Albany, Western Australia
York Street in Albany
|Population||33,970 (2015) (42nd)|
|• Density||114.30/km2 (296.04/sq mi)|
|Established||26 December 1826|
|Area||297.2 km2 (114.7 sq mi) (2011 urban)|
|Time zone||AWST (UTC+8)|
|LGA(s)||City of Albany|
Albany // is a port city in the Great Southern region of Western Australia, 418 km SE of Perth, the state capital. Albany is the oldest permanently settled town in Western Australia, predating Perth and Fremantle by over two years. At June 2015, Albany's estimated urban population was 33,970, making it the state's sixth-largest population centre.
The city centre is at the northern edge of Princess Royal Harbour, which is a part of King George Sound. The central business district is bounded by Mount Clarence to the east and Mount Melville to the west. The city is in the local government area of the City of Albany.
Albany was founded on 26 December 1826 as a military outpost of New South Wales as part of a plan to forestall French ambitions in the region. To that end, on 21 January 1827 the commander of the outpost, Major Edmund Lockyer, formally took possession of the western third of the continent for the British Crown.
The area was initially named Frederick Town in honour of Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany. In 1831, the settlement was transferred to the control of the Swan River Colony and renamed Albany by Lieutenant-Governor James Stirling.
During the last decade of the 19th century the town served as a gateway to the Eastern Goldfields. For many years, it was the colony's only deep-water port, having a place of eminence on shipping services between Britain and its Australian colonies. The opening of the Fremantle Inner Harbour in 1897, however, saw its importance as a port decline, after which the town's industries turned primarily to agriculture, timber and later, whaling.
Today the town is a significant tourist destination and base from which to explore the south-west of the state, and is well regarded for its natural beauty and preservation of heritage. The town has an important role in the ANZAC legend, being the last port of call for troopships departing Australia in the First World War.
- 1 History
- 2 Heritage buildings
- 3 Geography
- 4 Industry
- 5 Transport
- 6 Media
- 7 Education
- 8 Localities
- 9 Notable residents
- 10 See also
- 11 References
- 12 Bibliography
- 13 External links
- 14 Wikisource
The Albany region was home to the Menang Noongar indigenous people, who made use of the area during the summer months for fishing and other activities. They called the area Kinjarling which means "the place of rain". Many town names in South-Western Australia end in "up" or "ing", which means "place of" in the Noongar language. They would sometimes camp near "Boondie Yokine" – roughly translated as Dog Rock. Early European explorers discovered evidence of fish traps located on Emu Point and on the French, now the Kalgan, River and a small "village" of bark dwellings that were, at the time, deserted.
The coastline of the Albany area was observed for the first time in 1627 by the Dutchman François Thijssen, captain of the ship 't Gulden Zeepaert (The Golden Seahorse), who sailed to the east as far as Ceduna in South Australia and back. Captain Thijssen had discovered the south coast of Australia and charted about 1,768 kilometres (1,099 mi) of it between Cape Leeuwin and the Nuyts Archipelago.
On 29 September 1791, explorer Captain George Vancouver while exploring the south coast, entered and named King George the Third's Sound and Princess Royal Harbour, and took possession of New Holland for the British Crown. Vancouver went out of his way to establish good relationships with the local Aboriginal people.
In 1792, Frenchman Bruni d'Entrecasteaux, in charge of the Recherche and L'Esperance, reached Cape Leeuwin on 5 December and explored eastward along the southern coast. The expedition did not enter King George Sound due to bad weather.
In 1801, Matthew Flinders entered King George Sound and stayed for about a month before charting the rest of the southern Australian coastline. By 1806 he had completed the first circumnavigation of Australia.
French explorer Nicolas Baudin visited King George Sound from 18 February – 1 March 1803, in the Géographe and Casuarina. He surveyed Princess Royal Harbour, Oyster Harbour and the coast as far as Bald Island, to the east. During this visit, the Casuarina was beached in Princess Royal Harbour for repairs.
Australian-born explorer Phillip Parker King visited King George Sound in 1822 on the Bathurst.
In a letter dated 11 March 1826, Henry Bathurst, Secretary of State for War and the Colonies, instructed Governor of New South Wales Ralph Darling that if found suitable a settlement should be established at King George's Sound as it was located on the shipping route between Britain and Port Jackson.
Major Edmund Lockyer was placed in command of the expedition by Governor Darling on 4 November 1826, and given instructions in case of an encounter with the French, that Lockyer was to land troops to signify to the French that "the whole of New Holland is subject to His Britannic Majesty's Government, and that orders have been given for the Establishment at King George's Sound of a Settlement for the reception of Criminals accordingly".
On 26 October 1826, Frenchman Dumont d'Urville in the L'Astrolabe had visited King George Sound before sailing along the south coast to Port Jackson.
Lockyer and his expedition left Sydney on 9 November 1826 aboard HM brig Amity, with a detachment of twenty troops from the 39th Regiment, twenty-three convicts to assist in establishing the settlement, and six months provisions.
Arriving at King George's Sound on 25 December 1826, Lockyer landed ashore early the next day and commenced a survey of the area. On 30 December the troops and prisoners were disembarked, setting up camp and landing stores. On 21 January 1827, as instructed by the Colonial Secretary, the Union Jack was raised and a feu de joie fired by the troops, formally annexing the territory, in assertion of the first official claim by the Imperial Government to British possession over the whole continent of Australia. This was the first site of European settlement in Western Australia.
Lockyer rescued Aboriginal women from offshore islands, who had been kidnapped by sealers operating in the Great Australian Bight as sexual slaves, and apprehended the culprits, sending them east to stand trial. As a result, the local Minang Noongar organised a corroboree in his honour, cementing the good relationships established earlier between local Aboriginal groups of the area and European explorers.
Lockyer left for Sydney on 3 April 1827, handing over command to Captain Joseph Wakefield. King George's Sound continued as a penal settlement for several years. Lieutenant George Sleeman took over as Commandant on 6 December 1828, followed by Captain Collett Barker on 3 December 1829.
To the north at the Swan River, a new Colony, envisaged from the outset as a free settlement, was founded and proclaimed on 18 June 1829. Not only did the settlers of Swan River object to the presence of convicts within the Colony, but its commander James Stirling was unhappy having a military outpost within Western Australia under the command of the Governor of New South Wales. Given the inconvenience and expense of maintaining King George's Sound from Sydney, Governor Darling took the political opportunity and on 7 March 1831 the settlement was made part of the Swan River Colony and the convicts and military garrison were withdrawn to New South Wales.
In 1841 Albany was the final destination of explorer Edward John Eyre, the first European to reach Western Australia overland from the eastern colonies.
The construction of St John's Anglican Church commenced in 1841 and was completed in 1844. The church was the first to be consecrated in Western Australia; the ceremony was conducted on 25 October 1848 by Bishop Augustus Short of Adelaide.
The Albany Advertiser was first published in 1888 as the Australian Advertiser. The paper is still in circulation and is the oldest continuous-running non-metropolitan newspaper in Western Australia.
During the 19th century the loss of the port was deemed a potential threat to the state and the nation. The Princess Royal Fortress was built from funds contributed by all states and guns provided by the Imperial British Government. The fortress was the first federal defence project in Australia, without the country yet having a federal government, and opened in 1893.
Building of the Albany Courthouse commenced in 1896 and it was completed in 1898. The Courthouse was opened the acting Premier, Edward Wittenoom. Although it has been renovated internally the exterior is mostly unchanged.
Until the opening of the Fremantle Inner Harbour in 1897, Albany was also home to the only deep-water port in Western Australia, Princess Royal Harbour. This is the largest natural harbour in Western Australia and also on the entire south coast of the Australian mainland, outside of Melbourne. This facility meant that, for many years, the first port of call for the mail from England was at Albany. This put Albany in a privileged position over Perth and it remained that way until engineer C. Y. O'Connor removed the bar that was blocking the entrance into the Swan River, constructing the Fremantle Inner Harbour, thus establishing this port as Western Australia's major harbour.
The population of the town increased from 4,500 in 1945 to 4,960 in 1949. By 1954 the population was 8,265 and by 1961 it increased to 10,526, mostly due to the arrival of European migrants.
Since that time, Albany has become popular with retirees, with inhabitants enjoying the fresh air, clean beaches, and fine views over the Southern Ocean It is still also a thriving regional centre.
The Albany hospital was redeveloped as part of the Royalties for Regions initiative was opened in 2013. Renamed the Albany Health Campus the project cost A$170 million and is the largest regional hospital project in the states history.
The Albany Entertainment Centre was opened in 2010 as part of waterfront redevelopments on lands adjacent to Albany Port. The National Anzac Centre was opened in 2014 in preparation for Anzac Centenary. The centre is situated within the Princess Royal Fortress Military Museum Precinct near Mount Clarence.
World War I
Ships carrying the Australian Imperial Force and the New Zealand Expeditionary Force (later known collectively as ANZACs) to Egypt to join World War I gathered at Albany in late October 1914. The first detachment departed in convoy on 1 November 1914, with a second detachment departing in late December 1914. Albany was the last place in Australia that these ANZACs saw. The Albany Anzac Peace Park and the Pier of Remembrance were dedicated in 2010, as a precursor to centenary commemorations planned for 2014–2018.
The First Australian and New Zealand Expeditionary Force Fleet (1st Detachment) comprised the escort vessels HMS Minotaur of the Royal Navy's China Station, Japanese battlecruiser Ibuki, the Australian cruisers Melbourne and Sydney, and the Royal New Zealand Squadron warships Pyramus, Psyche, and Philomel. These warships protected a 38-strong convoy, consisting of the Australian troopships Hymettus, Geelong, Orvieto (which was fleet command vessel), Pera, Omrah, Clan Maccorquordale, Medic, Argyllshire, Shropshire, Karoo, Ascanius, Saldanha, Katuna, Euripides, Star of England, Star of Victoria, Port Lincoln, Wiltshire, Afric, Hororata, Morene, Rangatira, Suffolk, Benalla, Anglo-Egyptian, Armadale, Southern, and Militiades, plus the New Zealand transports Maunganui, Tahiti, Ruapehu, Orari, Limerick, Star of India, Hawke's Bay, Arawa, Athenic, and Waimana.
The Desert Mounted Corps Memorial on top of Mount Clarence is in memory of the dead of the Australian Light Horse Brigade, the New Zealand Mounted Rifles Brigade, the Imperial Camel Corps and the Australian Flying Corps from 1916 to 1918. The memorial consists of a statue of an Australian mounted soldier assisting a New Zealand soldier whose horse has been wounded, and a wall listing the groups commemorated. The first recorded Dawn Service was conducted by Anglican chaplain Arthur Earnest White (44th Battalion AIF) on 25 April 1923 atop Mount Clarence, and has been held ever since with several thousand people participating each year. Atop the adjoining Mount Adelaide is the Princess Royal Fortress - gun emplacements, buildings and a collection of military memorablilia to honour the sacrifice of Australian Defence Force personnel spanning the Boer War to today. The contribution of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, president of Turkey from 1923 until 1938, is recognised by naming the entrance into Princess Royal Harbour as Atatürk Entrance, and there is a statue / monument overlooking the entrance on the Marine Drive walking trail.
In 2014 the centenary of the troops leaving Albany was commemorated. Approximately 40,000 people, including the Australian Prime Minister Tony Abbott and New Zealand Prime Minister John Key, marked the occasion by attending ceremonies around the town. The event injected about A$30 million into the local economy.
The following Information is derived from the State Heritage Register where these places are registered. The assessment criteria contain more details.
- The Old Farm Strawberry Hill was established in 1827 as a government farm to feed the colonial soldiers stationed around King George's Sound; it is the oldest farm in Western Australia and the homestead is an example of a colonial gentleman's residence. It became the home of the Government Resident in 1883. After a chequered history the property was vested in the National Trust WA in 1964 and is now a house museum.
- St John's Church (1841–1848) is a stone building with shingled roofs in the Old Colonial Gothick Picturesque style. Set among trees, it was designed to be part of an overall contrived picturesque scene in the manner of an English garden landscape.
- Scots Uniting Church (1892) was designed in the Victorian Academic Gothic style by Melbourne architect Evander McIver and built with local granite stonework.
- The complex now known as The Residency Museum was established in 1850 as a depot for the Convict Establishment in Albany. It is an L shaped, single storied, masonry building with a timber framed, timber shingled roof. In 1873 it was converted into the Resident Magistrate's home. It now serves as a museum.
- The Victorian Free Classical Revival style Town Hall (1888) is a two storey stone building with a prominent clock tower, which dominates York Street, the main street of Albany. It has been put to many uses apart from council meetings, including public entertainment and public meetings of all kinds and even as the venue for the first regional meeting of the State Parliament.
- The Old Post Office was built in two stages, the first was designed in 1869 by J Manning, the second, including a prominent tower, was designed in 1896 by George Temple-Poole. It now houses the Albany campus of the University of Western Australia.
- The Court House, constructed of Albany brick and granite with a tiled roof, was designed in the Federation Romanesque style by the Public Works Department under the supervision of George Temple Poole and Hillson Beasley in 1897.
- Another example of the work of George Temple Poole is the limestone and shingle Federation Arts and Crafts style Cottage Hospital, designed in 1886 and completed in 1897. It is one of the oldest hospitals in the state and served as such until 1962. It is now occupied by the Vancouver Arts Centre (named after the explorer George Vancouver).
The city centre of Albany is located between the hills of Mount Melville and Mount Clarence, which look down into Princess Royal Harbour. Many beaches surround Albany, with Middleton Beach being the closest to the town centre. Other popular beaches include Frenchman Bay and Muttonbird Island.
The Albany coastline is notorious for deaths due to king waves washing people off rocks. The Torndirrup National Park features some of the more rugged coastline in the area. However, there are many beaches that are safe and usable:
- Emu Point
- Middleton Beach
- Frenchman Bay Beach
- Gull Rock Beach, also known as Boiler Beach
- Bettys Beach
- Two Peoples Bay, including Little Beach and Waterfall Beach
- Misery Beach
- Muttonbird Beach
- Cosy Corner
Albany has a Mediterranean climate (Köppen Csb) with dry, warm summers, mild, wet winters, and pleasant springs and autumns. Summers have short spells of very hot weather, but cool ocean breeze brings relief, especially during evenings and nights. The city is situated on what is promoted as the "Rainbow Coast", an appropriate title given the frequency of days with both sun and drizzle or showers. Albany has 44.8 clear days annually.
July is the wettest month, with a long-term average of 144.0 mm (5.67 in). Rain in excess of 0.2 mm (0.01 in) occurs on two days out of every three during an average winter. The driest month is February with a mean of 22.9 mm (0.90 in).
Albany received a record amount of rain on 20 November 2008 when violent storms swept across the Great Southern region. The town was flooded after 113.8 mm (4.48 in) of rain fell in a 24-hour period, the highest amount recorded since rainfall records began in 1877. The wettest month on record was June 1920 when 292.8 mm (11.5 in) fell, while February 1877 and February 1879 remain the only rainless months.
|Climate data for Albany|
|Record high °C (°F)||41.7
|Average high °C (°F)||22.8
|Average low °C (°F)||15.2
|Record low °C (°F)||7.8
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||23.7
|Average rainy days||7.9||7.6||11.0||14.1||18.1||20.0||21.5||21.0||18.3||16.3||12.2||9.5||177.5|
|Average relative humidity (%)||67||67||69||69||70||70||70||68||69||70||68||67||69|
|Source: Australian Bureau of Meteorology|
|Climate data for Albany Airport|
|Record high °C (°F)||45.6
|Average high °C (°F)||24.8
|Average low °C (°F)||13.7
|Record low °C (°F)||4.8
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||23.6
|Average precipitation days||8.2||8.0||10.9||13.9||17.0||19.0||20.3||20.8||18.3||15.8||13.0||9.6||174.8|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||251.1||209.1||204.6||186.0||167.4||153.0||170.5||189.1||189.0||210.8||222.0||244.9||2,397.5|
|Source: Bureau of Meteorology|
Albany's main industries are tourism, fishing, timber (wood chips) and agriculture. From 1952 to 1978 whaling was a major source of income and employment for the local population.
The Whaling Station, which closed operations in 1978, has been converted to a museum of whaling, and features one of the 'Cheynes' whale chasers that were used for whaling in Albany. The station was the last operating whaling station in the southern hemisphere and the English-speaking world at the time of closure.
The Western Power Wind Farm is located at Sand Patch, to the west of Albany. The wind farm, originally commissioned in 2001 with 12 turbines, now has 18 turbines, driven by strong southerly winds, and can generate up to 80% of the city's electricity usage.
Albany has a number of historical sites including the Museum, Albany Convict Gaol, The Princess Royal Fortress (commonly known as The Forts) and Patrick Taylor Cottage, one of the oldest dwellings in Western Australia, c1832. Albany has a great deal of historical significance to Western Australia.
Natural sights are also numerous, especially the rugged coastline, which includes the Natural Bridge and the Gap. The beaches have pristine white sand. The destroyer HMAS Perth was sunk in King George Sound in 2001 as a dive wreck. Albany is also close to two low mountain ranges, the Porongurups and Stirling Ranges.
Albany has a town bus service run by Love's Bus Service with five town routes. Albany is connected to Perth with road-coach services via Walpole and Bunbury; via Katanning and Northam; via Kojonup and Williams. Transwa coaches also serve Jerramungup, Ravensthorpe and Hopetoun.
Albany radio stations include RadioWest (formerly 6VA), GOLD MX, Rete Italia, Vision FM, Fly FM Albany, HOT FM, ABC South Coast, ABC NewsRadio, ABC Radio National, ABC Classic FM, Triple J, Racing Radio & Albany Community Radio.
Below is a table showing the broadcast frequencies on which these services can be received.
|ABC Local Radio||630 kHz AM|
|RadioWest||783 kHz AM|
|GOLD MX||1611 kHz AM|
|Rete Italia||1629 kHz AM|
|Vision FM (Local)||87.6 MHz FM|
|Fly FM||88.0 MHz FM|
|ABC NewsRadio||92.1 MHz FM|
|Triple J||92.9 MHz FM|
|Vision FM||93.7 MHz FM|
|ABC Classic FM||94.5 MHz FM|
|Hot FM||95.3 MHz FM|
|ABC Radio National||96.9 MHz FM|
|Albany Community Radio||100.9 MHz FM|
|Racing Radio||104.9 MHz FM|
|Hot FM (Local)||106.5 MHz FM|
Localised television stations available in Albany include GWN7, WIN Television Western Australia, West Digital Television, SBS and ABC Television Western Australia. GWN7 broadcasts a half-hour news program for regional WA, GWN7 News, at 5:30pm on weeknights with a district newsroom covering Albany and surrounding areas based in the city.
Below is a table showing the full suite of digital television services available in Albany. These services are broadcast from Mount Clarence and cover the majority of the geographic area with some areas requiring signal to be received from the Southern Agricultural site at Mount Barker. Both these transmission sites employ vertical polarity. Furthermore, a number of residents rely on receiving these services via satellite using the Viewer Access Satellite Television (VAST) system.
|LCN||Channel name||Broadcast ch. no.||Broadcast frequency|
|2||ABC||UHF 43||634.5 MHz|
|3||SBS||UHF 41||620.625 MHz|
|5||NINE||UHF 44||641.5 MHz|
|6||GWN7||UHF 45||648.5 MHz|
|8||WIN||UHF 42||627.5 MHz|
|21||ABC||UHF 43||634.5 MHz|
|22||ABC2/KIDS||UHF 43||634.5 MHz|
|23||ABC ME||UHF 43||634.5 MHz|
|24||ABC NEWS 24||UHF 43||634.5 MHz|
|30||SBS HD||UHF 41||620.625 MHz|
|32||SBS2||UHF 41||620.625 MHz|
|33||Food Network||UHF 41||620.625 MHz|
|34||NITV||UHF 41||620.625 MHz|
|50||9Gem||UHF 44||641.5 MHz|
|55||9Go!||UHF 44||641.5 MHz|
|62||7TWO||UHF 45||648.5 MHz|
|63||7mate||UHF 45||648.5 MHz|
|65||ishop TV||UHF 45||648.5 MHz|
|68||RACING.COM||UHF 45||648.5 MHz|
|80||WIN HD||UHF 42||627.5 MHz|
|81||ONE||UHF 42||627.5 MHz|
|82||ELEVEN||UHF 42||627.5 MHz|
|84||TVSN||UHF 42||627.5 MHz|
|85||Gold||UHF 42||627.5 MHz|
|86||ONE||UHF 42||627.5 MHz|
|88||WIN||UHF 42||627.5 MHz|
Local newspapers are the Albany Advertiser (established 1888) and The Extra, (owned by Seven West Media Limited, publishers of The West Australian), and The Great Southern Weekender, independently owned by Beaconwood Holdings Pty. Ltd. but part of the Fairfax Media regional group. The Great Southern Weekender also owns local radio stations GOLD MX and Fly FM.
There are currently several primary schools, 8 high schools and 1 university in the Albany area.
- Albany Primary School
- Flinders Park Primary
- Mount Lockyer Primary
- Parklands School
- Spencer Park Primary
- Yakamia Primary
- Woodbury Boston Primary School
- Woodthorpe School
- Little Grove Primary School
- Albany Senior High School 8–12
- Albany Secondary Education Support Centre 8–13
- Australian Christian College - Southlands K-12
- North Albany Senior High School 8–12
- Great Southern Grammar K-12
- St Joseph's College K-12
- Bethel Christian School K-10
- John Calvin School K-10
- University of Western Australia
- Curtin University of Technology
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- "The Old Gaol and Museum". Albany Historical Society Inc. Retrieved 17 November 2015.
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- "William Finlay - Albany's First Mayor". Nabo. 5 November 2015. Retrieved 13 March 2016.
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- Paige Taylor (30 October 2014). "Albany rekindles its Anzac bonds". The Australian. News Limited. Retrieved 1 November 2014.
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- "Albany Wind Farm". Verve Energy. 2013. Retrieved 7 October 2013.
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- "Assessment Documentation - Patrick Taylor Cottage" (pdf). Register of Heritage Places. Heritage Council of Western Australia. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 12 May 2014.
- Former HMAS Perth Dive Wreck www.albany.wa.gov.au. Retrieved 3 August 2007.
- "Overview Map". Track Info. Bibbulmun Track Foundation. Archived from the original on 22 September 2008. Retrieved 1 October 2008.
- Timetable Files Transwa
- "REX airline to fly to Albany and Esperance". The West Australian. Perth, WA. 22 February 2016. Retrieved 21 May 2016.
- Start of Rex flights welcomed Minister for Agriculture & Food Transport 27 February 2016
- Visitor Centre City of Albany
- Arnold, Murray (2015). A Journey Travelled: Aboriginal-European Relations at Albany and the Surrounding Region from first contact to 1926. Crawley, WA: UWA Publishing. ISBN 9781742586632.
- Garden, Donald S. Albany : a panorama of the Sound from 1827. West Melbourne, Vic.: Thomas Nelson (Australia), 1977. ISBN 0-17-005167-6
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Albany, Western Australia.|
- Albany travel guide from Wikivoyage
- City of Albany
- Albany - Official Tourism Site
- Albany Entertainment Centre
- Albany Historical Society (Inc)
- Albany Tourism Guide along the Rainbow Coast
- National Anzac Centre