Basutoland

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Basutoland

1884-1966
Flag of Basutoland

Location of Basutoland
StatusCrown Colony under partial local rule 1884–1966
CapitalMaseru
Languages
GovernmentConstitutional monarchy
Commissioner 
• 1884–1894
Marshal Clarke
• 1961–1965
Alexander Giles
Paramount Chief 
• 1884–1891 (non-independent period of reign)
Letsie I
• 1891–1905
Lerotholi Letsie I
• 1905–1913
Letsie II
• 1913–1939
Nathaniel Griffith Lerotholi
• 1939–1960
Simon Seeiso Griffith
• 1960–1966 (afterwards as King of Lesotho)
Moshoeshoe II
History 
• Established
18 March 1884
• Disestablished
4 October 1966
Area
• Total
30,355 km2 (11,720 sq mi)
Population
• 1875
128,206
• 1904
348,848[1]
Currency
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Cape Colony
Lesotho
Today part ofLesotho

Basutoland was a British Crown colony that existed from 1884 to 1966 in present-day Lesotho. Though the Basotho (then known as Basuto) and their territory had been under British control starting in 1868 (and ruled by Cape Colony from 1871), the Cape Colony was unpopular and unable to control the territory. As a result, Basutoland was brought under direct authority of Queen Victoria, via the High Commissioner, and run by an Executive Council presided over by a series of British Resident Commissioners.

It was divided into seven administrative districts: Berea, Leribe, Maseru, Mohale's Hoek, Mafeteng, Qacha's Nek and Quthing.

Basutoland gained its independence from the United Kingdom on 4 October 1966 and was renamed the Kingdom of Lesotho.

History[edit]

Background[edit]

Between 1856 and 1868 the Basotho engaged in conflict with the Orange Free State.[2] Their king, Moshoeshoe I, sought British protection.[2] On 29 August 1865, he wrote to Sir Philip Wodehouse, the Governor of Cape Colony:[2]

I am giving myself and my country up to Her Majesty's Government under certain conditions which we may agree on between your Excellency and me.

In July 1866, after referring to the former letter, the Chief said:[2]

All those things I have given up into your hands the last year..., they are still yours. I still continue to be the humble servant of Her Majesty.

Eventually, in January 1868, the Governor received a document dated 9 December 1867, signed by the Secretary of State for the Colonies, authorizing the annexation of Basutoland to the Colony of Natal (not to the Cape as Wodehouse had wished).[2] On 12 March 1868, a proclamation declared the Basotho to be British subjects and Basutoland to be British territory.[3] It was not in fact annexed to Natal but rather placed under the direct authority of the High Commissioner for South Africa.[2]

Postage stamp with a portrait of Queen Elizabeth II, 1963

Three years later, it was annexed to the Cape Colony by Act No. 12 of 1871 of the Parliament of the Cape of Good Hope, confirmed by Order in Council of 3 November 1871.[2] Cape Colony rule proved unpopular with the people, leading to the Basuto Gun War of 1880–1881.

By an Order in Council dated 2 February 1884, and brought into force on 18 March 1884,[4] royal assent was given to a Cape bill repealing the Act of 1871. Basutoland was thus brought under the direct authority of the Queen, with legislative and executive powers vested in the High Commissioner.[2]

As a Crown colony[edit]

Moshoeshoe had been succeeded as paramount chief by his son, Letsie I, and he in turn was succeeded in 1891 by Lerotholi Letsie I. These chieftains acted in concert with the British representative in the country, to whom was given the title of resident commissioner. The first commissioner was Sir Marshal James Clarke. The period of warfare over, the Basotho turned their attention more and more to agricultural pursuits and Christian missionaries entered the territory. Trade increased, and in 1891 Basutoland was admitted to the customs union, which already existed between Orange Free State, Cape Colony and British Bechuanaland. When Alfred Milner visited Basutoland in 1898, on his way to Bloemfontein, he was received by 15,000 mounted Basotho. The chiefs also attended a large meeting at Maseru. On the outbreak of the Boer War in 1899, these same chiefs proclaimed loyalty to the British Crown. They remained passive throughout the War and the neutrality of the country was respected by both armies. One chief alone sought to take advantage of the situation by disloyal action, and his offence was met by a year's imprisonment.[5]

In pursuance of the policy of encouraging the self-governing powers of the Basotho, a national council was instituted and held its first sitting in July 1903. In August 1905 the paramount chief Lerotholi died. In early life he had distinguished himself in the wars with the Boers, and in 1880 he took an active part in the revolt against the Cape government. Since 1884 he had been a loyal supporter of the imperial authorities, and carried a reputation for high diplomatic gifts. On the 19th of September following Lerotholi's death, the national council, with the concurrence of the imperial government, elected his son Letsie II as paramount chief. The completion in October 1905 of a railway putting Maseru in connexion with the South African railway system proved a great boon to the community. During the Bambatha Rebellion in 1906 the Basotho remained perfectly quiet.[5]

Government[edit]

Executive branch[edit]

Basutoland's Executive Council members were the resident commissioner, who presided, three ex-officio members and four council members from the Basutoland National Council, appointed by the resident commissioner, one by the Paramount Chief and three nominated by the Council itself, selected by secret ballot.

Legislative branch[edit]

The legislative council, known as the Basutoland National Council, consisted of a non-voting President appointed by the Resident Commissioner, four official members (ex officio), twenty-two Chiefs, forty elected members elected by District Councils, and fourteen nominated members appointed by the Resident Commissioner on the nomination of the Paramount Chief. The Resident Commissioner had the right to address the Council.

The Commissioner had authority to make laws by Proclamation on certain subjects, such as external affairs, defence and the public service. These matters were excluded from the powers of the National Council, but the Commissioner was required to lay a draft of any Proclamation before the Council and to consider their observations. The Constitution made special provision regarding particular objections made by the Council.

Paramount Chief[edit]

There was a College of Chiefs of Basutoland whose function related to matters pertaining to the offices of the Paramount Chief, Chief and Headman. Their decisions and recommendations were submitted for acceptance to the Paramount Chief. They were subject to review by the High Court.

The Constitution vested a number of functions in the Paramount Chief. In exercising these, he was required in most cases to consult either with the Executive Council or with the Resident Commissioner, a Council member of the Executive and a member of the Basotho Nation appointed by himself.

Land in Basutoland was vested by the Constitution in the Paramount Chief in trust for the Basotho Nation, subject to lawfully acquired rights.

Demographics[edit]

Considering the extensive area of uninhabitable mountain land it contained, the territory supported a large population. The inhabitants increased from 128,206 in 1875, to 348,848 in 1904. Women outnumbered men by about 20,000, which was, however, about the number of adult men away from the country at any given period. The majority lived in the district between the Maloti Mountains and the Caledon River. The great bulk of the people were Basotho, but there were some thousands of Barolong and other natives. The White inhabitants in 1904 numbered 895. Maseru, the seat of government, had in 1904 a population of about 1,000 including some 100 Europeans.[5]

Districts[edit]

British Resident Commissioners[edit]

Incumbent Tenure Notes
Took office Left office
Sir Marshal James Clarke 18 March 1884 18 September 1894 Afterwards Resident Commissioner in Zululand, 1894
Godfrey Yeatman Lagden 18 September 1894 1895
Sir Herbert Cecil Sloley 1895
Godfrey Yeatman Lagden 1895 1901
Sir Herbert Cecil Sloley 1902 1903
James MacGregor 1913
Sir Herbert Cecil Sloley 1913 1916
Robert Thorne Coryndon 1916 1917 Afterwards Governor of Uganda, 1918
Sir Edward Charles Frederick Garraway 1917 Apr 1926
John Christian Ramsay Sturrock Apr 1926 Mar 1935
Sir Edmund Charles Smith Richards Mar 1935 Aug 1942 Afterwards Governor of Nyasaland, 1942
Sir Charles Noble Arden-Clarke Aug 1942 Nov 1946 Afterwards Governor of Sarawak, 1946
Aubrey Denzil Forsyth-Thompson Nov 1946 24 October 1951
Edwin Porter Arrowsmith 24 October 1951 Sep 1956
Alan Geoffrey Tunstal Chaplin Sep 1956 1961
Alexander Falconer Giles 1961 30 April 1965

Chief Justices[edit]

The Chief Justice was the Chief Justice of the High Commission Territories (Basutoland, Bechuanaland Protectorate and Swaziland).[6] From 1951 the Chief Justices were:

Incumbent Tenure Notes
Took office Left office
Walter Harragin 1951 1952
Harold Curwen Willan 1952 1956
Herbert Charles Fahie Cox 1957 1960
Peter Watkin-Williams 1961 1966

References[edit]

  1. ^ Census of the British empire. 1901. London: HMSO. 1906. p. 160.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h Roberts-Wray, Sir Kenneth (1966). Commonwealth and Colonial Law. London: F.A. Praeger. p. 830.
  3. ^ Tylden, G. (1950). The Rise of the Basuto. Juta. p. 107.
  4. ^ S.R.O. & S.I. Rev. III, 79
  5. ^ a b c  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Basutoland". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  6. ^ "Bechuanaland Colonial Administrators c.1884-c.1965". Retrieved 27 February 2016.

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Basutoland". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 29°31′00″S 27°48′00″E / 29.5167°S 27.8000°E / -29.5167; 27.8000