Ammonium metavanadate

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Ammonium vanadate
Ammonium vanadate
Photo of a sample of ammonium vanadate
IUPAC name
Ammonium trioxovanadate(V)
Other names
Ammonium vanadate
3D model (JSmol)
ECHA InfoCard 100.029.329
RTECS number YWD875000
Molar mass 116.98 g/mol
Appearance white
Density 2.326 g/cm3
Melting point decomposes > 70 °C (158 °F; 343 K)
Boiling point Decomposes
4.8 g/1000 ml (20 °C)
Solubility diethanolamine, ethanolamine
Main hazards possible mutagen, dangerous for the environment
GHS pictograms The skull-and-crossbones pictogram in the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS)The exclamation-mark pictogram in the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS)The health hazard pictogram in the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS)
GHS signal word Danger
H301, H332, H340, H361, H370, H372, H402, H412
P201, P202, P260, P261, P264, P270, P271, P273, P281, P301+310, P304+312, P304+340, P307+311, P308+313
NFPA 704
Flammability code 0: Will not burn. E.g., water Health code 4: Very short exposure could cause death or major residual injury. E.g., VX gas Reactivity code 0: Normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and is not reactive with water. E.g., liquid nitrogen Special hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
Flash point Non-flammable
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
58.1 mg/kg, oral (rat)
Related compounds
Other anions
Ammonium orthovanadate
Ammonium hexavanadate
Other cations
Sodium metavanadate
Potassium metavanadate
Related compounds
Vanadium pentoxide
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

Ammonium metavanadate is the inorganic compound with the formula NH4VO3. It is a white solid, although samples are often yellow owing to impurities of V2O5. It is an important intermediate in the purification of vanadium.[1]

Synthesis and structure[edit]

The compound is prepared by the addition of ammonium salts to solutions of vanadate, generated by dissolution of V2O5 in base. The compound precipitates as a colorless solid.[2][3]

It adopts a polymeric structure consisting of chains of [VO3]-, formed as corner-sharing VO4 tetrahedra. These chains are interconnected via hydrogen bonds with ammonium ions.[4]

ball-and-stick model
polyhedral model
[(VO3)n]n− chains


Vanadium is often purified from aqueous extracts of slags and ore by selective precipitation of ammonium metavanadate. The material is then roasted to give vanadium pentoxide:[1]

2 NH4VO3 → V2O5 + 2 NH3 + H2O


Vanadates can behave as structural mimics of phosphates, and in this way they exhibit biological activity.[5][6]

Ammonium metavanadate is used to prepare Mandelin reagent, a qualitative alkaloid test.


  1. ^ a b Günter Bauer, Volker Güther, Hans Hess, Andreas Otto, Oskar Roidl, Heinz Roller, Siegfried Sattelberger "Vanadium and Vanadium Compounds" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, 2005, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. doi:10.1002/14356007.a27_367
  2. ^ G. Brauer "Ammonium Metavanadate" in Handbook of Preparative Inorganic Chemistry, 2nd Ed. Edited by G. Brauer, Academic Press, 1963, NY. Vol. 1. p. 1272.
  3. ^ Robert H. Baker, Harry Zimmerman, R. N. Maxson "Ammonium Metavanadate" Inorganic Syntheses, 1950, Vol. 3, 117-118. doi:10.1002/9780470132340.ch30
  4. ^ Vladimír Syneček and František Hanic (1954). "The crystal structure of ammonium metavanadate". Czechoslovak Journal of Physics. 4 (2): 120–129. doi:10.1007/BF01687750. 
  5. ^ Korbecki, Jan; Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena; Gutowska, Izabela; Chlubek, Dariusz "Biochemical and medical importance of vanadium compounds" Acta Biochimica Polonica 2012, vol. 59, pp. 195-200.
  6. ^ Crans, D. C.; Chatterjee, P. B. "Vanadium biochemistry" Reedijk, Jan; Poeppelmeier, Kenneth, Eds. Comprehensive Inorganic Chemistry II (2013), 3, 323-342. doi:10.1016/B978-0-08-097774-4.00324-7