonous lineage of mtDNA shared by Pygmies and Bantus, suggesting that both populations were originally one, and that they started to diverge from common ancestors around 70,000 years ago. After a period of isolation, during which current phenotype differences between Pygmies and Bantu farmers accumulated, Pygmy women started marrying male Bantu farmers (but not the opposite). This trend started around 40,000 years ago, and continued until several thousand years ago. Subsequently, the Pygmy gene pool was not enriched by external gene influxes.
Mitochondrial haplogroup L1c is strongly associated with pygmies, especially with Bambenga groups. L1c prevalence was variously reported as: 100% in Ba-Kola, 97% in Aka (Ba-Benzélé), and 77% in Biaka, 100% of the Bedzan (Tikar), 97% and 100% in the Baka people of Gabon and Cameroon, respectively, 97% in Bakoya (97%), and 82% in Ba-Bongo. Mitochondrial haplogroups L2a and L0a are prevalent among the Bambuti
Patin, et al. (2009) suggest two unique, late Pleistocene (before 60,000 years ago) divergences from other human populations, and a split between eastern and western pygmy groups about 20,000 years ago.
Various hypotheses have been proposed to explain the short stature of African pygmies. Blecker, et al., suggest African pygmyism may have evolved as an adaptation to the significantly lower average levels of ultraviolet light available beneath the canopy of rainforest environments. In similar hypothetical scenarios, because of reduced access to sunlight, a comparatively smaller amount of anatomically formulated vitamin D is produced, resulting in restricted dietary calcium uptake, and subsequently restricted bone growth and maintenance, resulting in an overall population average skeletal mass near the lowest periphery of the spectrum among anatomically modern humans.
Other proposed explanations include the potentially lesser availability of protein-rich food sources in rainforest environments, the often reduced soil-calcium levels in rainforest environments, the caloric expenditure required to traverse rainforest terrain, insular dwarfism as an adaptation to equatorial and tropical heat and humidity, and pygmyism as an adaptation associated with rapid reproductive maturation under conditions of early mortality.
Additional evidence suggests that, when compared to other Sub-Saharan African populations, African pygmy populations display unusually low levels of expression of the genes encoding for human growth hormone and its receptor associated with low serum levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 and short stature.
A study by Price, et al., provides insight into the role genetics plays in the reduced stature of African pygmies:[excessive quote]
The short stature of Pygmy groups around the world has long intrigued anthropologists. It is generally accepted that their small body size is a result of genetic adaptation; however, which genes were selected, and the nature of the underlying selective force(s), remain unknown. The various hypotheses proposed include adaptations to food limitation, thermoregulation, mobility in the forest, and/or short lifespan. A recent study of the HGDP-CEPH populations identified a signal of selection in the insulin growth factor signalling pathway in Biaka Pygmies, which might be associated with short stature, but this signal was not shared with Mbuti Pygmies. By contrast, we found strong signals for selection in both African Pygmy groups at two genes involved in the iodide-dependent thyroid hormone pathway: TRIP4 in Mbuti Pygmies; and IYD in Biaka Pygmies (Fig. 7). Intriguingly, a previous study found a significantly lower frequency of goiter in Efe Pygmies (9.4%) than in Lese Bantu farmers (42.9%). The Efe and Lese live in close proximity to one another in the iodine-deficient Ituri Forest and share similar diets. Moreover, the frequency of goiter in Efe women living in Bantu villages was similar to that of Efe women living in the forest, and the frequency of goiter in offspring with an Efe mother and a Lese father was intermediate between that of Efe and Lese. These observations suggest that the Efe have adapted genetically to an iodine-deficient diet; we suggest that the signals of recent positive selection that we observe at TRIP4 in Mbuti Pygmies and IYD in Biaka Pygmies may reflect such genetic adaptations to an iodine-deficient diet. Furthermore, alterations in the thyroid hormone pathway can cause short stature. We therefore suggest that short stature in these Pygmy groups may have arisen as a consequence of genetic alterations in the thyroid hormone pathway. If this scenario is true, then there are two important implications. First, this would suggest that short stature was not selected for directly in the ancestors of Pygmy groups, but rather arose as an indirect consequence of selection in response to an iodine-deficient diet. Second, since different genes in the thyroid hormone pathway show signals of selection in Mbuti vs. Biaka Pygmies, this would suggest that short stature arose independently in the ancestors of Mbuti and Biaka Pygmies, and not in a common ancestral population. Moreover, most Pygmy-like groups around the world dwell in tropical forests, and hence are likely to have iodine-deficient diets. The possibility that independent adaptations to an iodine-deficient diet might therefore have contributed to the convergent evolution of the short stature phenotype in Pygmy-like groups around the world deserves further investigation.
The African Pygmies are particularly known for their vocal music, usually characterised by dense contrapuntal improvisation. Simha Arom says that the level of polyphonic complexity of Pygmy music was reached in Europe in the 14th century, yet Pygmy culture is unwritten and ancient, some Pygmy groups being the first known cultures in some areas of Africa. Music permeates daily life, with songs for entertainment, special events, and communal activities.
Polyphonic music is found among the Aka–Baka and the Mbuti, but not among the Gyele (Kola) or the various groups of Twa.
Contemporary issues in society
Enslavement and genocide
In the Republic of Congo, where Pygmies make up 2% of the population, many Pygmies live as slaves to Bantu masters. The nation is deeply stratified between these two major ethnic groups. The Pygmy slaves belong from birth to their Bantu masters in a relationship that the Bantus call a time-honored tradition. Even though the Pygmies are responsible for much of the hunting, fishing and manual labor in jungle villages, Pygmies and Bantus alike say Pygmies are often paid at the master's whim; in cigarettes, used clothing, or even nothing at all. As a result of pressure from UNICEF and human-rights activists, a law that would grant special protections to the Pygmy people is awaiting a vote by the Congo parliament.
In the Democratic Republic of the Congo, during the Ituri Conflict, Ugandan backed rebel groups were accused by the UN of enslaving Mbutis to prospect for minerals and forage for forest food, with those returning empty handed being killed and eaten.
In 2003, Sinafasi Makelo, a representative of Mbuti pygmies, told the UN's Indigenous People's Forum that during the Congo Civil War, his people were hunted down and eaten as though they were game animals. In neighboring North Kivu province there has been cannibalism by a death squad known as Les Effaceurs ("the erasers") who wanted to clear the land of people to open it up for mineral exploitation. Both sides of the war regarded them as "subhuman" and some say their flesh can confer magical powers.
Makelo asked the UN Security Council to recognize cannibalism as a crime against humanity and an act of genocide. According to Minority Rights Group International there is extensive evidence of mass killings, cannibalism and rape of Pygmies and they have urged the International Criminal Court to investigate a campaign of extermination against pygmies. Although they have been targeted by virtually all the armed groups, much of the violence against Pygmies is attributed to the rebel group, the Movement for the Liberation of Congo, which is part of the transitional government and still controls much of the north, and their allies.
In Northern Katanga Province starting in 2013, the Pygmy Batwa people, whom the Luba people often exploit and allegedly enslave, rose up into militias, such as the "Perci" militia, and attacked Luba villages. A Luba militia known as "Elements" attacked back, notably killing at least 30 people in the "Vumilia 1" displaced people camp in April 2015. Since the start of the conflict, hundreds have been killed and tens of thousands have been displaced from their homes. The weapons used in the conflict are often arrows and axes, rather than guns.
Historically, the Pygmy have always been viewed as inferior by both the village dwelling Bantu tribes and colonial authorities. This has translated into systematic discrimination. One early example was the capture of Pygmy children under the auspices of the Belgian colonial authorities, who exported Pygmy children to zoos throughout Europe, including the world's fair in the United States in 1907.
Pygmies are often evicted from their land and given the lowest paying jobs. At a state level, Pygmies are not considered citizens by most African states and are refused identity cards, deeds to land, health care and proper schooling. Government policies and multinational corporations involved in massive deforestation have exacerbated this problem by forcing more Pygmies out of their traditional homelands and into villages and cities where they often are marginalized, impoverished, and abused by the dominant culture.
There are roughly 500,000 Pygmies left in the rain-forest of Central Africa. This population is rapidly decreasing as poverty, intermarriage with Bantu peoples, Westernization, and deforestation gradually destroy their way of life and culture along with their genetic uniqueness.
The greatest environmental problem the Pygmies face is the loss of their traditional homeland, the tropical forests of Central Africa. In countries such as Cameroon, Gabon, Central African Republic and the Republic of Congo this is due to deforestation and the desire of several governments in Central Africa to evict the Pygmies from their forest habitat in order to profit from the sale of hardwood and the resettlement of farmers onto the cleared land. In some cases, as in Rwanda and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, this conflict is violent. Certain groups, such as the Hutus of the Interahamwe, wish to eliminate the Pygmy and take the resources of the forest as a military conquest, using the resources of the forest for military as well as economic advancement. Since the Pygmies rely on the forest for their physical as well as cultural survival, as these forests disappear, so do the Pygmy.
Along with Raja Sheshardi, the fPcN-Global.org website had conducted research on the pygmies. The human rights organization states that as the forest has receded under logging activities, its original inhabitants have been pushed into populated areas to join the formal economy, working as casual laborers or on commercial farms and being exposed to new diseases. This shift has brought them into closer contact with neighboring ethnic communities whose HIV levels are generally higher. This has led to the spread of HIV/AIDS into the pygmy group.
Since poverty has become very prevalent in the Pygmy communities, sexual exploitation of indigenous women has become a common practice. Commercial sex has been bolstered by logging, which often places large groups of male laborers in camps which are set up in close contact with the Pygmy communities.
Human rights groups have also reported widespread sexual abuse of indigenous women in the conflict-ridden eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo. Despite these risks, Pygmy populations generally have poor access to health services and information about HIV. The British medical journal, The Lancet, published a review showing that Pygmy populations often had worse access to health care than neighboring communities. According to the report, even where health care facilities exist, many people do not use them because they cannot pay for consultations and medicines, they do not have the documents and identity cards needed to travel or obtain hospital treatment, and they are subjected to humiliating and discriminatory treatment.
Studies in Cameroon and ROC in the 1980s and 1990s showed a lower prevalence of HIV in pygmy populations than among neighboring ones, but recent increases have been recorded. One study found that the HIV prevalence among the Baka pygmies in eastern Cameroon went from 0.7 percent in 1993 to 4 percent in 2003.
Raja James Sheshardi of the American University conducted a case study on the Pygmies of Africa and concluded that deforestation has greatly affected their everyday lives. Pygmy culture is threatened today by the forces of political and economic change. In recent times, this has manifested itself into an open conflict over the resources of the tropical rain-forest; it is a conflict that the Pygmy are losing.[year needed]
- "Central African foragers" is used (in some cases alongside "pygmies") in e.g.: Susan Kent, Cultural Diversity Among Twentieth-Century Foragers: An African Perspective (2006); Richard Bradshaw, Juan Fandos-Rius, Historical Dictionary of the Central African Republic (2016), p. 11; Schlebusch et al. (2017). "[African] rainforest hunter-gatherers" is used in population genetics from c. 2015, Fagny, Maud; Patin, Etienne; MacIsaac, Julia L; Rotival, Maxime; Flutre, Timothée; Jones, Meaghan J; Siddle, Katherine J; Quach, Hélène; Harmant, Christine; McEwen, Lisa M; Froment, Alain; Heyer, Evelyne; Gessain, Antoine; Betsem, Edouard; Mouguiama-Daouda, Patrick; Hombert, Jean-Marie; Perry, George H; Barreiro, Luis B; Kobor, Michael S; Quintana-Murci, Lluis (2015). "The epigenomic landscape of African rainforest hunter-gatherers and farmers". Nature Communications. 6: 10047. doi:10.1038/ncomms10047. PMC 4674682. PMID 26616214. The alternative "Forest People [of Central Africa]" sees limited use in the early 2000s, e.g. Racism Against Indigenous Peoples, International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs (2001), p. 312. Thomas Widlok, Wolde Gossa Tadesse (eds.), Property and Equality vol. 2 (2005), p. 104.
- Thomas, Katie (March 12, 2007). "Congo's Pygmies live as slaves". The News & Observer. Archived from the original on 2009-02-28. Kristof, Nicholas D. (June 16, 1997). "As the World Intrudes, Pygmies Feel Endangered". New York Times.
- S.A. Dembner, Forest peoples in the central African rain forest: focus on the pygmies Unasylva — An international journal of forestry and forest industries Vol. 47 - 1996/3. "Pygmies are distributed discontinuously across nine different African countries Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda, Zaire, the Central African Republic, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon and the Congo and live in innumerable distinct ethnic groups that are separated by geography, language, customs and technology. The one characteristic that is common to them all, regardless of their location or degree of acculturation, is their disdain for the term "pygmy". Without exception, they prefer to be called by their appropriate ethnic name, such as Mbuti, Efe, Aka, Asua, and consider the term 'pygmy' as pejorative."
- Olivero, Jesús; Fa, John E; Farfán, Miguel A; Lewis, Jerome; Hewlett, Barry; Breuer, Thomas; Carpaneto, Giuseppe M; Fernández, María; Germi, Francesco; Hattori, Shiho; Head, Josephine; Ichikawa, Mitsuo; Kitanaishi, Koichi; Knights, Jessica; Matsuura, Naoki; Migliano, Andrea; Nese, Barbara; Noss, Andrew; Ekoumou, Dieudonné Ongbwa; Paulin, Pascale; Real, Raimundo; Riddell, Mike; Stevenson, Edward G. J; Toda, Mikako; Vargas, J. Mario; Yasuoka, Hirokazu; Nasi, Robert (2016). "Distribution and Numbers of Pygmies in Central African Forests". PLOS ONE. 11 (1): e0144499. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0144499. PMC 4711706. PMID 26735953.
- pygmy. Online Etymology Dictionary.
- Schlichter, Henry. 1892. "The Pygmy tribes of Africa", The Scottish Geographical Magazine 8 (1892), 289-301, 345-357.
- "Mbuti, Twa, and Mbenga". In Stokes (ed.) 2009. Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Africa and the Middle East, Volume 1
- Hiernaux (1975) distinguished the Pygmies proper (Mbuti and Biaka), with an average male and female height of around 154 and 144 cm, from "Pygmoid" groups (Twa and neighbouring groups of Uganda, Rwuanda and South Congo) with a somewhat larger average height of 155 to 160 cm (cited after Cavalli-Sforza, L. Luca; Menozzi, Paolo; and Piazza Alberto (1994) The History and Geography of Human Genes Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, p. 168, Table “A Summary of Hiernaux’s Classification (Hiernaux 1975) of the Sub-Saharan African Peoples").
- Lachance, Joseph; Vernot, Benjamin; Elbers, Clara C; Ferwerda, Bart; Froment, Alain; Bodo, Jean-Marie; Lema, Godfrey; Fu, Wenqing; Nyambo, Thomas B; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Zhang, Kun; Akey, Joshua M; Tishkoff, Sarah A (2012). "Evolutionary History and Adaptation from High-Coverage Whole-Genome Sequences of Diverse African Hunter-Gatherers". Cell. 150 (3): 457–469. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2012.07.009. PMC 3426505. PMID 22840920.
Schlebusch, Carina M; Malmström, Helena; Günther, Torsten; Sjödin, Per; Coutinho, Alexandra; Edlund, Hanna; Munters, Arielle R; Vicente, Mário; Steyn, Maryna; Soodyall, Himla; Lombard, Marlize; Jakobsson, Mattias (2017). "Southern African ancient genomes estimate modern human divergence to 350,000 to 260,000 years ago". Science. 358 (6363): 652–655. doi:10.1126/science.aao6266. PMID 28971970. Schlebusch, Carina M; Malmström, Helena; Günther, Torsten; Sjödin, Per; Coutinho, Alexandra; Edlund, Hanna; Munters, Arielle R; Steyn, Maryna; Soodyall, Himla; Lombard, Marlize; Jakobsson, Mattias (2017). "Ancient genomes from southern Africa pushes modern human divergence beyond 260,000 years ago". doi:10.1101/145409. Cite journal requires
|journal=(help) Older (pre-2010) studies with inconclusive results: R. Blench and M. Dendo. Genetics and linguistics in sub-Saharan Africa, Cambridge-Bergen, June 24, 2004. Cavalli-Sforza, Luigi Luca (1986). African pygmies. Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-12-164480-2.
- Igor Kopytoff, The African Frontier: The Reproduction of Traditional African Societies (1989), 9–10 (cited afer Igbo Language Roots and (Pre)-History, A Mighty Tree, 2011).
- R. M. Blench, Genetics and linguistics in sub-Saharan Africa (2004), "4.3 The origin of the African pygmies": "The common view, however, is that the pygmies are the ancient denizens of the forest zone, dating from at least the Middle Stone Age (MSA) (e.g. Cavalli-Sforza 1968a). They would have lived by hunting and gathering until they encountered expanding Central Sudanic, Adamawa-Ubangian and Bantu-speaking farmers ca. 4000 bp. Since that date they have lived in a symbiosis with the farmers, often as a despised and marginalised group. If this is the case, then major MSA archaeological sites in the area of the present-day rain-forest are presumed to be the traces of these ancient pygmy groups. There is no doubt the Central African rainforest has been occupied for a very long time (Clist 1995; Mercader and Marti 1999), but there is no direct evidence as to the racial or genetic affiliations of the populations whose stone tools have been recovered. These sites have problems of dating, but it is usually assumed that the sites, ‘Sangoan’ or ‘Lupemban’ are >40,000 years old (the usual limit of radio-carbon dating)."
- Bahuchet, Serge (1993) "History of the inhabitants of the central African rain forest: perspectives from comparative linguistics." In C.M. Hladik, ed., Tropical forests, people, and food: Biocultural interactions and applications to development. Paris: Unesco/Parthenon. ISBN 1850703809
- Ruhlen, Merritt (1994) The Origin of Language: Tracing the Evolution of the Mother Tongue. John Wiley & Sons, Inc: New York, p. 154, ISBN 0471584266.
- Blench, Roger (1997) "The languages of Africa". In Roger Blench and Matthew Spriggs (eds.), Archaeology and language IV, Routledge, ISBN 1134816235
- Blench, Roger. 1999. Are the African Pygmies an ethnographic fiction? In: Central African hunter-gatherers in a multi-disciplinary perspective: challenging elusiveness. K. Biesbrouck, S. Elders & G. Rossel eds. 41-60. Leiden: CNWS.
- Jarvis, Joseph P; Scheinfeldt, Laura B; Soi, Sameer; Lambert, Charla; Omberg, Larsson; Ferwerda, Bart; Froment, Alain; Bodo, Jean-Marie; Beggs, William; Hoffman, Gabriel; Mezey, Jason; Tishkoff, Sarah A (2012). "Patterns of Ancestry, Signatures of Natural Selection, and Genetic Association with Stature in Western African Pygmies". PLoS Genetics. 8 (4): e1002641. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1002641. PMC 3343053. PMID 22570615.
- López Herráez, David; Bauchet, Marc; Tang, Kun; Theunert, Christoph; Pugach, Irina; Li, Jing; Nandineni, Madhusudan R; Gross, Arnd; Scholz, Markus; Stoneking, Mark (2009). "Genetic Variation and Recent Positive Selection in Worldwide Human Populations: Evidence from Nearly 1 Million SNPs". PLOS ONE. 4 (11): e7888. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0007888. PMC 2775638. PMID 19924308.
- Tishkoff, S. A; Reed, F. A; Friedlaender, F. R; Ehret, C; Ranciaro, A; Froment, A; Hirbo, J. B; Awomoyi, A. A; Bodo, J.-M; Doumbo, O; Ibrahim, M; Juma, A. T; Kotze, M. J; Lema, G; Moore, J. H; Mortensen, H; Nyambo, T. B; Omar, S. A; Powell, K; Pretorius, G. S; Smith, M. W; Thera, M. A; Wambebe, C; Weber, J. L; Williams, S. M (2009). "The Genetic Structure and History of Africans and African Americans". Science. 324 (5930): 1035–1044. doi:10.1126/science.1172257. PMC 2947357. PMID 19407144.
- Quintana-Murci, L; Quach, H; Harmant, C; Luca, F; Massonnet, B; Patin, E; Sica, L; Mouguiama-Daouda, P; Comas, D; Tzur, S; Balanovsky, O; Kidd, K. K; Kidd, J. R; Van Der Veen, L; Hombert, J.-M; Gessain, A; Verdu, P; Froment, A; Bahuchet, S; Heyer, E; Dausset, J; Salas, A; Behar, D. M (2008). "Maternal traces of deep common ancestry and asymmetric gene flow between Pygmy hunter-gatherers and Bantu-speaking farmers". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 105 (5): 1596–1601. doi:10.1073/pnas.0711467105. PMC 2234190. PMID 18216239.
- S. Bahuchet/MNHN Common Origins of Pygmies and Bantus. http://www2.cnrs.fr/en/1164.htm
- Sarah A. Tishkoff et al. 2007, History of Click-Speaking Populations of Africa Inferred from mtDNA and Y Chromosome Genetic Variation. Molecular Biology and Evolution 2007 24(10):2180-2195
- Lluis Quintana-Murci et al. MtDNA diversity in Central Africa: from hunter-gathering to agriculturalism. CNRS-Institut Pasteur, Paris
- Silva, Marina; Alshamali, Farida; Silva, Paula; Carrilho, Carla; Mandlate, Flávio; Jesus Trovoada, Maria; Černý, Viktor; Pereira, Luísa; Soares, Pedro (2015). "60,000 years of interactions between Central and Eastern Africa documented by major African mitochondrial haplogroup L2". Scientific Reports. 5: 12526. doi:10.1038/srep12526. PMC 4515592. PMID 26211407.
- Patin, Etienne; Laval, Guillaume; Barreiro, Luis B; Salas, Antonio; Semino, Ornella; Santachiara-Benerecetti, Silvana; Kidd, Kenneth K; Kidd, Judith R; Van Der Veen, Lolke; Hombert, Jean-Marie; Gessain, Antoine; Froment, Alain; Bahuchet, Serge; Heyer, Evelyne; Quintana-Murci, Lluís (2009). "Inferring the Demographic History of African Farmers and Pygmy Hunter–Gatherers Using a Multilocus Resequencing Data Set". PLoS Genetics. 5 (4): e1000448. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1000448. PMC 2661362. PMID 19360089.
little is known about the chronology of the demographic events—size changes, population splits, and gene flow—ultimately giving rise to contemporary Pygmy (Western and Eastern) groups and neighboring agricultural populations. We studied the branching history of Pygmy hunter–gatherers and agricultural populations from Africa and estimated separation times and gene flow between these populations. The model identified included the early divergence of the ancestors of Pygmy hunter–gatherers and farming populations ~60,000 years ago, followed by a split of the Pygmies' ancestors into the Western and Eastern Pygmy groups ~20,000 years ago. Our findings increase knowledge of the history of the peopling of the African continent in a region lacking archaeological data.
- Becker, Noémie S.A.; Verdu, Paul; Froment, Alain; Le Bomin, Sylvie; Pagezy, Hélène; Bahuchet, Serge; Heyer, Evelyne (2011). "Indirect evidence for the genetic determination of short stature in African Pygmies" (PDF). American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 145 (3): 390–401. doi:10.1002/ajpa.21512. PMID 21541921.
- O'Dea, Julian (December 21, 2009). "Ultraviolet light levels available in the rainforest".
- O'Dea, JD (1994). "Possible contribution of low ultraviolet light under the rainforest canopy to the small stature of Pygmies and Negritos". HOMO: Journal of Comparative Human Biology. 44 (3): 284–7.
- Short lives, short size – why are pygmies small? « Not Exactly Rocket Science.
- Bozzola, M; Travaglino P; Marziliano N; Meazza C; Pagani S; Grasso M; Tauber M; Diegoli M; Pilotto A; Disabella E; Tarantino P; Brega A; Arbustini E (Nov 2009). "The shortness of Pygmies is associated with severe under-expression of the growth hormone receptor". Mol Genet Metab. 98 (3): 310–3. doi:10.1016/j.ymgme.2009.05.009. PMID 19541519.
- Price AL, Tandon A, Patterson N, Barnes KC, Rafaels N, Ruczinski I, Beaty TH, Mathias R, Reich D, Myers S (2009). "Sensitive Detection of Chromosomal Segments of Distinct Ancestry in Admixed Populations". PLoS Genetics. 5 (6): e1000519. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1000519. PMC 2689842. PMID 19543370.
- African Rhythms (2003). Music by Aka Pygmies, performed by Aka Pygmies, György Ligeti and Steve Reich, performed by Pierre-Laurent Aimard. Teldec Classics: 8573 86584-2. Liner notes by Aimard, Ligeti, Reich, and Simha Arom and Stefan Schomann.
- James Astill (8 January 2003). "Congo rebels are eating pygmies, UN says". The Guardian.
- Clayton, Jonathan (December 16, 2004). "Pygmies struggle to survive in war zone where abuse is routine". The Times.
- "DR Congo Pygmies 'exterminated'". BBC News. July 6, 2004.
- "DR Congo Pygmies appeal to UN". BBC News. 23 May 2003.
- Peta, Basildon (January 9, 2003). "Rebels 'eating Pygmies' as mass slaughter continues in Congo despite peace agreement". The Independent.
- "DR Congo: Ethnic Militias Attack Civilians in Katanga". Human Rights Watch. 11 August 2015. Retrieved 7 March 2017.
- "In Congo, Wars Are Small and Chaos Is Endless". nytimes.com. 30 April 2016. Retrieved 7 March 2017.
- Sheshadri, Raja (2005). "Pygmies in the Congo Basin and Conflict". ICE Case Studies. 163. Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2012-03-13. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- Deforestation in central Africa brings HIV/AIDS to indigenous communities, mainly women. fpcn-global.org. April 6, 2008
- Ohenjo, N. O.; Willis, R.; Jackson, D.; Nettleton, C.; Good, K.; Mugarura, B. (2006). "Health of Indigenous people in Africa". The Lancet. 367 (9526): 1937–46. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(06)68849-1. PMID 16765763.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to African Pygmies.|
- Kiss of Life for DR Congo Pygmies by Badylon Kawanda Bakiman
- African Pygmies: Hunter-Gatherer Peoples of Central Africa
- The Pygmies' Plight Smithsonian Magazine, December 2008 by Paul Raffaele
- Survival International: Pygmies
- Pygmy Survival Alliance
- Undated footage of Pygmy tribe constructing a vine bridge