Asubpeeschoseewagong First Nation
|English River 21
|English River Indian Reserve No. 21|
|• Land||39.61 km2 (15.29 sq mi)|
|• Density||16.1/km2 (42/sq mi)|
Asubpeeschoseewagong First Nation (also known as Grassy Narrows First Nation or the Asabiinyashkosiwagong Nitam-Anishinaabeg in the Anishinaabe language) is an Ojibway First Nation band government who inhabit northern Kenora in Ontario, Canada. Their landbase is the 4145 ha English River 21 Indian Reserve. It has a registered population of 1,455 as of June 2012, of which the on-reserve population was 951. They are a signatory to Treaty 3.
The First Nation is headed by a Chief and 4 councillors:
- Chief Simon Fobister Sr
- John C. Kokopenace
- Jason Kejick Sr.
- Alana Pahpasay
- Rudy Turtle
Although the Asubpeeschoseewagong people themselves say that they have always lived along the Wabigoon-English River northeast of Lake of the Woods, most historians believe that the ancestors of the Northern Ojibway were first encountered by Europeans near what is now Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario and thus were given the name Saulteaux. Their territory was on the northern shore of the Great Lakes from the Michipicoten Bay of Lake Superior to the Georgian Bay of Lake Huron. Participation in the North American fur trade was initially through trading of furs trapped by other tribes, but soon the Saulteaux acquired trapping skills and emigrated to their present location as they sought productive trapping grounds.
In 1871 Grassy Narrows First Nation, together with other Ojibway tribes, made a treaty with the Canadian government, The Crown, in the person of Queen Victoria, giving up aboriginal title to a large tract of land in northwestern Ontario and eastern Manitoba, Treaty 3 between Her Majesty the Queen and the Saulteaux Tribe of the Ojibbeway Indians at the Northwest Angle on the Lake of the Woods with Adhesions. In exchange a spacious tract of land, as much as a square mile of land for each family, in a favorable location on the Wabigoon-English River system was reserved for the use of the tribe. Tribal members were allowed to hunt, fish, and trap on unused portions of their former domain; the government undertook to establish schools; and to give ammunition for hunting, twine to make nets, agricultural implements and supplies, and a small amount of money to the tribe. Alcoholic beverages were strictly forbidden.
On the lands they selected under Treaty 3, the old reserve, the cycle of seasonal activities and traditional cultural practices of the Ojibway were followed. The people continued to live in their customary way, each clan living in log cabins in small clearings; often it was half a mile to the nearest neighbor. Each parcel was selected for access to fishing and hunting grounds and for suitability for gardening. The winters were spent trapping for the Hudson's Bay Company, the summer gardening and harvesting wild blueberries which together with skins were sold for supplies. Potatoes were grown on a community plot. In the Fall, wild rice was harvested from the margins of the rivers and finished for storage. Muskrat were plentiful and trapped for pelts and food. There were deer and moose on the reserve which were hunted for meat and supplemented by fish. Work was available as hunting and fishing guides and cleaning tourist lodges. Whites seldom entered the reserve except for the treaty agent who visited once a year. The only access to the reserve was by canoe or plane. From 1876 to 1969 schooling was at McIntosh Indian Residential School, a residential school in McIntosh, Ontario.
Economic and environmental issues
The First Nation experienced mercury poisoning from Dryden Chemical Company, a chloralkali process plant, located in Dryden, Ontario that supplied both sodium hydroxide and chlorine used in large amounts for bleaching paper during production for the Dryden Pulp and Paper Company. Dryden Chemical company discharged their effluent into the Wabigoon-English River system.
The Ontario provincial government has initially told the First Nation communities to stop eating fish — their main source of protein — and closed down their commercial fishery. In 90%+ unemployment rate in 1970, closing of the commercial fishery meant economic disaster for the Indian Reserve. The closure also affected the tourism industry, where locals acted as guides for out of town fisherman. Walleye in local waterways are no longer safe to eat due to mercury contamination.
Both the paper and chemical companies ceased operations in 1976, after 24 years of operations.
Grassy Narrows First Nation received a settlement in 1985 from the Canadian government and the Reed Paper Company that bought-out the Dryden Pulp and Paper Company and its sister-company Dryden Chemical Company, but the mercury was never removed from the water and continued as of March 2010 to affect the health of Grassy Narrows residents. The amount of mercury present in fish as of 2012 was low but a health advisory remains in effect. Consumption of fish, particularly Pickerel (Walleye), the local favorite, which is high on the food chain and concentrates mercury, remains dangerous for pregnant women and those with long term exposure.
On September 8, 2007, Ontario announced that it had agreed to begin discussions with Grassy Narrows First Nation on forestry-related issues. The provincial government appointed former Federal Court of Canada Chief Justice Frank Iacobucci to lead these discussions. Iacobucci's discussions with Grassy Narrows will focus on, "sustainable forest management partnership models and other forestry-related matters, including harvesting methods, interim protection for traditional activities and economic development."
In June 2017, the Ontario government pledged $85 million to clean up the industrial mercury contamination.
The reserve's other environmental concern is the mass extraction of trees for paper. Abitibi Consolidated has been harvesting trees in the area. Local protestors have complained to the company and the Ministry of Natural Resources to demand a selective process. The community fears mass deforestation will lead to damage to local habitat.
On August 17, 2011, First Nation supporters won a victory in court, when "Ontario's Superior Court ruled that the province cannot authorize timber and logging if the operations infringe on federal treaty promises protecting aboriginal rights to traditional hunting and trapping."  There were no immediate injunctions issued to stop logging activity, however.
In December 2014, a request for an individual environmental assessment into the impact of clear-cut logging was denied by the province. Later released documents, after freedom of information requests, revealed concerns by local biologists that were never followed up on.
- "English River 21 census profile". 2011 Census of Population. Statistics Canada. Retrieved September 25, 2012.
- "Registered Population Official Name Grassy Narrows First Nation" Archived May 15, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
- Anastasia M. Shkilnyk (March 11, 1985). A Poison Stronger than Love: The Destruction of an Ojibwa Community (trade paperback). Yale University Press. pp. 54, 55. ISBN 0300033257.
- "Treaty 3 between Her Majesty the Queen and the Saulteaux Tribe of the Ojibbeway Indians at the Northwest Angle on the Lake of the Woods with Adhesions" (ORDER IN COUNCIL SETTING UP COMMISSION FOR TREATY 3). Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada. 1871. Retrieved July 8, 2012.
- Anastasia M. Shkilnyk (March 11, 1985). A Poison Stronger than Love: The Destruction of an Ojibwa Community (trade paperback). Yale University Press. pp. 60 to 63 and succeeding chapters. ISBN 0300033257.
- Chapeskie, Andrew; Davidson-Hunt, Iain J.; Fobister, Roger (June 10–14, 1998). "Passing on Ojibway Lifeways in a Contemporary Environment" (conference paper). Digital Library of the Commons. Retrieved July 11, 2012.
- "Mercury poisoning effects continue at Grassy Narrows: Mercury dumping halted in 1970 but symptoms persist". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. CBC News. June 4, 2012. Retrieved July 8, 2012.
- Masazumi Harada; Masanori Hanada; Masami Tajiri; Yukari Inoue; Nobuyuki Hotta; Tadashi Fujino; Shigeru Takaoka & Keishi Ueda (2011). "Mercury Pollution in First Nations Groups in Ontario, Canada: 35 years of Canadian Minamata Disease." (PDF). Journal of Minamata Studies (Translated to English) (in Japanese). 3: 3–30. Retrieved July 8, 2012.
We used to understand that poverty and discrimination occurred as a result of pollution, but indeed it was the opposite: pollution occurred where there was poverty and discrimination
- Ontario Enters Into Forestry Discussions With Grassy Narrows
- Porter, Jody. "Ontario announces $85M to clean up mercury near Grassy Narrows, Wabaseemoong First Nations". CBC. Retrieved 28 June 2017.
-  Archived March 11, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.
- "First Nation wins legal battle over clear-cutting". Cbc.ca. August 17, 2011. Retrieved February 21, 2014.
- "Ontario gives green light to clear-cutting at Grassy Narrows". Toronto Star. December 29, 2014. Retrieved January 25, 2015.
- "Ontario’s biologists called clear-cut logging plan ‘big step backwards’". Toronto Star. January 17, 2015. Retrieved January 25, 2015.
- "Ontario Enters into Forestry Discussions with Grassy Narrows", Government of Ontario news release, 2007-09-08
- AANDC profile
- Chiefs of Ontario profile[dead link]
- "Passing Ojibway Lifeways in a Contemporary Environment"
- Anestasia Shkilnyk, A Poison Stronger than Love: The Destruction of an Ojibwa Community, Yale University Press (March 11, 1985), trade paperback, 276 pages, ISBN 0300033257 ISBN 978-0300033250; hardcover, Yale University Press (March 11, 1985), ISBN 0300029977 ISBN 978-0300029970
|Unorganized Kenora||Unorganized Kenora|