Ituri conflict

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Ituri conflict
Part of the Second Congo War
East Congo conflict map.svg
Area of conflicts in eastern DRC
Date Main conflict: 1999 – 2003[2] (4 years)
Low level conflict: 2003 – present[3] (14 years)
Location Ituri, Democratic Republic of the Congo
Status Ongoing
Belligerents

Lendu tribe:


Mai-Mai Simba

Hema tribe:


RCD-Kisangani
FAPC
 Uganda


 Democratic Republic of the Congo
 United Nations (MONUC)

 European Union (Artemis)
Commanders and leaders

Germain Katanga (FRPI) (POW)
Mathieu Ngudjolo Chui (FRPI) (POW)
Etienne Lona (FNI)
Cobra Matata (FRPI/FPJC) Surrendered
Mbadu Abirodu (FRPI) Surrendered[4][5]

Kakado Barnaba Yunga (FRPI) (POW)[6]

Jérôme Kakwavu (FAPC) Surrendered
James Kazini
Fal SiKabw

Babacar Gaye[7]
Strength
FRPI: 1,000 (2015)[8] Unknown
Casualties and losses
Estimate: c. 60,000 killed (1998–2006)[9]

The Ituri conflict (French: Guerre d'Ituri) was a major conflict between the agriculturalist Lendu and pastoralist Hema ethnic groups in the Ituri region of the north-eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). While the two groups had fought since as early as 1972, the name 'Ituri conflict' refers to the period of intense violence between 1999 and 2003.[10] A low level armed conflict continues to the present day.

The conflict was largely set off by the Second Congo War, which had led to increased ethnic consciousness, a large supply of small arms, and the formation of various armed groups. More long term-factors include land disputes, the area's abundant natural resources, and the existing ethnic tensions throughout the region. The Lendu ethnicity was largely represented by the Nationalist and Integrationist Front (FNI) while the Union of Congolese Patriots (UPC) claimed to be fighting for the Hema.

The conflict was extremely violent and was accompanied by large-scale massacres perpetrated by members of both ethnic factions.[10] In 2006, the BBC reported that as many as 60,000 people had died in Ituri since 1998.[9] Hundreds of thousands of people were forced from their homes, becoming refugees.

In June 2003, the European Union began Operation Artemis, sending a French-led peacekeeping force to Ituri. The EU force managed to take control of the regional capital of Bunia. Despite this, fighting and massacres continued in the countryside.[10] In December 2003, the Hema-backed UPC split and fighting decreased significantly.[10]

Background[edit]

Ethnic tension between the Lendu and Hema can be traced to the colonial period, when the area was part of the Belgian Congo. The Belgian colonial administrators favored the pastoralist Hema, resulting in education and wealth disparities between the two groups. This divergence continued into modern times. Despite this, the two peoples have largely lived together peacefully and extensively intermarried. While the southern Hema speak their own language, the northern Hema speak Lendu.

The Hema and Lendu have longstanding grievances about land issues that had erupted into conflict on at least three previous occasions: 1972, 1985 and 1996. Much of the animosity revolves around the 1973 land use law, which allows people to buy land they do not inhabit and, if their ownership is not contested for two years, evict any residents from the land. Some wealthy Hema used this law to force Lendu off their land, leading to a growing sense of resentment.[citation needed]

The 1994 Rwandan genocide sent psychological shockwaves throughout the Great Lakes region. The murder of 800,000 people on the basis of ethnicity served to make people even more aware of their tribal and linguistic affiliations. The subsequent influx of Hutu refugees into the region, which led to the First Congo War, served as further emphasis. However, it was not until the Second Congo War, which began in 1998, that the situation between the Hema and Lendu reached the level of regional conflict. Much of the northern DRC, including Orientale Province (of which Ituri is a part), was occupied by the invading Uganda People's Defense Force (UPDF) and the Ugandan-backed Kisangani faction of the rebel Rally for Congolese Democracy (RCD-K) under the leadership of Ernest Wamba dia Wamba. The widespread conflict was accompanied by an influx of assault rifles and other firearms.

Main conflict[edit]

UPDF's Ituri province creation leads to violence (June 1999)[edit]

In June 1999 James Kazini, the commander of UPDF forces in the DRC, ignored the protests of the RCD-K leadership and created a new “province” of Ituri out of eastern Orientale Province. He then named a Hema to be the new governor. This apparently convinced the Lendu that Uganda and the RCD-K were backing the Hema against them, and violence erupted between the two groups, resulting in the Blukwa massacre in which more than 400 ethnic Hemas were massacred by Lendu militias.[11][12][13][14] The UPDF did little to stop the fighting but, in some cases, aided the Hema. However, even as the fighting intensified the UPDF continued to train both Hema and Lendu. Reports indicate that Lendu trainees refused to join the RCD-K and instead set up ethnically-based militias.

Temporary cessation of hostilities (1999–2001)[edit]

Internally displaced refugees in Bunia with MONUC personnel, 2004

The fighting did not begin to slow until the RCD-K named a neutral replacement to head the provincial government in late 1999. In the months prior approximately 200,000 people were displaced from their homes and 7,000 were killed in the fighting. An unknown number died of conflict-related disease and malnutrition, but mortality rates as high as fifteen percent were recorded during two measles outbreaks in the affected regions.

Renewed fighting (2001–2003)[edit]

The fighting flared again in 2001 after the UPDF replaced the neutral governor with a Hema appointee. The RCD-K appointed governor was moved to Kampala and held by the Ugandan government without explanation. Throughout this period, the RCD-K had an internal power struggle that resulted in the splitting of the organization into the RCD-K of Wamba dia Wamba and the RCD-Mouvement de Libération (RCD-ML) of Mbusa Nyamwisi, which has prominent Hema in its leadership. Wamba dia Wamba returned to Bunia to denounce a proposed merger of the three major Ugandan-backed rebel groups, the RCD-K, the RCD-ML and Movement for the Liberation of Congo, as a Ugandan imposition. The quick collapse of Wamba dia Wamba's military base without Ugandan support is most probably a direct result of a perceived pro-Lendu stance.

Peacekeeping operations (2003–2006)[edit]

In the beginning of 2003 UN observer teams present in DRC since 1999 monitored serious combat and human rights violations in Ituri. In April 2003, 800 Uruguayan soldiers were deployed in Bunia. In the same month an observer died in a mine explosion. In May 2003 two military observers were killed by militiamen.

The withdrawal of 7,000 Ugandan troops in April 2003 led to a deteriorating security situation in the Ituri region, endangering the peace process. UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan called for establishing and deploying a temporary multi-national force to the area until the weakened UN mission could be reinforced. On May 30, 2003, the Security Council adopted the Resolution 1484 authorizing the deployment of an Interim Multinational Emergency Force (IMEF) to Bunia with a task to secure the airport, and to protect internally displaced persons in camps and the civilians in the town.

The French government had already shown interest in leading the IMEF operation. It soon broadened to an EU-led mission with France as the framework nation providing the bulk of the personnel and complemented by contributions from both EU and non-EU nations. The total force consisted of about 1800 personnel and was supported by French aircraft based at N'Djamena and Entebbe airfields. A small 80-man Swedish Special Forces group, (SSG), was also added.

The operation, Operation Artemis, was launched on 12 June and the IMEF completed its deployment over the following three weeks. The force was successful in stabilizing the situation in Bunia and enforcing the UN presence in the DRC. In September 2003 responsibility for the security of the region was handed over to the UN mission.

The Lendu FNI and Union of Congolese Patriots militias murdered nine Bangladeshi peacekeepers near the town of Kafe on 25 February 2005, the largest single UN loss since the Rwandan Genocide. In response, UN forces assaulted a FNI stronghold, killing 50 militiamen. Thomas Lubanga Dyilo, the leader of the Union of Congolese Patriots, and other militia leaders were arrested by Congolese authorities and imprisoned in Makala Prison, Kinshasa. Lubanga was accused of having ordered the killing of the peacekeepers in February 2005 and of being behind continuous insecurity in the area. On February 10, 2006, the International Criminal Court issued an arrest warrant for Lubanga for the war crime of "conscripting and enlisting children under the age of fifteen years and using them to participate actively in hostilities". Congolese authorities transferred Lubanga to ICC custody on 17 March 2006. [1] Lubanga was found guilty and sentenced to a total period of 14 years imprisonment in 2012, becoming the first person convicted by the ICC.[15]

On 1 April 2005, the UN reported that less than half of the 15,000 militia members had disarmed by the deadline set. Peacekeeper Colonel Hussein Mahmoud stated that the MONUC would now aggressively and forcibly disarm the remaining militias. In April 2006 one Nepalese peacekeeper was killed and seven were taken hostage by the FNI. MONUC confirmed that seven of its peacekeepers were captured in an area 100 km east of Bunia, in the disputed northeastern region of Ituri. In May 2006 the FNI released the seven Nepalese peacekeepers. On 9 October 2006, MONUC reported that 12 FNI militiamen were killed in clashes with the Congolese army. MONUC spokesman Leocadio Salmeron stated that “no population movements have been observed” as a result of the fighting.[16]

Aftermath (2006–2008)[edit]

UN forces in Ituri in 2013

Foreign collusion[edit]

Human Rights Watch has documented links that AngloGold Ashanti, a subsidiary of mining conglomerate Anglo American, among others, supported the Nationalist and Integrationist Front (FNI). Payments were made to facilitate mining operations near the town of Mongbwalu, and gold was smuggled through Uganda to Europe and beyond. The benefits of this gold trade were shared by the companies and armed militias. Following the release of the HRW report in June 2005, the Switzerland-based Metalor Technologies, the area's largest gold refiner, agreed to stop buying gold from Uganda.[17]

On 17 October 2006, an Amnesty International, Oxfam, and International Action Network on Small Arms joint-research effort in Ituri found US, Russian, Chinese, South African, and Greek bullets. The researchers stated that: “this is just one example of how lax arms controls fuel conflict and suffering worldwide. UN arms embargoes are like dams against tidal waves.”[18]

On 11 October 2006, as part of the agreement that led to the release of the Nepalese peacekeepers and following a ministerial decree signed on 2 October, Congolese Defence Minister Adolphe Onusumba announced that FNI leader Peter Karim and Congolese Revolutionary Movement (MRC) leader Martin Ngudjolo were both appointed to the rank Colonel in the Congolese army, commanding 3,000 troops each.[19]

Disarmament and reconciliation[edit]

The conflict has also seen the abduction and enslavement of civilians by armed troops. On October 16, 2006, the Human Rights Watch stated that the DRC government needs to investigate and prosecute members of its army who participated in the abduction of civilians and their use as forced labor and called to end the practice. The whereabouts of nine civilians abducted on September 17 and 20 civilians abducted on August 11 remains unknown.[20]

On 30 October a Congolese army officer, alleged to have been drunk, shot and killed two election officials in the town of Fataki, which provoked a riot. He was sentenced to death the next day.[21] On November 24, DRC's military prosecutor announced that three mass graves, containing the bodies of about 30 people, were discovered in Bavi, Ituri. The commander of the battalion stationed in the town and a captain in charge of maintaining discipline were arrested.[22]

In November 2006 the Ituri Patriotic Resistance Front, the last of the three militias involved in the conflict, agreed to a deal by which up to 5000 fighters would release hundreds of child soldiers and disarm in exchange for an amnesty. Militia members will be incorporated into the national army and their leaders made officers in the wake of general elections endorsing the government of Joseph Kabila.[23] The FNI became the last militia to begin turning over its weapons in April 2007,[24] though disarmament and demobilization continued through May.[25]

Germain Katanga, the former leader of the FRPI, was surrendered on 17 October 2007 by the Congolese authorities to the International Criminal Court. On 7 March 2014 Katanga was convicted by the ICC on five counts of war crimes and crimes against humanity, as an accessory to the February 2003 massacre in the village of Bogoro. The verdict was the second-ever conviction for the International Criminal Court, following the conviction of Thomas Lubanga Dyilo.[26]

Low-level continuation (2008–present)[edit]

Even as the Second Congo War wound to an official end in 2003, for the next several years a low level conflict continued in Ituri, with tens of thousands more killed. The continued conflict has been blamed both on the lack of any real authority in the region, which has become a patchwork of areas claimed by armed militias, and the competition among the various armed groups for control of natural resources in the area. The largest of these rebel groups is the Front for Patriotic Resistance in Ituri (FPRI), a Lendu-based group formed in 2002.

Half of the militia members were under the age of 18 and some as young as eight.[27]

FRPI attacks (2008–2012)[edit]

Despite agreeing to a ceasefire in 2006, a splinter group of FRPI militants began launching sporadic attacks on government forces and the civilian population beginning in 2008. These attacks included many atrocities, including rape, arson, and looting.[28][1][29][30]

In January 2010, Kakado Barnaba Yunga, the spiritual leader of the FPRI was brought to trial in Bunia. Yunga was accused of launching a rebellion, looting, rape, and cannibalism, among other crimes.[6][31]

Over the next few years, tens of thousands of civilians were displaced by FRPI militants, who continued to attack them and commit numerous crimes.[32][33][34][35][36]

FARDC counter-attacks and surrender offers (2012–2014)[edit]

As the attacks from the FRPI mounted, the FARDC (the Congolese military) began large-scale operations against them. Cows and other stolen property were recovered and returned to the local population.[37][38] Slowly, FRPI militants began disbanding, and many were incorporated into the FARDC.[39][40]

In September 2014, MONUSCO opened an office in the village of Avebo with the goal of providing militants a place to surrender, with mixed success.[41][4][2]

FRPI new offensives (2014–present)[edit]

In spite of government efforts, the FRPI has managed to launch attacks against civilians up to the present day, experiencing a resurgence after 2014. More property has been stolen and more crimes have been committed.[42][43][44][45] It is possible that the militants are using bases in Uganda to aid in operations.[46]

FARDC soldiers on patrol near Aveba in 2015

Although FRPI commander Mbadu Adirodu promised to surrender 300 militants in May of 2015, by June peace negotiations had broken down and fighting continued.[3][47][48]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Ituri : les FARDC face à une nouvelle milice, FPJC, à Kagaba". 4 October 2008. Retrieved 28 January 2015. 
  2. ^ a b "Bunia: 28 miliciens de la FRPI se sont rendus". Radio Okapi. 27 November 2014. Retrieved 28 January 2015. 
  3. ^ a b "Reddition d'environ 300 miliciens de la FRPI en Ituri". Radio Okapi. 18 May 2015. Retrieved 22 May 2015. 
  4. ^ a b "Ituri : la FRPI accusée d'exactions dans plusieurs villages". Radio Okapi. 19 September 2014. Retrieved 28 January 2015. 
  5. ^ "The case of the prosecutor vs. Katanga and Chui" (PDF). AMCC. Retrieved 28 January 2015. 
  6. ^ a b "Bunia : début du procès Kakado, chef spirituel des miliciens de la FRPI". 21 January 2010. Retrieved 28 January 2015. 
  7. ^ "Ituri: sécurité, il y a des progrès mais la vigilance s'impose, selon Babacar Gaye". 20 July 2010. Retrieved 28 January 2015. 
  8. ^ "RDC: le groupe armé du FRPI de nouveau actif dans l'Ituri" (in French). 6 April 2015. 
  9. ^ a b "Eastern DR Congo rebels to disarm", BBC, Published: 2006/11/30 01:39:24 GMT, By Karen Allen, BBC News, Bunia
  10. ^ a b c d Uppsala Conflict Data Program Conflict Encyclopedia, Conflict Name: Hema – Lendu, Conflict Summary, Non-state Conflict
  11. ^ "Justice in the Democratic Republic of Congo: A background". The Hague Justice Portal. December 17, 2009. Archived from the original on March 14, 2012. 
  12. ^ Staff (January 29, 2000). "End Congo massacres, urges aid agency". BBC News. 
  13. ^ Gough, David (February 13, 2000). "Tribal rivalry sparks killing spree". The Guardian. Archived from the original on March 14, 2012. 
  14. ^ Gough, David (February 27, 2000). "Ethnic war deepens in Congo". The Guardian. Archived from the original on March 14, 2012. 
  15. ^ "War crimes court finds Lubanga guilty in landmark ruling". March 14, 2012. 
  16. ^ “DRC: 12 militias killed in clashes with army in Ituri”, Reuters, October 9, 2006
  17. ^ "Gold Smuggling in Uganda" Human Rights Watch, 2005
  18. ^ “Arms exporters to embargoed Congo revealed”, afrol News, October 17, 2006
  19. ^ “DRC: Two militia leaders appointed army colonels”, IRIN, October 11, 2006
  20. ^ “DR Congo: Army Abducts Civilians for Forced Labor”, Reuters, October 16, 2006
  21. ^ “DRC soldier to be killed for murdering officials”, South African Broadcasting Corporation, October 31, 2006
  22. ^ “Mass graves found in DRC”, Mail & Guardian, November 24, 2006
  23. ^ “Eastern DR Congo rebels to disarm”, BBC News, November 30, 2006
  24. ^ " DRC: Another rebel group gives up arms", IRIN, February 28, 2007
  25. ^ " DRC: More rebels hand in arms in Ituri", IRIN, May 11, 2007
  26. ^ Germain Katanga: Guilty of war crimes, the brutal warlord who terrorised the Democratic Republic of Congo, The Independent, 07 March, 2014. Accessed 08 March, 2014
  27. ^ Paul R. Bartrop, Steven Leonard Jacobs. Modern Genocide: The Definitive Resource and Document Collection. ISBN 978-1610693639. 
  28. ^ "Bunia: le FRPI arrache deux localités aux FARDC". 29 September 2008. Retrieved 28 January 2015. 
  29. ^ "Ituri : le village de Kombokabo sous contrôle des miliciens FPJC". 9 October 2008. Retrieved 28 January 2015. 
  30. ^ "Walendu Pindi : des combats opposent les miliciens du FJPC et les FARDC". 14 April 2009. Retrieved 28 January 2015. 
  31. ^ "Bunia : chef spirituel du FRPI, Kakado Barnaba désormais poursuivi pour crime de guerre". 6 February 2010. Retrieved 28 January 2015. 
  32. ^ "Ituri: retour au calme après les affrontements entre miliciens du FRPI et FARDC". 9 October 2011. Retrieved 28 January 2015. 
  33. ^ "Ituri: cinquième attaque du FRPI à Irumu depuis le début du mois". 14 October 2011. Retrieved 28 January 2015. 
  34. ^ "Ituri : une nouvelle attaque du FRPI fait 30 000 déplacés". 20 October 2011. Retrieved 28 January 2015. 
  35. ^ "Ituri : des centaines de personnes et leur bétail fuient les attaques du FRPI". 15 August 2012. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
  36. ^ "Ituri : 2 vieilles femmes violées lors de l'attaque des miliciens de FRPI à Irumu". Radio Okapi. 19 May 2014. Retrieved 28 January 2015. 
  37. ^ "RDC: les FARDC tuent une dizaine de miliciens de la FRPI en Ituri". Radio Okapi. 2 November 2013. Retrieved 28 January 2015. 
  38. ^ "RDC: les miliciens de la FRPI multiplient leurs attaques à Bahema Mitego". Radio Okapi. 4 January 2014. Retrieved 28 January 2015. 
  39. ^ "Ituri: la FRPI sollicite un couloir de sécurité pour se rendre aux FARDC à Getty". Radio Okapi. 6 March 2014. Retrieved 28 January 2015. 
  40. ^ "Ituri: échec de la tentative de négociations pour la reddition de Cobra Matata". Radio Okapi. 10 August 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
  41. ^ "Ituri: la Monusco aménage un site d'accueil pour les ex-FRPI à Aveba". Radio Okapi. 18 September 2014. Retrieved 28 January 2015. 
  42. ^ "Ituri: les exactions des miliciens de la FRPI continuent malgré la reddition de Cobra Matata". 7 December 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
  43. ^ "Ituri : 29 morts enregistrés dans les affrontements entre FARDC et FRPI". Radio Okapi. 22 January 2015. Retrieved 28 January 2015. 
  44. ^ "Ituri: des hommes armés attaquent le camp de déplacés de Lagabo, 12 blessés". Radio Okapi. 9 March 2015. Retrieved 15 March 2015. 
  45. ^ "Ituri: des humanitaires sous menaces de la FRPI à Walendu Bindi". Radio Okapi. 17 April 2015. Retrieved 22 May 2015. 
  46. ^ "RDC: une attaque d'hommes armés dans une boîte de nuit fait 14 morts à Aru". Radio Okapi. 31 January 2015. Retrieved 1 February 2015. 
  47. ^ "Ituri: les combats entre FARDC et FRPI ont fait 38 morts". Radio Okapi. 14 June 2015. Retrieved 14 June 2015. 
  48. ^ "Ituri: retour au calme après les accrochages entre FARDC et FRPI à Aveba". Radio Okapi. 4 June 2015. Retrieved 14 June 2015. 

External links[edit]