Air America (airline)
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|Hubs|| Saigon, South Vietnam |
Vientiane, Kingdom of Laos
|Parent company||American Airdale Corporation|
Air America was an American passenger and cargo airline covertly owned and operated by the US government from 1950 to 1976. It was used as a dummy corporation for Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) operations in Indochina. The CIA did not have enough work to keep the asset afloat and the National Security Council farmed the airline out to various government entities that included the US Air Force, US Army, USAID, and for a brief time France. Essentially, Air America was used by the US government covertly to conduct military operations, posing as a civilian air carrier, in areas the US armed forces could not go due to treaty restraints contained in the 1954 and 1962 Geneva Accords.
The Air America name was resurrected during the mid-1980s and used by a scheduled passenger airline based in Los Angeles which operated Lockheed L-1011 TriStar wide body jetliners with flights serving Baltimore (BWI), Detroit (DTW), Honolulu (HNL), London (LGW) and Los Angeles (LAX). This version of Air America formerly operated as Total Air.
In August 1950, the CIA, at the direction of the National Security Council, formed a Delaware corporation named Airdale. Airdale formed a subsidiary corporation named CAT, Inc. CAT purchased 40% of the assets of Civil Air Transport (CAT), an airline that had been started in China in 1946 by Gen Claire Lee Chennault (of Flying Tigers fame) and Whiting Willauer. Sixty percent remained with Chinese investors. CAT Inc. also formed Asiatic Aeronautical Company Ltd, a Republic of China company.
In 1957 Airdale changed its name to Pacific Corporation. CAT, Inc. changed its name to Air America, Inc. in 1959 after settling objections from Air France. Asiatic Aeronautical Company, Ltd changed its name to Air Asia Company, Ltd the same year. Civil Air Transport remained in existence throughout the tenure of Air America from 1950 through 1976, and for several years was the flag carrier for the Republic of China. This status was lost after a landing accident and China Airlines became the flag carrier. Civil Air Transport became a ticketing company used mostly for inter-company travel.
Air America's slogan was "Anything, Anywhere, Anytime, Professionally".:xix Air America aircraft, including the Curtiss C-46 Commando, Pilatus PC-6 Porter, de Havilland Canada DHC-4 Caribou, Lockheed C-130 Hercules, and Fairchild C-123 Provider, along with UH-34D, Bell 204B, 205, and CH-47C Chinook helicopters, flew many types of cargo to countries such as the Republic of Vietnam, the Kingdom of Laos, and Cambodia. It operated from bases in those countries and also from bases in Thailand and as far afield as Taiwan and Japan. It also on occasion flew top-secret missions into Burma and the People's Republic of China.
Air America's headquarters moved several times during its existence, including 808 17th St NW (1964), 801 World Center Bldg (late 1964), 815 Connecticut Ave NW (July 1968), and 1725 K Street NW (1972), all in Washington, DC. The principal continental US maintenance base was at Pinal Airpark, Marana, Arizona.
Operations during the Vietnam War (Second Indochina War)
From 1959 to 1962 the airline provided direct and indirect support to US Special Forces "Ambidextrous", "Hotfoot", and "White Star", which trained the regular Royal Laotian armed forces. After 1962 a similar operation known as Project 404 fielded numerous US Army attachés (ARMA) and air attachés (AIRA) to the US embassy in Vientiane.
From 1962 to 1975, Air America inserted and extracted US personnel, provided logistical support to the Royal Lao Army, the Hmong Army under command of Royal Lao Army Major General Vang Pao, and combatant Thai volunteer forces, transported refugees, and flew photo reconnaissance missions that provided intelligence on NLF activities. Its civilian-marked craft were frequently used, under the control of the Seventh/Thirteenth Air Force, to launch search and rescue missions for US pilots downed throughout Southeast Asia. Air America pilots were the only known private US corporate employees to operate non-Federal Aviation Administration-certified military aircraft in a combat role.
By mid-1970, the airline had two dozen twin-engine transport aircraft, another two dozen short-take off-and-landing aircraft, and 30 helicopters dedicated to operations in Burma, Cambodia, Thailand, and Laos. There were more than 300 pilots, copilots, flight mechanics, and airfreight specialists based in Laos, Vietnam, and Thailand. During 1970, Air America delivered 46 million pounds (21,000 metric tons) of food in Laos. Helicopter flight time reached more than 4,000 hours a month in the same year.
Air America flew civilians, diplomats, spies, refugees, commandos, sabotage teams, doctors, war casualties, drug enforcement officers, and even visiting VIPs like Richard Nixon all over Southeast Asia. Its non-human passengers were even more bizarre on occasion. Part of the CIA's support operations in Laos, for instance, involved logistical support for local tribes fighting the North Vietnamese forces and the Pathet Lao, their local opponents. Forced draft urbanization policies, such as the widespread application of Agent Orange to Vietnamese farmland created a disruption in local food production, so thousands of tons of food had to be flown in, including live chickens, pigs, water buffalo, and cattle. On top of the food drops (known as "rice drops") came the logistical demands for the war itself, and Air America pilots flew thousands of flights transporting and air-dropping ammunition and weapons (referred to as "hard rice"):7 to friendly forces.
When the North Vietnamese Army overran South Vietnam in 1975, Air America helicopters participated in Operation Frequent Wind evacuating both US civilians and South Vietnamese people associated with the Saigon regime. The famous photograph depicting the final evacuation by Dutch photographer, Hubert van Es, was an Air America helicopter taking people from an apartment building at 22 Gia Long St used by USAID and CIA employees.
Air America planes carried drugs during the CIA's secret war in Laos, though there is debate about whether Air America and the CIA were actively involved or merely allowed others to transport drugs. During this war, the CIA used the Meo (Hmong) population to fight Pathet Lao rebels. Because of the war against Pathet Lao rebels, the Hmong depended upon poppy cultivation for hard currency. The Plain of Jars had been captured by Pathet Lao rebels in 1964 which resulted in the Laotian Air Force not being able to land their C-47 transport aircraft on the Plain of Jars for opium transport. The Laotian Air Force had almost no light planes that could land on the dirt runways near the mountaintop poppy fields. Having no way to transport their opium, the Hmong were faced with economic ruin. Air America was the only airline available in northern Laos. "According to several unproven sources, Air America began flying opium from mountain villages north and east of the Plain of Jars to Gen Vang Pao's headquarters at Long Tieng."
Air America were alleged to have profited from transporting opium and heroin on behalf of Hmong leader Vang Pao, or of "turning a blind eye" to the Laotian military doing it. This allegation has been supported by former Laos CIA paramilitary Anthony Poshepny (aka Tony Poe), former Air America pilots, and other people involved in the war. It is portrayed in the movie Air America. However, University of Georgia historian William M. Leary, writing on behalf of Air America, claims that the airline employees were not actively involved and that the airline did not make profits from transporting drugs. Curtis Peebles denies the allegation, citing the now deceased Leary's  study as evidence.
Historian Alfred W. McCoy stated that:
In most cases, the CIA's role involved various forms of complicity, tolerance or studied ignorance about the trade, not any direct culpability in the actual trafficking ... [t]he CIA did not handle heroin, but it did provide its drug lord allies with transport, arms, and political protection.
After the war
After pulling out of South Vietnam in 1975, there was an attempt to keep a company presence in Thailand. After this fell through, Air America was dissolved on 30 June 1976. Air Asia, the company that held all of the Air America assets, was later purchased by Evergreen International Airlines. All proceeds, a sum between 20–25 million dollars, were returned to the US Treasury. The employees were released unceremoniously with no accolades and no benefits even for those who suffered long-term disabilities, nor death benefits for families of employees killed in action.
Such benefits as were afforded came from worker's compensation insurance required by contracts with the US Air Force that few knew about. The benefits were not awarded easily. Many disabled pilots were ultimately compensated under the Federal Longshoremen's Act after lengthy battles with CIA bureaucrats who denied their connection to the airline for years. Many died of their injuries before they could be compensated adequately. Accident reports were said to have been falsified, redacted, and stonewalled by CIA officials who continued to deny any relationship to the events described in them.
During its existence Air America operated a diverse fleet of aircraft, the majority of which were STOL capable. There was "fluidity" of aircraft between some companies like Air America, Boun Oum Airways, Continental Air Services, Inc, and the United States Air Force. It was not uncommon for USAF and United States Army Aviation units to lend aircraft to Air America for specific missions. Air America tended to register its aircraft in Taiwan. They operated in Laos without the B- nationality prefix. US military aircraft were often used with the "last three" digits of the military serial as a civil marking. The first two transports of Air America arrived in Vientiane, Laos on 23 August 1959. The Air America operations at Udorn, Thailand were closed down on 30 June 1974. Air America's operating authority was cancelled by the CAB on 31 January 1974.
- Beech 18 ex-military C-45 Expediters
- Beech Baron
- Boeing 727-92C
- Consolidated PBY-5A Catalina
- Curtiss C-46
- de Havilland DH.89A Dragon Rapide
- de Havilland Canada DHC-2 Beaver
- de Havilland Canada DHC-4 Caribou
- de Havilland Canada DHC-6 Twin Otter 300
- Dornier Do28 Skyservant
- Douglas B-26 Invader – On Mark Marksman conversion
- Douglas C-47
- Douglas DC-4
- Douglas DC-6A/B
- Fairchild C-119 Flying Boxcar
- Fairchild C-123B And K Provider
- Helio Courier and Super Courier
- Helio Twin Courier
- Lockheed L.1049H Constellation
- Lockheed C-130A/E Hercules
- Pilatus Turbo-Porter includes Fairchild Hiller version
- Piper Apache
- Bell 47
- Bell 204B
- Bell 205
- Boeing-Vertol CH-47C Chinook
- Hughes 500D
- OH-6A Cayuse
- Sikorsky S-55/H-19
- Sikorsky S-58T
- Sikorsky CH-54 Skycrane
- Sikorsky H-34
Air Asia was a wholly owned subsidiary of Air America which provided technical, management, and equipment services for Civil Air Transport of Formosa. Air Asia was headquartered in Taipei and its main facilities were in Tainan, Taiwan. It is now located in the Tainan Airport. It is the only surviving member of the Pacific Corporation, but currently it is owned by Taiwan Aerospace Corporation and is no longer related to the Central Intelligence Agency.
Accidents and incidents
- On 5 May 1954, a C-119 crashed in Laos after being hit by ground fire. Pilot James B. McGovern, Jr. and Wallace Buford were killed.
- On 5 September 1963, a C-46 aircraft was hit by ground fire and crashed about two kilometers from Tchepone in the Savannakhet Province. American DeBruin, Chinese Y.C. To, and the three Thai nationals, Pisidhi Indradat, Prasit Promsuwan, and Prasit Thanee parachuted to safety, but were immediately captured by the Pathet Lao. Joseph C. Cheney and Charles Herrick[permanent dead link] were killed in the crash. DeBruin, To, Promsuwan, and Thanee are still missing in action. Pisidhi Indradat was later rescued in January 1967.
- On 20 August 1965, a UH-34 crashed and sank into the Mekong River. The three crew members, Pilot Bobby Nunez, deadheading pilot Calhoun and Flight Mechanic Steve Nichols, managed to escape while the four passengers drowned. Surnames are only mentioned on the manifest for both crew and passengers. The deadheading pilot, Mr. Calhoun, was involved in a hull loss of another UH-34 earlier that day when the helicopter performed a ground loop.
- On 27 September 1965, a C-45 was shot down by small arms fire as it attempted to land near Bao Trai Airstrip, Hau Nghia Province, Vietnam. Pilot John Lerdo Oyer, and Jack J Wells were killed in the crash.
- On 12 January 1968 an Air America Bell UH-1D helicopter piloted by Ted Moore, with Glen Woods as "kicker", shot down an An-2s biplane ("An Air Combat First") during the Battle of Lima Site 85.
- On 16 January 1969, a Douglas C-47A "949" crashed in the Hai Van Pass, 18 miles (29 km) south of Huế, South Vietnam. The aircraft was on a domestic cargo flight from Phu Bai International Airport to Da Nang International Airport. All 12 passengers and crew were killed.
- In the spring of 1972, a C-7A Caribou loaded with Nationalist Lao Troops experienced a simultaneous twin engine failure on final approach. Both pilots were seriously injured. Sabotage was suspected.
- On 29 December 1973, a Douglas C-53D EM-3 overran the runway on landing at Dalat Airport, South Vietnam. The aircraft was substantially damaged and was not salvaged due to the presence of land mines in the area. It was operating a non-scheduled passenger flight. All nine people on board survived.
- On 29 April 1975, a Douglas VC-47A 084 crashed on landing at U-Tapao Royal Thai Navy Airfield, Sattahip, Thailand. The aircraft was on a flight from Tan Son Nhat International Airport, Saigon, Vietnam.
- 1st American Volunteer Group, a World War II unit known as "The Flying Tigers"
- Battle of Lima Site 85
- Raytheon Intelligence and Information Systems E-Systems
- Lao Veterans of America
- The Centre for Public Policy Analysis
- Eugene DeBruin
- Pisidhi Indradat
- Front organization
- North Vietnamese invasion of Laos
- Shell corporation
- United League for Democracy in Laos
- Pathet Lao
- Grey, Stephen (2007). Ghost Plane. New York: St. Martin's Press. pp. 327, 12. ISBN 978-0-312-36024-5.
- http://www.timetableimages.com, Dec. 1, 1986 Air America system timetable
- http://www.timetableimages.com, Dec. 1, 1986 Total Air system timetable
- "History of CAT/Air America". Air-america.org. Archived from the original on April 24, 2011. Retrieved April 29, 2011.
- Robbins, Christopher (2005). Air America; from World War II to Vietnam (4th ed.). Bangkok: Asia Books. ISBN 974-8303-51-9.
- "Air America: Played a Crucial Part of the Emergency Helicopter and Fixed Wing Evacuation of Saigon". History Net. Archived from the original on June 11, 2011. Retrieved April 29, 2011.
- "Air America Association – Articles". Air-america.org. Archived from the original on July 20, 2011. Retrieved April 29, 2011.
- Van Es, Hubert (April 29, 2005). "Thirty Years at 300 Millimeters". The New York Times. Retrieved December 17, 2012.
- Butterfield, Fox; Haskell, Kari (April 23, 2000). "Getting it wrong in a photo". New York Times. Retrieved April 23, 2010.
- McCoy, Alfred (1972). The Politics of Heroin in Southeast Asia. Harper & Row. pp. 263–264, . ISBN 0060129018.
Air America began flying opium from mountain villages north and east of the Plain of Jars to Gen. Vang Pao's headquarters at Long Tieng.
- "Opium Throughout History". PBS. Retrieved July 15, 2013.
- Cockburn, Alexander; Jeffrey St. Clair (1998). "9". Whiteout, the CIA, drugs and the press. New York: Verso. ISBN 1-85984-258-5.
- Blum, William. "The CIA and Drugs: Just say "Why not?"". Third World Traveller. Retrieved May 26, 2013.
- Robbins, Christopher (1985). The Ravens. New York: Crown. p. 94. ISBN 0-9646360-0-X.
- "Air America and Drugs in Laos". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
- Peebles, Curtiss. Twilight Warriors: Covert Air Operations Against the USSR. pp. 254–255. ISBN 1591146607.
- The Politics of Heroin: CIA Complicity in the Global Drug Trade, by McCoy, with Cathleen B. Read and Leonard P. Adams II, 2003, p. 385 ISBN 1-55652-483-8
- "Air America Inc". Vietnam.ttu.edu. April 1, 1976. Archived from the original on June 8, 2011. Retrieved April 29, 2011.
- "Air America: Beech/Volpar Turbo Beech 18". Archived October 29, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. University of Texas, Dallas, 2006. Retrieved: August 12, 2008.
- P.31 Wings of Air America, A Photo History by Terry Love
- "Air America Inc". Vietnam.ttu.edu. April 1, 1976. Archived from the original on June 8, 2011. Retrieved April 29, 2011.
- "Monthly Report: Aug/Sept 1965" (PDF). Freedom of Information Act. Retrieved 11 Nov 2015.
- "An Air Combat First". Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved October 28, 2016.
- "949 Accident Description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved January 23, 2011.
- "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved August 26, 2010.
- "084 Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved August 21, 2010.
- Cockburn, Alexander & St. Clair, Jeffrey. Whiteout: The CIA, Drugs and the Press. (Verso, 1998) ISBN 1-85984-258-5
- Conboy, Kenneth & Morrison, James. Shadow War: The CIA's Secret War in Laos. Boulder CO: Paladin Press, 1995.
- Dale Scott, Peter. Drugs, Oil, and War: The United States in Afghanistan, Columbia and Indochina (Rowman and Littlefield, 2003) ISBN 0-7425-2522-8
- Leary, William M. Perilous Missions: Civil Air Transport and CIA Covert Operations in Asia. (The University of Alabama Press, 1984) ISBN 0-8173-0164-X
- Love, Terry. Wings of Air America: A Photo History (Schiffer Publishing Ltd., 1998) ISBN 0-7643-0619-7
- Parker, James E. Jr. Covert Ops: The CIA's Secret War in Laos (St Martin's Press, 1995) ISBN 0-312-96340-8
- Robbins, Christopher. Air America (Corgi, 1988) ISBN 0-552-12821-X
- Robbins, Christopher. The Ravens: Pilots of the Secret War of Laos (Asia Books Co., 2000) ISBN 974-8303-41-1
- Vietnam Magazine, August 2006
- Honor Denied: The Truth about Air America and the CIA by Allen Cates (iUniverse) ISBN 9781462057481
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Air America.|
- Air America documents released by CIA through FOIA
- CIA CAT activity elsewhere in the Asian theater is discussed in the context of Agency officers John T. Downey and Richard Fecteau, shot down and imprisoned in China in 1952–1973.
- Air America Association web site
- Online Materials about Air America in the Vietnam Archive at Texas Tech[permanent dead link]
- Special Forces Roll of Honour – Air America
- Air America: Helio H-500 Twin Couriers
- Air America in Laos
- Air America