Ammonium acetate

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Ammonium acetate
Ammonium acetate skeletal formula
Ball-and-stick model of ammonium acetate
IUPAC name
Ammonium ethanoate
631-61-8 YesY
ChemSpider 11925 YesY
ECHA InfoCard 100.010.149
Jmol 3D model Interactive image
PubChem 517165
RTECS number AF3675000
Molar mass 77.08 g·mol−1
Appearance White solid crystals, deliquescent
Odor Slightly acetic
Density 1.17 g/cm3 (20 °C)[1]
1.073 g/cm3 (25 °C)
Melting point 113 °C (235 °F; 386 K) [4]
102 g/100 mL (0 °C)
148 g/100 mL (4 °C)[1]
143 g/100 mL (20 °C)
533 g/100 mL (80 °C)
Solubility Soluble in alcohol, SO2, acetone, liquid ammonia[2]
Solubility in methanol 7.89 g/100 mL (15 °C)[3][1]
131.24 g/100 g (94.2 °C)[2]
Solubility in dimethylformamide 0.1 g/100 g[2]
−615 kJ/mol[2]
Main hazards Irritant
Safety data sheet JT Baker
GHS pictograms The exclamation-mark pictogram in the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS)[3]
GHS signal word Warning
H303, H316, H320, H333[3]
P281, P335[3]
NFPA 704
Flammability code 1: Must be pre-heated before ignition can occur. Flash point over 93 °C (200 °F). E.g., canola oil Health code 1: Exposure would cause irritation but only minor residual injury. E.g., turpentine Reactivity code 1: Normally stable, but can become unstable at elevated temperatures and pressures. E.g., calcium Special hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
Flash point 136 °C (277 °F; 409 K) [3]
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
386 mg/kg (mice, intravenous)[2]
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
N verify (what is YesYN ?)
Infobox references

Ammonium acetate is a chemical compound with the formula NH4CH3CO2. It is a white, hygroscopic solid and can be derived from the reaction of ammonia and acetic acid. It is available commercially.[5]


It is the main precursor to acetamide:[6]

NH4CH3CO2 → CH3C(O)NH2 + H2O

It is also used as a diuretic.[5]


As the salt of a weak acid and a weak base, ammonium acetate is often used with acetic acid to create a buffer solution. Ammonium acetate is volatile at low pressures. Because of this, it has been used to replace cell buffers with non-volatile salts in preparing samples for mass spectrometry.[7] It is also popular as a buffer for mobile phases for HPLC with ELSD detection for this reason. Other volatile salts that have been used for this include ammonium formate.


  • NH4C2H3O2 is occasionally employed as a biodegradable de-icing agent.
  • Ammonium acetate is useful as a catalyst in the Knoevenagel condensation and as a source of ammonia in the Borch reaction in organic synthesis.
  • a protein precipitating reagent.
  • In dialysis as part of a protein purification step to remove contaminants via diffusion.
  • In agricultural chemistry used as reagent for determination of soil CEC (Cation Exchange Capacity ) and determination of available potassium in soil, ammonium ion is act as an replacement cation.

Food additive[edit]

Ammonium acetate is also used as a food additive as an acidity regulator; INS number 264. It is approved for usage in Australia and New Zealand.[8]


Ammonium acetate is produced by the neutralization of acetic acid with ammonium carbonate or by saturating glacial acetic acid with ammonia.[9] Obtaining crystalline ammonium acetate is difficult on account of its aqueous solution giving off ammonia when evaporated.


  1. ^ a b c Pradyot, Patnaik (2003). Handbook of Inorganic Chemicals. The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. ISBN 0-07-049439-8. 
  2. ^ a b c d e
  3. ^ a b c d e f "Safety Data Sheet of Ammonium Acetate" (PDF). Tedia Company Inc. 2011-08-12. Retrieved 2014-06-10.  External link in |website= (help)
  4. ^ Davidson, Arthur W.; McAllister, Walter H. (1930). "SOLUTIONS OF SALTS IN PURE ACETIC ACID. II. SOLUBILITIES OF ACETATES1". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 52 (2): 507–519. doi:10.1021/ja01365a010. ISSN 0002-7863. 
  5. ^ a b Hosea Cheung; Robin S. Tanke; G. Paul Torrence (2005), "Acetic Acid", Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Weinheim: Wiley-VCH, doi:10.1002/14356007.a01_045.pub2 
  6. ^ Coleman, G. H.; Alvarado, A. M. (1923). "Acetamide". Org. Synth. 3: 3. ; Coll. Vol., 1, p. 3 
  7. ^ Berman et al., 2008. J Am Soc Mass Spectrom, 19:1230-1236.
  8. ^ Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code "Standard 1.2.4 - Labelling of ingredients". Retrieved 2011-10-27. 
  9. ^ Brannt, William (1914). A practical treatise on the manufacture of vinegar. Lancaster, PA: Henry Carey Baird & Co. pp. 316–317. 

External links[edit]