Ammonium acetate

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Ammonium acetate
Ammonium acetate skeletal formula
Ball-and-stick model of ammonium acetate
Names
IUPAC name
Ammonium ethanoate
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChEBI
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard 100.010.149
RTECS number AF3675000
UNII
Properties
C2H7NO2
Molar mass 77.08 g·mol−1
Appearance White solid crystals, deliquescent
Odor Slightly acetic
Density 1.17 g/cm3 (20 °C)[1]
1.073 g/cm3 (25 °C)
Melting point 113 °C (235 °F; 386 K) [4]
102 g/100 mL (0 °C)
148 g/100 mL (4 °C)[1]
143 g/100 mL (20 °C)
533 g/100 mL (80 °C)
Solubility Soluble in alcohol, SO2, acetone, liquid ammonia[2]
Solubility in methanol 7.89 g/100 mL (15 °C)[3][1]
131.24 g/100 g (94.2 °C)[2]
Solubility in dimethylformamide 0.1 g/100 g[2]
-41.1·10−6 cm3/mol
Structure
Orthorhombic
Thermochemistry
−615 kJ/mol[2]
Hazards
Main hazards Irritant
Safety data sheet JT Baker
GHS pictograms The exclamation-mark pictogram in the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS)[3]
GHS signal word Warning
H303, H316, H320, H333[3]
P281, P335[3]
NFPA 704
Flash point 136 °C (277 °F; 409 K) [3]
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
386 mg/kg (mice, intravenous)[2]
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

Ammonium acetate, also known as spirit of Mindererus in aqueous solution, is a chemical compound with the formula NH4CH3CO2. It is a white, hygroscopic solid and can be derived from the reaction of ammonia and acetic acid. It is available commercially.[5]

Uses[edit]

It is the main precursor to acetamide:[6]

NH4CH3CO2 → CH3C(O)NH2 + H2O

It is also used as a diuretic.[5]

Buffer[edit]

As the salt of a weak acid and a weak base, ammonium acetate is often used with acetic acid to create a buffer solution. Ammonium acetate is volatile at low pressures. Because of this, it has been used to replace cell buffers with non-volatile salts in preparing samples for mass spectrometry.[7] It is also popular as a buffer for mobile phases for HPLC with ELSD detection for this reason. Other volatile salts that have been used for this include ammonium formate.

Other[edit]

  • a biodegradable de-icing agent.
  • a catalyst in the Knoevenagel condensation and as a source of ammonia in the Borch reaction in organic synthesis.
  • a protein precipitating reagent in dialysis to remove contaminants via diffusion.
  • a reagent in agricultural chemistry used a reagent for determination of soil CEC (Cation Exchange Capacity ) and determination of available potassium in soil, the ammonium ion acts as a replacement cation for potassium.

Food additive[edit]

Ammonium acetate is also used as a food additive as an acidity regulator; INS number 264. It is approved for usage in Australia and New Zealand.[8]

Production[edit]

Ammonium acetate is produced by the neutralization of acetic acid with ammonium carbonate or by saturating glacial acetic acid with ammonia.[9] Obtaining crystalline ammonium acetate is difficult on account of its hygroscopic nature.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Pradyot, Patnaik (2003). Handbook of Inorganic Chemicals. The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. ISBN 0-07-049439-8. 
  2. ^ a b c d e http://chemister.ru/Database/properties-en.php?dbid=1&id=354
  3. ^ a b c d e f "Safety Data Sheet of Ammonium Acetate" (PDF). tedia.com. Tedia Company Inc. 2011-08-12. Retrieved 2014-06-10. 
  4. ^ Davidson, Arthur W.; McAllister, Walter H. (1930). "SOLUTIONS OF SALTS IN PURE ACETIC ACID. II. SOLUBILITIES OF ACETATES1". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 52 (2): 507–519. doi:10.1021/ja01365a010. ISSN 0002-7863. 
  5. ^ a b Hosea Cheung; Robin S. Tanke; G. Paul Torrence, "Acetic Acid", Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Weinheim: Wiley-VCH, doi:10.1002/14356007.a01_045.pub2 
  6. ^ Coleman, G. H.; Alvarado, A. M. (1923). "Acetamide". Organic Syntheses. 3: 3. ; Collective Volume, 1, p. 3 
  7. ^ Berman, Elena S. F.; Fortson, Susan L.; Checchi, Kyle D.; Wu, Ligang; Felton, James S.; Kuang Jen, J. Wu; Kulp, Kristen S. (2008). "Preparation of single cells for imaging/profiling mass spectrometry". J Am Soc Mass Spectrom. 19: 1230–1236. doi:10.1016/j.jasms.2008.05.006. 
  8. ^ Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code "Standard 1.2.4 - Labelling of ingredients". Retrieved 2011-10-27. 
  9. ^ Brannt, William (1914). A practical treatise on the manufacture of vinegar. Lancaster, PA: Henry Carey Baird & Co. pp. 316–317. 

External links[edit]