Sufism (Arabic: الصوفية al-ṣūfiyya; Persian: تصوف taṣawwuf ) is a concept in Islam, defined by scholars as the inner, mystical dimension of Islam; others contend that it is a perennial philosophy of existence that pre-dates religion, the expression of which flowered within the Islamic religion. Some academics have argued that Sufism has been heavily influenced by Neoplatonism. Traditional Sufis, throughout history (i.e. Bayazid Bastami, Jalaluddin Rumi, Haji Bektash Veli, Junaid Baghdadi, Al-Ghazali etc.) and presently, however, have maintained Sufism to be purely based on the tenets of Islam and the teachings of Muhammad. There are some who hold the notion that its essence has also been expressed via other religions and metareligious phenomena, while others believe Sufism to be totally unique to Islam.
A practitioner of this tradition is generally known as a Sufi, (ṣūfī) (//; صُوفِيّ). Sufis belong to different ṭuruq or "orders"—congregations formed around a master—which meet for spiritual sessions (majalis), in meeting places known as zawiyahs, khanqahs, or tekke. e.g. Khanqah Khairiyyah
All Sufi orders (turuq) trace many of their original precepts from the Islamic prophet Muhammad through his cousin and son-in-law Ali ibn Abi Talib, with the notable exception of the Sunni Naqshbandi order who claim to trace their origins through the first sunni Caliph, Abu Bakr. However, Alevi, Bektashi and Shia Muslims claim that every Sufi order traces its spiritual lineage (silsilah or Silsila) back to one of the Twelve Imams (even the Naqshbandi silsilah leads to the sixth imam Ja'far al-Sadiq and Salman the Persian, a renowned follower of the first imam Ali ibn Abi Talib), the spiritual heads of Islam who were foretold in the Hadith of the Twelve Successors and were all descendants of Muhammad through his daughter Fatima and Ali. Because of this Ali ibn Abi Talib is also called the "father of Sufism". Prominent orders include Alevi, Bektashi, Burhaniya, Mevlevi, Ba 'Alawiyya, Chishti, Rifa'i, Khalwati, Naqshbandi, Nimatullahi, Oveyssi, Qadiria Boutshishia, Qadiriyyah, Qalandariyya, Sarwari Qadiri, Shadhiliyya and Suhrawardiyya.
Sufis believe that they are practicing ihsan (perfection of worship) as revealed by Gabriel to Muhammad: "Worship and serve Allah as you are seeing Him and while you see Him not yet truly He sees you". Sufis consider themselves to be the original true proponents of this pure original form of Islam. Sufism is opposed by Wahhabi and Salafist Muslims.
Classical Sufi scholars have defined Sufism as "a science whose objective is the reparation of the heart and turning it away from all else but God". Alternatively, in the words of the Darqawi Sufi teacher Ahmad ibn Ajiba, "a science through which one can know how to travel into the presence of the Divine, purify one's inner self from filth, and beautify it with a variety of praiseworthy traits".
Muslims and mainstream scholars of Islam define Sufism as simply the name for the inner or esoteric dimension of Islam which is supported and complemented by outward or exoteric practices of Islam, such as Islamic law. In this view, "it is absolutely necessary to be a Muslim" to be a true Sufi, because Sufism's "methods are inoperative without" Muslim "affiliation". In contrast, author Idries Shah states Sufi philosophy is universal in nature, its roots predating the rise of Islam and Christianity. Some schools of Sufism in Western countries allow non-Muslims to receive "instructions on following the Sufi path". Some Muslim opponents of Sufism also consider it outside the sphere of Islam.
Classical Sufis were characterised by their attachment to dhikr, (a practice of repeating the names of God, often performed after prayers) and asceticism. Sufism gained adherents among a number of Muslims as a reaction against the worldliness of the early Umayyad Caliphate (661–750 CE). Sufis have spanned several continents and cultures over a millennium, originally expressing their beliefs in Arabic, before spreading into Persian, Turkish, and Urdu among dozens of other languages.
|Sufism and Tariqa|
- 1 Etymology
- 2 Beliefs
- 3 History
- 4 Theoretical perspectives
- 5 Devotional practices
- 6 Persecution
- 7 Islam and Sufism
- 8 Prominent Sufis
- 9 Reception
- 10 In popular culture
- 11 Modern and contemporary Sufi scholars
- 12 Gallery
- 13 See also
- 14 References
- 15 Further reading
- 16 External links
Two origins of the word sufi have been suggested. Commonly, the lexical root of the word is traced to ṣafā (صَفا), which in Arabic means "purity". Another origin is ṣūf (صُوف), "wool" in Arabic, referring to the simple cloaks the early Muslim ascetics wore. The two were combined by the Sufi al-Rudhabari who said, "The Sufi is the one who wears wool on top of purity".
Others have suggested that the word comes from the term ahl aṣ-ṣuffah ("the people of the bench"), who were a group of impoverished companions of Muhammad who held regular gatherings of dhikr. These men and women who sat at Al-Masjid al-Nabawi are considered by some to be the first Sufites in existence. Abd al-Karīm ibn Hawāzin Qushayri and Ibn Khaldun both rejected all possibilities other than ṣūf on linguistic grounds.
While all Muslims believe that they are on the pathway to God and hope to become close to God in Paradise—after death and after the "Final Judgment"—Sufis also believe that it is possible to draw closer to God and to more fully embrace the Divine Presence in this life. The chief aim of all Sufis is to seek the pleasing of God by working to restore within themselves the primordial state of fitra, described in the Qur'an. In this state nothing one does defies God, and all is undertaken with the single motivation of love of Allah.
To Sufis, Sufism involves the study and ritual purification of traits deemed reprehensible while adding praiseworthy traits. This is independent of whether or not this process of religious cleansing and purifying leads to esoteric knowledge of God. This can be conceived in terms of two basic types of law (fiqh), an outer law concerned with actions, and an inner law concerned with one's own actions and qualities. The outer law consists of rules pertaining to worship, transactions, marriage, judicial rulings, and criminal law—what is often referred to, broadly, as qanun. The inner law of Sufism consists of rules about repentance from sin, the purging of contemptible qualities and evil traits of character, and adornment with virtues and good character.
The typical early Sufi lived in a cell of a mosque and taught a small band of disciples. The extent to which Sufism was influenced by Buddhist and Hindu mysticism, and by the example of Christian hermits and monks, is disputed, but self-discipline and concentration on God quickly led to the belief that by quelling the self and through loving ardor for God it is possible to maintain a union with the divine in which the human self melts away.
A Sufi student enters the faith by seeking a teacher. Sufism emphasises a strong relationship between the seeker and the teacher. To be considered legitimate by the Sufi community, the teacher must have received the authorization to teach (ijazah) from another Master of the Way, in an unbroken succession (silsilah) leading back to Muhammad.[dubious ] To the Sufi, it is the transmission of divine light from the teacher's heart to the heart of the student, rather than worldly knowledge, that allows the adept to progress. They further believe that the teacher should attempt to inerrantly follow the Divine Law.
According to Moojan Momen "one of the most important doctrines of Sufism is the concept of the "Perfect Man" (al-Insan al-Kamil). This doctrine states that there will always exist upon the earth a "Qutb" (Pole or Axis, of the Universe)—a man who is the perfect channel of grace from God to man and in a state of wilaya (sanctity, being under the protection of God). The concept of the Sufi Qutb is similar to that of the Shi'i Imam. However, this belief puts Sufism in "direct conflict" with Shi'ism, since both the Qutb (who for most Sufi orders is the head of the order) and the Imam fulfill the role of "the purveyor of spiritual guidance and of God's grace to mankind". The vow of obedience to the Shaykh or Qutb which is taken by Sufis is considered incompatible with devotion to the Imam".
As a further example, the prospective adherent of the Mevlevi Order would have been ordered to serve in the kitchens of a hospice for the poor for 1,001 days prior to being accepted for spiritual instruction, and a further 1,001 days in solitary retreat as a precondition of completing that instruction.
Some teachers, especially when addressing more general audiences, or mixed groups of Muslims and non-Muslims, make extensive use of parable, allegory, and metaphor. Although approaches to teaching vary among different Sufi orders, Sufism as a whole is primarily concerned with direct personal experience, and as such has sometimes been compared to other, non-Islamic forms of mysticism (e.g., as in the books of Hossein Nasr).
Many Sufi believe that to reach the highest levels of success in Sufism typically requires that the disciple live with and serve the teacher for a large period of time. An example is the folk story about Baha-ud-Din Naqshband Bukhari, who gave his name to the Naqshbandi Order. He is believed to have served his first teacher, Sayyid Muhammad Baba As-Samasi, for 20 years, until as-Samasi died. He is said to then have served several other teachers for lengthy periods of time. He is said to have helped the poorer members of the community for many years and after this concluded his teacher directed him to care for animals cleaning their wounds, and assisting them.
Practitioners of Sufism hold that in its early stages of development Sufism effectively referred to nothing more than the internalization of Islam. According to one perspective, it is directly from the Qur'an, constantly recited, meditated, and experienced, that Sufism proceeded, in its origin and its development. Others have held that Sufism is the strict emulation of the way of Muhammad, through which the heart's connection to the Divine is strengthened.
According to Marshall Hodgson, the Muslim conquests had brought large numbers of Christian monks and hermits, especially in Syria and Egypt, under the rule of Muslims. They retained a vigorous spiritual life for centuries after the conquests, and many of the especially pious Muslims who founded Sufism were influenced by their techniques and methods. However, others disagree with this view by asserting Sufism to be unique within the confines of the Islamic religion and contend that Sufism developed from devout followers of Islam, like Bayazid Bastami who in his utmost reverence to the Sunnah refused to eat a watermelon as he did not find any proof that the prophet Muhammad ever ate it. According to late Medieval mystic Jami, Abd-Allah ibn Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah was the first person to be called a "Sufi".
Important contributions in writing are attributed to Uwais al-Qarni, Harrm bin Hian, Hasan Basri and Sayid ibn al-Mussib. Ruwaym, from the second generation of Sufis in Baghdad, was also an influential early figure, as was Junayd of Baghdad; a number of early practitioners of Sufism were disciples of one of the two.
Sufism had a long history already before the subsequent institutionalization of Sufi teachings into devotional orders (tarîqât) in the early Middle Ages. The Naqshbandi order is a notable exception to general rule of orders tracing their spiritual lineage through Muhammad's grandsons, as it traces the origin of its teachings from Muhammad to the first Islamic Caliph, Abu Bakr.
Formalization of doctrine
Towards the end of the first millennium CE, a number of manuals began to be written summarizing the doctrines of Sufism and describing some typical Sufi practices. Two of the most famous of these are now available in English translation: the Kashf al-Mahjûb of Hujwiri, and the Risâla of Qushayri. Two of Imam Al Ghazali's greatest treatises, the "Revival of Religious Sciences" and the "Alchemy of Happiness", argued that Sufism originated from the Qur'an and thus was compatible with mainstream Islamic thought, and did not in any way contradict Islamic Law—being instead necessary to its complete fulfillment. This became the mainstream position among Islamic scholars for centuries, challenged only recently on the basis of selective use of a limited body of texts.[example needed] Ongoing efforts by both traditionally trained Muslim scholars and Western academics are making Imam Al-Ghazali's works available in English translation for the first time, allowing English-speaking readers to judge for themselves the compatibility of Islamic Law and Sufi doctrine. Several sections of the Revival of Religious Sciences have been published in translation by the Islamic Texts Society. The Alchemy of Happiness has been published in a complete translation by Claud Field (ISBN 978-0935782288), and presents the argument of the much larger Revival of Religious Sciences in summary form.
Growth of influence
The rise of Islamic civilization coincides strongly with the spread of Sufi philosophy in Islam. The spread of Sufism has been considered a definitive factor in the spread of Islam, and in the creation of integrally Islamic cultures, especially in Africa and Asia. The Senussi tribes of Libya and Sudan are one of the strongest adherents of Sufism. Sufi poets and philosophers such as Khoja Akhmet Yassawi, Rumi and Attar of Nishapur (c. 1145 – c. 1221) greatly enhanced the spread of Islamic culture in Anatolia, Central Asia, and South Asia. Sufism also played a role in creating and propagating the culture of the Ottoman world, and in resisting European imperialism in North Africa and South Asia.
Between the 13th and 16th centuries CE, Sufism produced a flourishing intellectual culture throughout the Islamic world, a "Golden Age" whose physical artifacts survive. In many places a pious foundation would endow a lodge (known variously as a zaouia, khanqah, or tekke) in perpetuity (waqf) to provide a gathering place for Sufi adepts, as well as lodging for itinerant seekers of knowledge. The same system of endowments could also pay for a complex of buildings, such as that surrounding the Süleymaniye Mosque in Istanbul, including a lodge for Sufi seekers, a hospice with kitchens where these seekers could serve the poor and/or complete a period of initiation, a library, and other structures. No important domain in the civilization of Islam remained unaffected by Sufism in this period.
Current Sufi orders include Azeemia, Alians, Bektashi Order, Mevlevi Order, Ba 'Alawiyya, Chishti, Jerrahi, Naqshbandi, Nimatullahi, Qadiriyyah, Qalandariyya, Sarwari Qadiri, Shadhiliyya, Suhrawardiyya, Ashrafia, Saifiah (Naqshbandiah) and Uwaisi (Oveyssi). The relationship of Sufi orders to modern societies is usually defined by their relationship to governments.
Turkey and Persia together have been a center for many Sufi lineages and orders. The Bektashi was closely affiliated with the Ottoman Janissary and is the heart of Turkey's large and mostly liberal Alevi population. It has been spread westwards to Cyprus, Greece, Albania, Bulgaria, Macedonia, Bosnia, Kosovo and more recently to the USA (via Albania). Most Sufi Orders have influences from pre-Islamic traditions such as Pythagoreanism, but the Turkic Sufi traditions (including Alians, Bektashi and Mevlevi) also have traces of the ancient Tengrism shamanism.
Sufism is popular in such African countries as Morocco and Senegal, where it is seen as a mystical expression of Islam. Sufism is traditional in Morocco but has seen a growing revival with the renewal of Sufism around contemporary spiritual teachers such as Sidi Hamza al Qadiri al Boutshishi. Mbacke suggests that one reason Sufism has taken hold in Senegal is because it can accommodate local beliefs and customs, which tend toward the mystical.
The life of the Algerian Sufi master Emir Abd al-Qadir is instructive in this regard. Notable as well are the lives of Amadou Bamba and Hajj Umar Tall in sub-Saharan Africa, and Sheikh Mansur Ushurma and Imam Shamil in the Caucasus region. In the twentieth century some more modernist Muslims have called Sufism a superstitious religion that holds back Islamic achievement in the fields of science and technology.
A number of Westerners have embarked with varying degrees of success on the path of Sufism. One of the first to return to Europe as an official representative of a Sufi order, and with the specific purpose to spread Sufism in Western Europe, was the Swedish-born wandering Sufi Abd al-Hadi Aqhili (also known as Ivan Aguéli). René Guénon, the French scholar, became a Sufi in the early twentieth century and was known as Sheikh Abdul Wahid Yahya. His manifold writings defined the practice of Sufism as the essence of Islam but also pointed to the universality of its message. Other spiritualists, such as G. I. Gurdjieff, may or may not conform to the tenets of Sufism as understood by orthodox Muslims.
Other noteworthy Sufi teachers who have been active in the West in recent years include Bawa Muhaiyaddeen, Inayat Khan, Nazim Al-Haqqani, Javad Nurbakhsh, Bulent Rauf, Irina Tweedie, Idries Shah, Muzaffer Ozak, Nahid Angha and Ali Kianfar.
Traditional Islamic scholars have recognized two major branches within the practice of Sufism, and use this as one key to differentiating among the approaches of different masters and devotional lineages.
On the one hand there is the order from the signs to the Signifier (or from the arts to the Artisan). In this branch, the seeker begins by purifying the lower self of every corrupting influence that stands in the way of recognizing all of creation as the work of God, as God's active Self-disclosure or theophany. This is the way of Imam Al-Ghazali and of the majority of the Sufi orders.
On the other hand there is the order from the Signifier to His signs, from the Artisan to His works. In this branch the seeker experiences divine attraction (jadhba), and is able to enter the order with a glimpse of its endpoint, of direct apprehension of the Divine Presence towards which all spiritual striving is directed. This does not replace the striving to purify the heart, as in the other branch; it simply stems from a different point of entry into the path. This is the way primarily of the masters of the Naqshbandi and Shadhili orders.
Contemporary scholars may also recognize a third branch, attributed to the late Ottoman scholar Said Nursi and explicated in his vast Qur'an commentary called the Risale-i Nur. This approach entails strict adherence to the way of Muhammad, in the understanding that this wont, or sunnah, proposes a complete devotional spirituality adequate to those without access to a master of the Sufi way.
Contributions to other domains of scholarship
Sufism has contributed significantly to the elaboration of theoretical perspectives in many domains of intellectual endeavor. For instance, the doctrine of "subtle centers" or centers of subtle cognition (known as Lataif-e-sitta) addresses the matter of the awakening of spiritual intuition in ways that some consider similar to certain models of chakra in Hinduism. In general, these subtle centers or latâ'if are thought of as faculties that are to be purified sequentially in order to bring the seeker's wayfaring to completion. A concise and useful summary of this system from a living exponent of this tradition has been published by Muhammad Emin Er.
Sufi psychology has influenced many areas of thinking both within and outside of Islam, drawing primarily upon three concepts. Ja'far al-Sadiq (both an imam in the Shia tradition and a respected scholar and link in chains of Sufi transmission in all Islamic sects) held that human beings are dominated by a lower self called the nafs, a faculty of spiritual intuition called the qalb or spiritual heart, and a spirit or soul called ruh. These interact in various ways, producing the spiritual types of the tyrant (dominated by nafs), the person of faith and moderation (dominated by the spiritual heart), and the person lost in love for God (dominated by the ruh).
Of note with regard to the spread of Sufi psychology in the West is Robert Frager, a Sufi teacher authorized in the Khalwati Jerrahi order. Frager was a trained psychologist, born in the United States, who converted to Islam in the course of his practice of Sufism and wrote extensively on Sufism and psychology.
The devotional practices of Sufis vary widely. This is because an acknowledged and authorized master of the Sufi path is in effect a physician of the heart, able to diagnose the seeker's impediments to knowledge and pure intention in serving God, and to prescribe to the seeker a course of treatment appropriate to his or her maladies. The consensus among Sufi scholars is that the seeker cannot self-diagnose, and that it can be extremely harmful to undertake any of these practices alone and without formal authorization.
Prerequisites to practice include rigorous adherence to Islamic norms (ritual prayer in its five prescribed times each day, the fast of Ramadan, and so forth). Additionally, the seeker ought to be firmly grounded in supererogatory practices known from the life of Muhammad (such as the "sunna prayers"). This is in accordance with the words, attributed to God, of the following, a famous Hadith Qudsi:
My servant draws near to Me through nothing I love more than that which I have made obligatory for him. My servant never ceases drawing near to Me through supererogatory works until I love him. Then, when I love him, I am his hearing through which he hears, his sight through which he sees, his hand through which he grasps, and his foot through which he walks.
It is also necessary for the seeker to have a correct creed (Aqidah), and to embrace with certainty its tenets. The seeker must also, of necessity, turn away from sins, love of this world, the love of company and renown, obedience to satanic impulse, and the promptings of the lower self. (The way in which this purification of the heart is achieved is outlined in certain books, but must be prescribed in detail by a Sufi master.) The seeker must also be trained to prevent the corruption of those good deeds which have accrued to his or her credit by overcoming the traps of ostentation, pride, arrogance, envy, and long hopes (meaning the hope for a long life allowing us to mend our ways later, rather than immediately, here and now).
Sufi practices, while attractive to some, are not a means for gaining knowledge. The traditional scholars of Sufism hold it as absolutely axiomatic that knowledge of God is not a psychological state generated through breath control. Thus, practice of "techniques" is not the cause, but instead the occasion for such knowledge to be obtained (if at all), given proper prerequisites and proper guidance by a master of the way. Furthermore, the emphasis on practices may obscure a far more important fact: The seeker is, in a sense, to become a broken person, stripped of all habits through the practice of (in the words of Imam Al-Ghazali) solitude, silence, sleeplessness, and hunger.
Magic has also been a part of Sufi practice, notably in India. Mansur Al-Hallaj (d. 922), visited Sindh in order to study "Indian Magic", where he accepted Hindu ideas of cosmogony and divine descent and also seems to have believed in the Transmigration of the soul. The practice of magic intensified during the declining years of Sufism in India when the Sufi orders grew steadily in wealth and in political influence while their spirituality gradually declined and they concentrated on saint veneration, miracle working, magic and superstition.
Dhikr is the remembrance of God commanded in the Qur'an for all Muslims through a specific devotional act, such as the repetition of divine names, supplications and aphorisms from hadith literature and the Qur'an. More generally, dhikr takes a wide range and various layers of meaning. This includes dhikr as any activity in which the Muslim maintains awareness of God. To engage in dhikr is to practice consciousness of the Divine Presence and love, or "to seek a state of godwariness". The Qur'an refers to Muhammad as the very embodiment of dhikr of God (65:10–11). Some types of dhikr are prescribed for all Muslims and do not require Sufi initiation or the prescription of a Sufi master because they are deemed to be good for every seeker under every circumstance.
Some Sufi orders engage in ritualized dhikr ceremonies, or sema. Sema includes various forms of worship such as: recitation, singing (the most well known being the Qawwali music of the Indian subcontinent), instrumental music, dance (most famously the Sufi whirling of the Mevlevi order), incense, meditation, ecstasy, and trance.
Some Sufi orders stress and place extensive reliance upon Dhikr. This practice of Dhikr is called Dhikr-e-Qulb (invocation of God within the heartbeats). The basic idea in this practice is to visualize the Arabic name of God, Allah, as having been written on the disciple's heart.
The practice of muraqaba can be likened to the practices of meditation attested in many faith communities. The word muraqaba is derived from the same root (r-q-b) occurring as one of the 99 Names of God in the Qur'an, al-Raqîb, meaning "the Vigilant" and attested in verse 4:1 of the Qur'an. Through muraqaba, a person watches over or takes care of the spiritual heart, acquires knowledge about it, and becomes attuned to the Divine Presence, which is ever vigilant.
While variation exists, one description of the practice within a Naqshbandi lineage reads as follows:
He is to collect all of his bodily senses in concentration, and to cut himself off from all preoccupation and notions that inflict themselves upon the heart. And thus he is to turn his full consciousness towards God Most High while saying three times: "Ilahî anta maqsûdî wa-ridâka matlûbî—my God, you are my Goal and Your good pleasure is what I seek". Then he brings to his heart the Name of the Essence—Allâh—and as it courses through his heart he remains attentive to its meaning, which is "Essence without likeness". The seeker remains aware that He is Present, Watchful, Encompassing of all, thereby exemplifying the meaning of his saying (may God bless him and grant him peace): "Worship God as though you see Him, for if you do not see Him, He sees you". And likewise the prophetic tradition: "The most favored level of faith is to know that God is witness over you, wherever you may be".
In popular Sufism (i.e., devotional practices that have achieved currency in world cultures through Sufi influence), one common practice is to visit or make pilgrimages to the tombs of saints, great scholars, and righteous people. This is a particularly common practice in South Asia, where famous tombs include those of Khoja Afāq, near Kashgar, in China; Lal Shahbaz Qalander, in Sindh,Ali Hajwari in Lahore Bawaldin Zikrya in Multan Pakistan; Moinuddin Chishti in Ajmer, India; Nizamuddin Auliya in Delhi, India, and Shah Jalal in Sylhet, Bangladesh. Likewise, in Fez, Morocco, a popular destination for such pious visitation is the Zaouia Moulay Idriss II and the yearly visitation to see the current Sheikh of the Qadiri Boutchichi Tariqah, Sheikh Sidi Hamza al Qadiri al Boutchichi to celebrate the Mawlid (which is usually televised on Moroccan National television). The purpose of such visitations is usually two-fold, first and foremost the aim is to receive spiritual guidance and blessings from the Saint who rests in the shrine, which helps the Seeker in his or her own path towards enlightenment. Secondly, the Saint is also approached for intercession in prayers, be it in worldly matters or religious.
Sufis and Sufism has been subject to destruction of Sufi shrines and mosques, suppression of orders, and discrimination against adherents in a number of Muslim countries where most Sufis live. The Turkish Republican state banned all the different Sufi orders and closed their institutions in 1925 after Sufis opposed the new secular order. The Iranian Islamic Republic has harassed Shia Sufi, reportedly for their lack of support for the government doctrine of "velayat-e faqih" (i.e., that the supreme Shiite jurist should be the nation's political leader). In most other Muslim countries, attacks on Sufis and especially their shrines has come from some Muslims from the more puritanical schools of thought who believe Sufi practices such as celebration of the birthdays of Sufi saints, and Dhikr ("remembrance" of God) ceremonies are Bid‘ah or impure innovation, and polytheistic (Shirk).
During the Safavid era of Iran, "both the wandering dervishes of 'low' Sufism" and "the philosopher-ulama of 'high' Sufism came under relentless pressure" from power cleric Muhammad Baqir Majlisi (d1110/1699). Majlisi—"one of the most powerful and influential" Twelver Shi'a ulama "of all time"—was famous for (among other things), suppression of Sufism, which he and his followers believed paid insufficient attention to Shariah law. Prior to Majlisi's rise, Shiism and Sufism had been "closely linked".
According to a 2005 article in The Guardian:
Before the first world war there were almost 100,000 disciples of the Mevlevi order throughout the Ottoman empire. But in 1925, as part of his desire to create a modern, western-orientated, secular state, Atatürk banned all the different Sufi orders and closed their tekkes. Pious foundations were suspended and their endowments expropriated; Sufi hospices were closed and their contents seized; all religious titles were abolished and dervish clothes outlawed. [...] In 1937, Atatürk went even further, prohibiting by law any form of traditional music, especially the playing of the ney, the Sufis' reed flute.
In recent years, Sufi shrines, and sometimes Sufi mosques, have been damaged or destroyed in many parts of the Muslim world. Some Sufi adherents have been killed as well. Ali Gomaa, a Sufi scholar and Grand Mufti of Al Azhar, has criticized the destruction of shrines and public property as unacceptable.
Since March 2005, 209 people have been killed and 560 injured in 29 different terrorist attacks targeting shrines devoted to Sufi saints in Pakistan, according to data compiled by the Center for Islamic Research Collaboration and Learning (CIRCLe). At least as of 2010, the attacks have increased each year. The attacks are generally attributed to banned militant organizations of Deobandi or Ahl-e-Hadith (Salafi) backgrounds. (Primarily Deobandi background according to another source—author John R. Schmidt). Deobandi and Barelvi being the "two major sub-sects" of Sunni Muslims in South Asia that have clashed—sometimes violently—since the late 1970s in Pakistan. Although Barelvi are fully described as Sunni Sufis, whether the destruction and death is a result of Deobandi's banned militant organizations persecution of Sufis(Barelvus).
In 2005, the militant organizations began attacking "symbols" of the Barelvi community such as mosques, prominent religious leaders, and shrines.
- 19 March: a suicide bomber kills at least 35 people and injured many more at the shrine of Pir Rakhel Shah in remote village of Fatehpur located in Jhal Magsi District of Balochistan. The dead included Shia and sunni devotees.
- 27 May: As many as 20 people are killed and 100 injured when a suicide-bomber attacks a gathering at Bari Imam Shrine during the annual festival. The dead were mainly Shia. According to the police members of Sipah-i-Sahaba Pakistan (SSP) and Lashkar-i-Jhangvi (LJ) were involved. Sipah-e-Sahaba Pakistan (SSP), were arrested from Thanda Pani and police seized two hand grenades from their custody.
- 11 April: A suicide-bomber attacked a celebration of the birthday of Prophet Muhammad (Eid Mawlid un Nabi) in Karachi's Nishtar Park organised by the Barelvi Jamaat Ahle Sunnat. 57 died including almost the entire leadership of the Sunni Tehrik; over 100 were injured. Three people associated with Lashkar-i-Jhangvi were put on trial for the bombing. (see: Nishtar Park bombing)
- 18 December: The shrine of Abdul Shakoor Malang Baba is demolished by explosives.
- March 3: ten villagers killed in a rocket attack on the 400-year-old shrine of Abu Saeed Baba. Lashkar-e-Islam takes credit.
- 17 February: Agha Jee shot and killed in Peshwar, the fourth faith healer killed over several months in Pakistan. Earlier Pir Samiullah was killed in Swat by the Taliban 16 December 2008. His dead body was later exhumed and desecrated. Pir Rafiullah was kidnapped from Nowshera and his beheaded body was found in Matani area of Peshawar. Pir Juma Khan was kidnapped from Dir Lower and his beheaded body was found near Swat. Faith healing is associated with Sufi Islam in Pakistan
Pakistani faith healers are known as pirs, a term that applies to the descendants of Sufi Muslim saints. Under Sufism, those descendants are thought to serve as conduits to God. The popularity of pirs as a viable healthcare alternative stems from the fact that, in much of rural Pakistan, clinics don't exist or are dismissed as unreliable.
- and suppressing it has been a cause of "extremist" Muslims there.
- March 5: The shrine of Rahman Baba, "the most famous Sufi Pashto language poet", razed to the ground by Taliban militants "partly because local women had been visiting the shrine".
- 8 March: Attack on shrine of "famous Sufi poet" Rahman Baba in Peshawar. "The high intensity device almost destroyed the grave of the Rehman Baba and the gates of a mosque, canteen and conference hall situated in the spacious Rehman Baba Complex. Police said the bombers had tied explosives around the pillars of the tombs, to pull down the mausoleum".
- May 8: shrine of Shaykh Omar Baba destroyed.
- 12 June: Mufti Sarfraz Ahmed Naeemi killed by suicide bomber in Lahore. A leading Sunni Islamic cleric in Pakistan he was well known for his moderate views and for publicly denouncing the Taliban's beheadings and suicide bombings as "un-Islamic".
- 22 June: Taliban militants blow up the Mian Umar Baba shrine in Peshawar. No fatalities reported.
- 1 July: Multiple bombings of Data Durbar Complex Sufi shrine, in Lahore, Punjab. Two suicide bombers blew themselves up killing at least 50 people and injuring 200 others.
- 7 October: 10 people killed, 50 injured in a double suicide bombing attack on Abdullah Shah Ghazi shrine in Karachi
- 7 October: The tomb of Baba Fariddudin Ganj Shakkar in Pakpattan is attacked. Six people were killed and 15 others injured.
- 25 October: 6 killed, and at least 12 wounded in an attack on the shrine of 12th-century saint, Baba Farid Ganj Shakar in Pakpattan.
- 14 December: Attack on Ghazi Baba shrine in Peshawar, 3 killed.
- 3 February: Remote-controlled device is triggered as food is being distributed among the devotees outside the Baba Haider Saieen shrine in Lahore, Punjab. At least three people were killed and 27 others injured.
- 3 April: Twin suicide attack leaves 42 dead and almost a hundred injured during the annual Urs festival at shrine of 13th century Sufi saint Sakhi Sarwar (a.k.a. Ahmed Sultan) in the Dera Ghazi Khan district of Punjab province. Tehrik-e-Taliban Pakistan (TTP) claims responsibility for the attack.
- 21 June: Bomb kills three people and injures 31 others at the Pinza Piran shrine in Hazarkhwani in (Peshwar). "A police official said the bomb was planted in a donkey-cart that went off in the afternoon when a large number of people were visiting the popular shrine".
In this predominately Muslim, traditionally Sufi region, some six places of worship have been either completely or partially burnt in "mysterious fires" in several months leading up to November 2012. The most prominent victim of damage was the Dastageer Sahib Sufi shrine in Srinagar which burned in June 2012, injuring 20. While investigators have so far found no sign of arson, according to journalist Amir Rana the fires have occurred within the context of a surging Salafi movement which preaches that "Kashmiri tradition of venerating the tombs and relics of saints is outside the pale of Islam".
mourners outside the burning shrine cursed the Salafis for creating an atmosphere of hate, [while] some Salafis began posting incendiary messages on Facebook, terming the destruction of the shrine a "divine act of God".
In the ancient city of Timbuktu, sometimes called "the city of 333 saints", UNESCO reports that as many as half of the city's shrines "have been destroyed in a display of fanaticism", as of July 2012. A spokesman for Ansar Dine has stated that "the destruction is a divine order", and that the group had plans to destroy every single Sufi shrine in the city, "without exception". In Gao and Kidal, as well as Timbuktu, Salafi Islamists have destroyed musical instruments and driven musicians (music is not Haraam under Sufi Islam) into "economic exile" away from Mali.
A manuscript from Timbuktu belonging to Al-Mukhtar ibn Aḥmad ibn Abi Bakr al-Kunti al-Kabir.
A manuscript from Timbuktu belonging to Baba ibn Ahmad al-Alawi al-Maliki al-Maghribi al-Shingiti.
A May 2010 ban by the ministry of awqaf (religious endowments) of centuries old Sufi dhikr gatherings (devoted to the remembrance of God, and including dancing and religious songs) has been described as a "another victory for extreme Salafi thinking at the expense of Egypt's moderate Sufism". Clashes followed at Cairo's Al-Hussein Mosque and al-Sayyida Zeinab mosques between members of Sufi orders and security forces who forced them to evacuate the two shrines. In 2009, the moulid of al-Sayyida Zeinab, Muhammad's granddaughter, was banned ostensibly over concern over the spread of swine flu but also at the urging of Salafis.
According to Gaber Qassem, deputy of the Sufi Orders, approximately 14 shrines have been violated in Egypt since the January 2011 revolution. According to Sheikh Tarek El-Rifai, head of the Rifai Sufi Order, a number of Salafis have prevented Sufi prayers in Al-Haram. Sheikh Rifai said that the order's lawyer has filed a report at the Al-Haram police station to that effect. In early April 2011, a Sufi march from Al-Azhar Mosque to Al-Hussein Mosque was followed by a massive protest before Al-Hussein Mosque, "expressing outrage at the destruction" of Sufi shrines. The Islamic Research Centre of Egypt, led by Grand Imam of Al-Azhar Ahmed El-Tayeb, has also renounced the attacks on the shrines. According to the Muslim Brotherhood website ikhwanweb.com, in 2011 "a memorandum was submitted to the Armed Forces" citing 20 "encroachments" on Sufi shrines.
Following the overthrow of Muammar Gaddafi, several Sufi religious sites in Libya were deliberately destroyed or damaged. In the weeks leading up to September 2012, "armed groups motivated by their religious views" attacked Sufi religious sites across the country, "destroying several mosques and tombs of Sufi religious leaders and scholars". Perpetrators were described as "groups that have a strict Islamic ideology where they believe that graves and shrines must be desecrated." Libyan Interior Minister Fawzi Abdel A'al, was quoted as saying, "If all shrines in Libya are destroyed so we can avoid the death of one person [in clashes with security forces], then that is a price we are ready to pay."
In September 2012, three people were killed in clashes between residents of Rajma (50 km south-east of Benghazi) and "Salafist Islamists" trying to destroy a Sufi shrine in Rajma, the Sidi al-Lafi mausoleum. In August 2012 the United Nations cultural agency Unesco urged Libyan authorities to protect Sufi mosques and shrines from attacks by Islamic hardliners "who consider the traditional mystical school of Islam heretical". The attacked have "wrecked mosques in at least three cities and desecrated many graves of revered Sufi scholars".
Said Atsayev—also known as Sheikh Said Afandi al-Chirkavi—a prominent 74-year-old Sufi Muslim spiritual leader in Dagestan Russia, was killed by a suicide bombing August 28, 2012 along with six of his followers. His murder follows "similar religiously-motivated killings" in Dagestan and other regions of ex-Soviet Central Asia, targeting religious leaders—not necessarily Sufi—who are hostile to violent jihad. Afandi had survived previous attempts on his life and was reportedly in the process of negotiating a peace agreement between the Sufis and Salafis. 
The book Mystic Regimes. Sufism and the State in Iran, from the late Qajar era to the Islamic Republic by Matthijs van den Bos discusses the status of Sufism in Iran in the 19th and 20th century. According to Seyed Mostafa Azmayesh, an expert on Sufism and the representative of the Ni'matullāhī order outside Iran, a campaign against the Sufis in Iran (or at least Shia Sufis) began in 2005 when several books were published arguing that because Sufis follow their own spiritual leaders do not believe in the Islamic state's principle of "velayat-e faqih" (i.e., that the supreme Shiite jurist should be the nation's political leader), Sufis should be treated as second-class citizens. They should not be allowed to have government jobs, and if they already have them, should be identified and fired.
Since 2005 the Ni'matullāhī order—Iran's largest Sufi order—have come under increasing state pressure. Three of their houses of worship have been demolished. Officials accused the Sufis of not having building permits and of narcotics possession—charges the Sufis reject.
In February 2009, at least 40 Sufis in Isfahan were arrested after protesting the destruction of a Sufi place of worship; all were released within days.
In January, Jamshid Lak, a Gonabadi Dervish from the Nematollahi Sufi order was flogged 74 times after being convicted in 2006 of slander following his public allegation of ill-treatment by a Ministry of Intelligence official.
In late December 2008, after the closure of a Sufi place of worship, authorities arrested without charge at least six members of the Gonabadi Dervishes on Kish Island and confiscated their books and computer equipment; their status is unknown.
In November 2008, Amir Ali Mohammad Labaf was sentenced to a five-year prison term, 74 lashes, and internal exile to the southeastern town of Babak for spreading lies, based on his membership in the Nematollahi Gonabadi Sufi order.
In October, at least seven Sufi Muslims in Isfahan, and five others in Karaj, were arrested because of their affiliation with the Nematollahi Gonabadi Sufi order; they remain in detention.
In November 2007, clashes in the western city of Borujerd between security forces and followers of a mystic Sufi order resulted in dozens of injuries and the arrests of approximately 180 Sufi Muslims. The clashes occurred after authorities began bulldozing a Sufi monastery. It is unclear how many remain in detention or if any charges have been brought against those arrested. During the past year, there were numerous reports of Shi'a clerics and prayer leaders, particularly in Qom, denouncing Sufism and the activities of Sufi Muslims in the country in both sermons and public statements.
In 2009 the mausoleum of the 19th century Sufi poet Nasir Ali and an adjoining Sufi prayer house were bulldozed.
Not all Sufis in Iran have been subject to government pressure. Sunni dervish orders—such as the Qhaderi dervishes—in the Sunni-populated parts of the country are thought by some to be seen as allies of the government against Al-Qaeda.
Islam and Sufism
Critique of Sufism's anti-materialistic aspects
Certain aspects of Sufi philosophy are controversial and often debated, chief among them is the anti-materialistic strain within its ethos. Gamal Marzouq, Professor of Islamic Philosophy in Ain-Shams University, in his paper titled "The effect of Christianity on the first emergence of Islamic Sufism", has highlighted the monastic and anti-materialist trends within Sufism, calling attention to their "abandoning materialism and living only for praying, something similar to monasticism".
Conversely, the Quran calls out monasticism as a human invention not prescribed by God in the verse 57:27: "monasticism, which they innovated; We did not prescribe it for them...". Furthermore, there is much emphasis on physical laws of the universe within the Quran, urging believers to study and understand the "signs" of God in the physical world (e.g. verse 2:164), which precludes the possibility of avoiding or shunning the material world. Ibrahim B. Syed has called attention to the fact that the only definition of the word alim in the Quran, a word commonly understood to mean "religious leader" today, is actually referring to scientists, indicating the high importance afforded by the Quran to the material world and the act of engaging with it, so as to understand God's universe. There are also the active aspects of the Quran's teachings which urge believers to seek to improve the human condition and work to establish the laws of God within human society (verse 22:41), a mission that does not fit well with the hermetic and monastic tendencies within Sufism.
Sufism and Islamic law
Scholars and adherents of Sufism sometimes describe Sufism in terms of a threefold approach to God as explained by a tradition (hadîth) attributed to Muhammad,"The Canon is my word, the order is my deed, and the truth is my interior state". Sufis believe the sharia (exoteric "canon"), tariqa (esoteric "order") and haqiqa ("truth") are mutually interdependent.
The tariqa, the 'path' on which the mystics walk, has been defined as[weasel words] 'the path which comes out of the sharia, for the main road is called branch, the path, tariq.'[clarification needed] No mystical experience can be realized if the binding injunctions of the sharia are not followed faithfully first. The tariqa however, is narrower and more difficult to walk.
It leads the adept, called salik or "wayfarer", in his sulûk or "road" through different stations (maqâmât) until he reaches his goal, the perfect tawhîd, the existential confession that God is One. Shaykh al-Akbar Muhiuddeen Ibn Arabi mentions, "When we see someone in this Community who claims to be able to guide others to God, but is remiss in but one rule of the Sacred Law—even if he manifests miracles that stagger the mind—asserting that his shortcoming is a special dispensation for him, we do not even turn to look at him, for such a person is not a sheikh, nor is he speaking the truth, for no one is entrusted with the secrets of God Most High save one in whom the ordinances of the Sacred Law are preserved. (Jami' karamat al-awliya')".
The Amman Message, a detailed statement issued by 200 leading Islamic scholars in 2005 in Amman, and adopted by the Islamic world's political and temporal leaderships at the Organisation of the Islamic Conference summit at Mecca in December 2005, and by six other international Islamic scholarly assemblies including the International Islamic Fiqh Academy of Jeddah, in July 2006, specifically recognized the validity of Sufism as a part of Islam—however the definition of Sufism can vary drastically between different traditions (what may be intended is simple tazkiah as opposed to the various manifestations of Sufism around the Islamic world).
Traditional Islamic thought and Sufism
The literature of Sufism emphasizes highly subjective matters that resist outside observation, such as the subtle states of the heart. Often these resist direct reference or description, with the consequence that the authors of various Sufi treatises took recourse to allegorical language. For instance, much Sufi poetry refers to intoxication, which Islam expressly forbids. This usage of indirect language and the existence of interpretations by people who had no training in Islam or Sufism led to doubts being cast over the validity of Sufism as a part of Islam. Also, some groups emerged that considered themselves above the Sharia and discussed Sufism as a method of bypassing the rules of Islam in order to attain salvation directly. This was disapproved of by traditional scholars.
For these and other reasons, the relationship between traditional Islamic scholars and Sufism is complex and a range of scholarly opinion on Sufism in Islam has been the norm. Some scholars, such as Al-Ghazali, helped its propagation while other scholars opposed it. W. Chittick explains the position of Sufism and Sufis this way:
In short, Muslim scholars who focused their energies on understanding the normative guidelines for the body came to be known as jurists, and those who held that the most important task was to train the mind in achieving correct understanding came to be divided into three main schools of thought: theology, philosophy, and Sufism. This leaves us with the third domain of human existence, the spirit. Most Muslims who devoted their major efforts to developing the spiritual dimensions of the human person came to be known as Sufis.
Traditional and Neo-Sufi groups 
The traditional Sufi orders, which are in majority, emphasize the role of Sufism as a spiritual discipline within Islam. Therefore, the Sharia (traditional Islamic law) and the Sunnah are seen as crucial for any Sufi aspirant. One proof traditional orders assert is that almost all the famous Sufi masters of the past Caliphates were experts in Sharia and were renowned as people with great Iman (faith) and excellent practice. Many were also Qadis (Sharia law judges) in courts. They held that Sufism was never distinct from Islam and to fully comprehend and practice Sufism one must be an observant Muslim.
"Neo-Sufism" and "universal Sufism" are terms used to denote forms of Sufism that do not require adherence to Shariah, or a Muslim faith. The terms are not always accepted by those it is applied to. The Universal Sufism movement was founded by Inayat Khan, teaches the essential unity of all faiths, and accepts members of all creeds. Sufism Reoriented is an offshoot of Khan's Western Sufism charted by the syncretistic teacher Meher Baba. The Golden Sufi Center exists in England, Switzerland and the United States. It was founded by Llewellyn Vaughan-Lee to continue the work of his teacher Irina Tweedie, herself a practitioner of both Hinduism and Sufism. The Afghan-Scottish teacher Idries Shah has been described as a neo-Sufi by the Gurdjieffian James Moore. Other Western Sufi organisations include the Sufi Foundation of America and the International Association of Sufism.
Western Neo-Sufi practices may differ from traditional forms, for instance having mixed-gender meetings and less emphasis on the Qur'an.
Abul Hasan al-Shadhili
Abul Hasan al-Shadhili (died 1258 CE), the founder of the Shadhiliyya Sufi order, introduced dhikr jahri (The method of remembering Allah through loud means). Sufi orders generally preach to deny oneself and to destroy the ego-self (nafs) and its worldly desires. This is sometimes characterized as the "Order of Patience-Tariqus Sabr". In contrast, Imam Shadhili taught that his followers need not abstain from what Islam has not forbidden, but to be grateful for what God has bestowed upon them. This notion, known as the "Order of Gratitude-Tariqush Shukr", was espoused by Imam Shadhili. Imam Shadhili gave eighteen valuable hizbs (litanies) to his followers out of which the notable Hizbul Bahr is recited worldwide even today.
Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani
Al-Sayyid Muhiyudin Abu Muhammad Abdal Qadir Al-Jilani Al-Hasani Wal-Hussaini (born 11 Rabi al-Thani), 470 Hijri, in the town of Na'if, district of Gilan, Ilam Province Or Amol of Tabarestan, Persia, died 8 Rabi al-Awwal 561 AH, in Baghdad, (1077–1166 CE), was a Persian Hanbali jurist and Sufi based in Baghdad. Qadiriyya was his patronym. Al Gilani spent his early life in Na'if, the town of his birth. There, he pursued the study of Hanbali law. Abu Ali al-Mukharrimi gave Al Gilani lessons in Fiqh. He was given lessons about Hadith by Abu Bakr ibn Muzaffar. He was given lessons about Tafsir by Abu Muhammad Ja'far, a commentator. In Tasawwuf, his spiritual instructor was Abu'l-Khair Hammad ibn Muslim al-Dabbas. After completing his education, Gilani left Baghdad. He spent twenty-five years as a reclusive wanderer in the desert regions of Iraq. In 1127, Al Gilani returned to Baghdad and began to preach to the public. He joined the teaching staff of the school belonging to his own teacher, al-Mukharrimii,and was popular with students. In the morning he taught hadith and tafsir, and in the afternoon he held discourse on the science of the heart and the virtues of the Qur'an. He was said to have been a convincing preacher and converted numerous Jews and Christians. His strength came in the reconciling of the mystical nature of the Sufi and strict nature of the Qur'an. He felt it important to control egotism and worldliness in submission to God.
Bayazid Bastami (died 874 CE) is considered to be "of the six bright stars in the firmament of the Prophet", and a link in the Golden Chain of the Naqshbandi Tariqah. He is regarded as the first mystic to openly speak of the annihilation (fanā') of the base self in the Divine, whereby the mystic becomes fully absorbed to the point of becoming unaware of himself or the objects around him. Every existing thing seems to vanish, and he feels free of every barrier that could stand in the way of his viewing the Remembered One. In one of these states, Bastami cried out: "Praise to Me, for My greatest Glory!" His belief in the unity of all religions became apparent when asked the question: "How does Islam view other religions?" His reply was "All are vehicles and a path to God's Divine Presence".
Muhyiddin Muhammad b. 'Ali Ibn 'Arabi (or Ibn al-'Arabi) AH 561- AH 638 (July 28, 1165 – November 10, 1240) is considered to be one of the most important Sufi masters, although he never founded any order (tariqa). His writings, especially al-Futuhat al-Makkiyya and Fusus al-hikam, have been studied within all the Sufi orders as the clearest expression of tawhid (Divine Unity), though because of their recondite nature they were often only given to initiates. Later those who followed his teaching became known as the school of wahdat al-wujud (the Oneness of Being). He himself considered his writings to have been divinely inspired. As he expressed the Way to one of his close disciples, his legacy is that 'you should never ever abandon your servanthood ('ubudiyya), and that there may never be in your soul a longing for any existing thing'.
Junayd Baghdadi (830–910 CE) was one of the great early Sufis, and is a central figure in the golden chain of many Sufi orders. He laid the groundwork for sober mysticism in contrast to that of God-intoxicated Sufis like al-Hallaj, Bayazid Bastami and Abusaeid Abolkheir. During the trial of al-Hallaj, his former disciple, the Caliph of the time demanded his fatwa. In response, he issued this fatwa: "From the outward appearance he is to die and we judge according to the outward appearance and God knows better". He is referred to by Sufis as Sayyid-ut Taifa—i.e., the leader of the group. He lived and died in the city of Baghdad.
He was born in 1141 and died in 1236 CE. Also known as Gharīb Nawāz "Benefactor of the Poor", he is the most famous Sufi saint of the Chishti Order of the Indian Subcontinent. Moinuddin Chishti introduced and established the order in the subcontinent. The initial spiritual chain or silsila of the Chishti order in India, comprising Moinuddin Chishti, Bakhtiyar Kaki, Baba Farid, Nizamuddin Auliya (each successive person being the disciple of the previous one), constitutes the great Sufi saints of Indian history. Moinuddin Chishtī turned towards India, reputedly after a dream in which Prophet Muhammad blessed him to do so. After a brief stay at Lahore, he reached Ajmer along with Sultan Shahāb-ud-Din Muhammad Ghori, and settled down there. In Ajmer, he attracted a substantial following, acquiring a great deal of respect amongst the residents of the city. Moinuddin Chishtī practiced the Sufi Sulh-e-Kul (peace to all) concept to promote understanding between Muslims and non-Muslims
Mansur al-Hallaj (died 922 CE) is renowned for his claim "Ana-l-Haqq" (I am The Truth). His refusal to recant this utterance, which was regarded as apostasy, led to a long trial. He was imprisoned for 11 years in a Baghdad prison, before being tortured and publicly dismembered on March 26, 922. He is still revered by Sufis for his willingness to embrace torture and death rather than recant. It is said that during his prayers, he would say "O Lord! You are the guide of those who are passing through the Valley of Bewilderment. If I am a heretic, enlarge my heresy".
Perception outside Islam
Sufi mysticism has long exercised a fascination upon the Western world, and especially its orientalist scholars. Figures like Rumi have become well known in the United States, where Sufism is perceived as a peaceful and apolitical form of Islam.
The Islamic Institute in Mannheim, Germany, which works towards the integration of Europe and Muslims, sees Sufism as particularly suited for interreligious dialogue and intercultural harmonisation in democratic and pluralist societies; it has described Sufism as a symbol of tolerance and humanism—nondogmatic, flexible and non-violent. According to Philip Jenkins, a Professor at Baylor University, "the Sufis are much more than tactical allies for the West: they are, potentially, the greatest hope for pluralism and democracy within Muslim nations." Likewise, several governments and organisations have advocated the promotion of Sufism as a means of combating intolerant and violent strains of Islam. For example, the Chinese and Russian governments openly favor Sufism as the best means of protecting against Islamist subversion. The British government, especially following the 7 July 2005 London bombings, has favoured Sufi groups in its battle against Muslim extremist currents. The influential RAND Corporation, an American think-tank, issued a major report titled "Building Moderate Muslim Networks," which urged the US government to form links with and bolster Muslim groups that opposed Islamist extremism. The report stressed the Sufi role as moderate traditionalists open to change, and thus as allies against violence. News organisations such as the BBC, Economist and Boston Globe have also seen Sufism, as a means to deal with violent Muslim extremists.
Influence on Judaism
Both Judaism and Islam are monotheistic. However, there is evidence that Sufism did influence the development of some schools of Jewish philosophy and ethics. A great influence was exercised by Sufism upon the ethical writings of Jews in the Middle Ages. In the first writing of this kind, we see "Kitab al-Hidayah ila Fara'iḍ al-Ḳulub", Duties of the Heart, of Bahya ibn Paquda. This book was translated by Judah ibn Tibbon into Hebrew under the title "Ḥōḇōṯ Ha-lleḇāḇōṯ".
The precepts prescribed by the Torah number 613 only; those dictated by the intellect are innumerable.
This was precisely the argument used by the Sufis against their adversaries, the Ulamas. The arrangement of the book seems to have been inspired by Sufism. Its ten sections correspond to the ten stages through which the Sufi had to pass in order to attain that true and passionate love of God which is the aim and goal of all ethical self-discipline. A considerable amount of Sufi ideas entered the Jewish mainstream through Bahya ibn Paquda's work, which remains one of the most popular ethical treatises in Judaism.
It is noteworthy that in the ethical writings of the Sufis Al-Kusajri and Al-Harawi there are sections which treat of the same subjects as those treated in the "Ḥovot ha-Lebabot" and which bear the same titles: e.g., "Bab al-Tawakkul"; "Bab al-Taubah"; "Bab al-Muḥasabah"; "Bab al-Tawaḍu'"; "Bab al-Zuhd". In the ninth gate, Baḥya directly quotes sayings of the Sufis, whom he calls Perushim. However, the author of the Ḥōḇōṯ Ha-lleḇāḇōṯ did not go so far as to approve of the asceticism of the Sufis, although he showed a marked predilection for their ethical principles.
The Jewish writer Abraham bar Ḥiyya teaches the asceticism of the Sufis. His distinction with regard to the observance of Jewish law by various classes of men is essentially a Sufic theory. According to it there are four principal degrees of human perfection or sanctity; namely:
- 1. of "Shari'ah", i.e., of strict obedience to all ritual laws of Islam, such as prayer, fasting, pilgrimage, almsgiving, ablution, etc., which is the lowest degree of worship, and is attainable by all
- 2. of Ṭariqah, which is accessible only to a higher class of men who, while strictly adhering to the outward or ceremonial injunctions of religion, rise to an inward perception of mental power and virtue necessary for the nearer approach to the Divinity
- 3. of "Ḥaḳikah", the degree attained by those who, through continuous contemplation and inward devotion, have risen to the true perception of the nature of the visible and invisible; who, in fact, have recognized the Godhead, and through this knowledge have succeeded in establishing an ecstatic relation to it; and
- 4. of the "Ma'arifah", in which state man communicates directly with the Deity.
Abraham ben Moses ben Maimon, the son of the Jewish philosopher Maimonides, believed that Sufi practices and doctrines continue the tradition of the Biblical prophets. See Sefer Hammaspiq, "Happerishuth", Chapter 11 ("Ha-mmaʿaḇāq") s.v. hithbonen efo be-masoreth mufla'a zo, citing the Talmudic explanation of Jeremiah 13:27 in Chagigah 5b; in Rabbi Yaakov Wincelberg's translation, "The Way of Serving God" (Feldheim), p. 429 and above, p. 427. Also see ibid., Chapter 10 ("Iqquḇim"), s.v. wa-halo yoḏeʾaʿ atta; in "The Way of Serving God", p. 371. There are other such references in Rabbi Abraham's writings, as well. He introduced into the Jewish prayer such practices as reciting God's names (dhikr).
Abraham Maimuni's principal work is originally composed in Judeo-Arabic and entitled "כתאב כפאיה אלעאבדין" Kitāb Kifāyah al-'Ābidīn ("A Comprehensive Guide for the Servants of God"). From the extant surviving portion it is conjectured that Maimuni's treatise was three times as long as his father's Guide for the Perplexed. In the book, Maimuni evidences a great appreciation for, and affinity to, Sufism. Followers of his path continued to foster a Jewish-Sufi form of pietism for at least a century, and he is rightly considered the founder of this pietistic school, which was centered in Egypt.
The followers of this path, which they called, interchangeably, Hasidism (not to be confused with the [later] Jewish Hasidic movement) or Sufism (Tasawwuf), practiced spiritual retreats, solitude, fasting and sleep deprivation. The Jewish Sufis maintained their own brotherhood, guided by a religious leader—like a Sufi sheikh.
Abraham Maimuni's two sons, Obadyah and David, continued to lead this Jewish-Sufi brotherhood. Obadyah Maimonides wrote Al-Mawala Al Hawdiyya ("The Treatise of the Pool")—an ethico-mystical manual based on the typically Sufi comparison of the heart to a pool that must be cleansed before it can experience the Divine.
The Maimonidean legacy extended right through to the 15th century with the 5th generation of Maimonidean Sufis, David ben Joshua Maimonides, who wrote Al-Murshid ila al-Tafarrud (The Guide to Detachment), which includes numerous extracts of Suhrawardi's Kalimat at-Tasawwuf.
In popular culture
- The Jewel of the Nile (1985), the eponymous Jewel is a Sufi holy man.
- In Hideous Kinky (1998), Julia (Kate Winslet) travels to Morocco to explore Sufism and a journey to self-discovery.
- In Monsieur Ibrahim (2003), Omar Sharif's character professes to be a Muslim in the Sufi tradition.
- Bab'Aziz (2005), a film by Tunisian director Nacer Khemir, draws heavily on the Sufi tradition, containing quotes from Sufi poets such as Rumi and depicting an ecstatic Sufi dance.
Abida Parveen, a Pakistani Sufi singer is one of the foremost exponents of Sufi music, together with Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan are considered the finest Sufi vocalists of the modern era. Sanam Marvi another Pakistani singer has recently gained recognition for her Sufi vocal performances.
A. R. Rahman, the Oscar-winning Indian musician, has several compositions which draw inspiration from the Sufi genre; examples are the filmi qawwalis Khwaja Mere Khwaja in the film Jodhaa Akbar, Arziyan in the film Delhi 6 and Kun Faya Kun in the film Rockstar.
Madonna, on her 1994 record Bedtime Stories, sings a song called "Bedtime Story" that discusses achieving a high unconsciousness level. The video for the song shows an ecstatic Sufi ritual with many dervishes dancing, Arabic calligraphy and some other Sufi elements. In her 1998 song "Bittersweet", she recites Rumi's poem by the same name. In her 2001 Drowned World Tour, Madonna sang the song "Secret" showing rituals from many religions, including a Sufi dance.
Singer/songwriter Loreena McKennitt's record The Mask and Mirror (1994) has a song called "The Mystic's Dream" that is influenced by Sufi music and poetry. The band mewithoutYou has made references to Sufi parables, including the name of their album It's All Crazy! It's All False! It's All a Dream! It's Alright (2009). Tori Amos makes a reference to Sufis in her song "Cruel".
Mercan Dede is a Turkish composer who incorporates Sufism into his music and performances.
British folk singer Richard Thompson is a long-time Sufi.
The Persian poet Rumi has become one of the most widely read poets in the United States, thanks largely to the interpretative translations published by Coleman Barks. Elif Safak's novel The Forty Rules of Love tells the story of Rumi becoming a disciple of the Persian Sufi dervish Shams Tabrizi.
Modern and contemporary Sufi scholars
||It has been suggested that this section be split into a new article titled List of modern Sufi scholars. (Discuss) Proposed since January 2015.|
- Abdallah Bin Bayyah (b. 1935) – Saudi Arabia
- Habib Ali al-Jifri (b. 1971) – Yemen
- Habib Umar bin Hafiz (b. 1962) – Yemen
- Muhammad Alawi al-Maliki (1944–2004) – Saudi Arabia
- Abd al-Rahman al-Shaghouri (1912–2004) – Syria
- Mohamed Said Ramadan Al-Bouti (1929–2013) – Syria
- Muhammad al-Yaqoubi (b. 1963) – Syria
- Nuh Ha Mim Keller (b. 1954) – Jordan
- Wahba Zuhayli (b. 1932) – Syria
- Yusuf an-Nabhani (1849–1932) – Palestine
- Abd al-Hamid Kishk (1933–1996) – Egypt
- Ahmad al-Alawi (1869–1934) – Algeria
- Ahmed el-Tayeb (b. 1946) – Egypt
- Ali Gomaa (b. 1951) – Egypt
- Gibril Haddad (b. 1960) – Lebanon
- Hamza al Qâdiri al Boutchichi (b. 1922)
- Muhammad ibn al-Habib (1876–1972) – Morocco
- Muhammad Sayyid Tantawy (1928–2010) – Egypt
- Shawki Ibrahim Abdel-Karim Allam – Egypt
West, Central and Southern Africa
- Abdalqadir as-Sufi (b. 1930) – South Africa
- Ahmad Tijani Ali Cisse (b. 1955) – Senegal
- Amadou Bamba (1853–1927) – Senegal
- Hassan Cissé (1945–2008) – Senegal
- Sa'adu Abubakar (1954) - Nigeria
- Sanusi Lamido Sanusi (1961) - Nigeria
- Abdal Hakim Murad (b. 1960) – United Kingdom
- Ahmed Babikir – United Kingdom
- Frithjof Schuon (1907–1998) – Switzerland
- Idries Shah (1924–1996) – United Kingdom
- Llewellyn Vaughan-Lee (b. 1953) – United Kingdom
- Martin Lings (1909–2005) – United Kingdom
- Muhammad Imdad Hussain Pirzada (b. 1946) – United Kingdom
- Hüseyin Hilmi Işık (1911–2001) – Turkey
- Nazim Al-Haqqani (b. 1922) – Turkey
- Said Afandi al-Chirkawi (1937–2012) – Dagestan
- Said Nursî (1878–1960) – Turkey
- Ali Kianfar (b. 1944) – United States
- Ahmed Tijani Ben Omar (b. 1950) – United States
- Feisal Abdul Rauf (b. 1948) - United States
- Hamza Yusuf (b. 1960) – United States
- Hisham Kabbani (b. 1945) – United States
- Hossein Nasr (b. 1933) – United States
- Kabir Helminski (b. 1942) – United States
- M. A. Muqtedar Khan (b. 1966) – United States
- Muhammad bin Yahya al-Ninowy (b. 1966) – United States
- Nahid Angha (b. 1945) – United States
- Nooruddeen Durkee (b. 1938) – United States
- Zaid Shakir (b. 1956) – United States
- Hazrat Shah Sufi Syed Abdul Latif Amantuli. (1878-1963) – Called (BISHAW DARBAR) Bangladesh
- Ahmed Ullah Maizbhanderi (1826–1906) – Bangladesh
- Ahmed Raza Khan (1856–1921) – India
- Akhtar Raza Khan (b. 1943) – India
- Bawa Muhaiyaddeen (?-1986) – Sri Lanka
- Imdadullah Muhajir Makki (1817–1899) – India
- Khwaja Shamsuddin Azeemi (b. 1927) – Pakistan
- Meher Ali Shah (1859–1937) – Pakistan
- Mohammad Abdul Ghafoor Hazarvi (1911-1970) - Pakistan
- Muhammad Abdul Qadeer Siddiqi Qadri (1871–1962) – India
- Hazrat Maulana Sufi Mufti Azangachhi Shaheb (b. 1828 or 1829- d. 1932) - India
- Muhammad Akram Awan (b.1934) - Pakistan
- Muhammad Ilyas Qadri (b. 1950) – Pakistan
- Muhammad Tahir-ul-Qadri (b. 1951) - Pakistan
- Omer Tarin (b. 1966)- Pakistan
- Qalandar Baba Auliya (1898–1979) – Pakistan
- Qamaruzzaman Azmi (b. 1946) – India
- Saheb Qiblah Fultali (1913–2008) – Bangladesh
- Shah Shahidullah Faridi (1915–1978) – Pakistan
- Syed Muhammad Zauqi Shah (1878–1951) – Pakistan
- Syed Waheed Ashraf (b. 1933) – India
- Tajuddin Muhammad Badruddin (1861-1925) – India
- Thaika Shuaib (b. 1930) – India
- Wahid Baksh Sial Rabbani (?–1995) – Pakistan
- Waris Ali Shah (1819-1905) -India
Eastern and Central Asia
- Habib Munzir Al-Musawa (1973–2013) – Indonesia
- Muhammad Abdul Aleem Siddiqi (1892–1954) – Singapore
- Muhammad Ma Jian (1906–1978) – China
- Syed Muhammad Naquib al-Attas (b. 1931) – Malaysia
The Golden Chain of the Naqshbandiyya order
Sufi mosque in Srinagar India.
Wali tomb, south of Karima, Sudan
Pir Dastgir from the Mughal Empire.
- Dala'il al-Khayrat
- Index of Sufism-related articles
- Rahe Bhander Ennoble Award
- Tawassul, a religious practice in which a Muslim seeks nearness to God.
- Universal Sufi Festival
- Kamuran Godelek. The Neoplatonist Roots of Sufi Philosophy. Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy, Boston, Massachusetts, USA, August 10–15, 1998. Archived from the original on 2003-03-11. Retrieved 2015-01-17.
- Sufism. Retrieved 17 January 2015.
- An Introduction to Islamic Cosmological Doctrines. Retrieved 17 January 2015.
- Alan Godlas, University of Georgia, Sufism's Many Paths, 2000, University of Georgia
- Nuh Ha Mim Keller, "How would you respond to the claim that Sufism is Bid'a?", 1995. Fatwa accessible at: Masud.co.uk
- Zubair Fattani. "The meaning of Tasawwuf". Islamic Academy.
- An Introduction to Islamic Cosmological Doctrines. Retrieved 27 September 2014.
- Sufism. Retrieved 27 September 2014.
- The New Encyclopedia Of Islam By Cyril Glassé, p.499
- Kabbani, Muhammad Hisham (2004). Classical Islam and the Naqshbandi Sufi Tradition. Islamic Supreme Council of America. p. 557. ISBN 1-930409-23-0.
- "Excerpts from Baba Rexheb's The Mysticism of Islam & Bektashism - The Bektashi Order of Dervishes". Retrieved 27 September 2014.
- "Father of Sufism". World of Tasawwuf. Retrieved 27 September 2014.
- "Hazrat Ali -The Father of Sufism". Hazrat Khawaja Moinuddin Chisti. Retrieved 27 September 2014.
- The Jamaat Tableegh and the Deobandis by Sajid Abdul Kayum, Chapter 1: Overview and Background.
- Ahmed Zarruq, Zaineb Istrabadi, Hamza Yusuf Hanson. The Principles of Sufism. Amal Press. 2008.
- An English translation of Ahmad ibn Ajiba's biography has been published by Fons Vitae.
- Insights into Islamic Esoterism and Taoism (Sophia Perennis 2003)
- The New Encyclopedia Of Islam By Cyril Glassé, p.500
- Munn, Richard C. (January–March 1969). "Reviewed work(s): The Sufis by Idries Shah". Journal of the American Oriental Society (American Oriental Society) 89 (1): 279–281. JSTOR 598339.
- "Sufism, Sufis, and Sufi Orders: Sufism's Many Paths". Uga.edu. Retrieved 2012-08-13.
- Idries Shah, The Sufis, ISBN 0-385-07966-4
- A Prayer for Spiritual Elevation and Protection (2007) by Muhyiddin Ibn 'Arabi, Suha Taji-Farouki
- Hawting, Gerald R. (2000). The first dynasty of Islam: The Umayyad Caliphate AD 661-750. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-24073-5. See Google book search.
- Michael Sells, Early Islamic Mysticism, pg. 1
- The Naqshbandi Sufi Tradition Guidebook of Daily Practices and Devotions, p. 83, Muhammad Hisham Kabbani, Shaykh Muhammad Hisham Kabbani, 2004
- "Sufism in Islam". Mac.abc.se. Retrieved 2012-08-13.[dead link]
- The Bloomsbury Companion to Islamic Studies by Clinton Bennett, p 328
- "Origin of sufism - Qadiri". Sufi Way. 2003. Retrieved 2012-08-13.
- Rashid Ahmad Jullundhry, Qur'anic Exegesis in Classical Literature, pg. 56. New Westminster: The Other Press, 2010. ISBN 9789675062551
- Al-Bīrūnī: commemorative volume, Hakim Mohammad Said, Pakistan. Ministry of Education, Unesco, Hamdard National Foundation, Pakistan, 2010
- The memoirs of Sufis written in India: reference to Kashaful-mahjub, Siyar-ul-auliya, and Siyar-ul-arifin, Mahmud Husain Siddiqui, Dept. of Persian, Urdu, and Arabic, Faculty of Arts, Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, 2009
- Introduction to Sufi Doctrine, p.3, Titus Burckhardt, Kazi Publications, ISBN 978-1-56744-217-5, 1976
- Sufism, Sufis, and Sufi Orders: Sufism's Many Paths
- Abdullah Nur ad-Din Durkee, The School of the Shadhdhuliyyah, Volume One: Orisons, ISBN 977-00-1830-9
- Muhammad Emin Er, Laws of the Heart: A Practical Introduction to the Sufi Path, Shifâ Publishers, 2008, ISBN 978-0-9815196-1-6
- Cavendish, Richard. Great Religions. New York: Arco Publishing, 1980.
- Abdullah Nur ad-Din Durkee, The School of the Shadhdhuliyyah, Volume One: Orisons; see also Shaykh Muhammad Hisham Kabbani, Classical Islam and the Naqshbandi Sufi Tradition, ISBN 978-1-930409-23-1, which reproduces the spiritual lineage (silsila) of a living Sufi master.
- An Introduction to Shiʻi Islam: The History and Doctrines of Shi'i Page 209
- See Muhammad Emin Er, Laws of the Heart: A Practical Introduction to the Sufi Path, Shifâ Publishers, 2008, ISBN 978-0-9815196-1-6, for a detailed description of the practices and preconditions of this sort of spiritual retreat.
- See examples provided by Muzaffar Ozak in Irshad: Wisdom of a Sufi Master, addressed to a general audience rather than specifically to his own students.
- Shaykh Muhammad Hisham Kabbani, Classical Islam and the Naqshbandi Sufi Tradition, ISBN 978-1-930409-23-1
- "Khalifa Ali bin Abu Talib - Ali, The Father of Sufism - Alim.org". Retrieved 27 September 2014.
- IslamOnline.net[dead link]
- Massignon, Louis. Essai sur les origines du lexique technique de la mystique musulmane. Paris: Vrin, 1954. p. 104.
- Imam Birgivi, The Path of Muhammad, WorldWisdom, ISBN 0-941532-68-2
- Hodgson, Marshall G.S. (1958). The Venture of Islam, Vol 1: The Classical Age of Islam. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press. p. 394.
- An Introduction to Islamic Cosmological Doctrines. Retrieved 27 September 2014.
- Lloyd Ridgeon, Morals and Mysticism in Persian Sufism: A History of Sufi-Futuwwat in Iran, p. 32. Abingdon-on-Thames: Routledge, 2010.
- Ibn Khallikan's Biographical Dictionary, translated by William McGuckin de Slane. Paris: Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. Sold by Institut de France and Royal Library of Belgium. Vol. 3, p. 209.
- Ahmet T. Karamustafa, Sufism: The Formative Period, pg. 58. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007.
- J. Spencer Trimingham, The Sufi Orders in Islam, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-512058-5.
- The most recent version of the Risâla is the translation of Alexander Knysh, Al-Qushayri's Epistle on Sufism: Al-risala Al-qushayriyya Fi 'ilm Al-tasawwuf (ISBN 978-1859641866). Earlier translations include a partial version by Rabia Terri Harris (Sufi Book of Spiritual Ascent) and complete versions by Harris, and Barbara R. Von Schlegell.
- For the pre-modern era, see Vincent J. Cornell, Realm of the Saint: Power and Authority in Moroccan Sufism, ISBN 978-0-292-71209-6; and for the colonial era, Knut Vikyr, Sufi and Scholar on the Desert Edge: Muhammad B. Oali Al-Sanusi and His Brotherhood, ISBN 978-0-8101-1226-1.
- Leonard Lewisohn, The Legacy of Medieval Persian Sufism, Khaniqahi-Nimatullahi Publications, 1992.
- Seyyed Hossein Nasr, Islam: Religion, History, and Civilization, HarperSanFrancisco, 2003. (Ch. 1)
- Dina Le Gall, A Culture of Sufism: Naqshbandis in the Ottoman World, 1450–1700, ISBN 978-0-7914-6245-4.
- Arthur F. Buehler, Sufi Heirs of the Prophet: The Indian Naqshbandiyya and the Rise of the Mediating Sufi Shaykh, ISBN 978-1-57003-783-2.
- Victor Danner, The Islamic Tradition: An introduction. Amity House. February 1988.
- Masatoshi Kisaichi, "The Burhami order and Islamic resurgence in modern Egypt." Popular Movements and Democratization in the Islamic World, pg. 57. Part of the New Horizons in Islamic Studies series. Ed. Masatoshi Kisaichi. London: Routledge, 2006. ISBN 9781134150618
- "Sufism and Religious Brotherhoods in Senegal", Babou, Cheikh Anta, The International Journal of African Historical Studies, v. 40 no. 1 (2007) pp. 184–6
- Sufism and Religious Brotherhoods in Senegal, Khadim Mbacke, translated from the French by Eric Ross and edited by John Hunwick. Princeton, NJ: Markus Wiener, 2005.
- See in particular the biographical introduction to Michel Chodkiewicz, The Spiritual Writings of Amir Abd Al-Kader, ISBN 978-0-7914-2446-9.
- From the article on Sufism in Oxford Islamic Studies Online
- Muhammad Emin Er, Laws of the Heart: A Practical Introduction to the Sufi Order, Shifâ Publishers, 2008, ISBN 978-0-9815196-1-6
- For a systematic description of the diseases of the heart that are to be overcome in order for this perspective to take root, see Hamza Yusuf, Purification of the Heart: Signs, Symptoms and Cures of the Spiritual Diseases of the Heart, ISBN 978-1-929694-15-0.
- Concerning this, and for an excellent discussion of the concept of attraction (jadhba), see especially the Introduction to Abdullah Nur ad-Din Durkee, The School of the Shadhdhuliyyah, Volume One: Orisons, ISBN 977-00-1830-9.
- Muhammad Emin Er, al-Wasilat al-Fasila, unpublished MS.
- Realities of The Heart Lataif
- Annemarie Schimmel, Mystical Dimensions of Islam, ISBN 978-0-8078-1271-6 .
- See especially Robert Frager, Heart, Self & Soul: The Sufi Psychology of Growth, Balance, and Harmony, ISBN 978-0-8356-0778-0.
- Hakim Moinuddin Chisti, The Book of Sufi Healing, ISBN 978-0-89281-043-7
- For an introduction to the normative creed of Islam as espoused by the consensus of scholars, see Hamza Yusuf, The Creed of Imam al-Tahawi, ISBN 978-0-9702843-9-6, and Ahmad Ibn Muhammad Maghnisawi, Imam Abu Hanifa's Al-Fiqh Al-Akbar Explained, ISBN 978-1-933764-03-0.
- The meaning of certainty in this context is emphasized in Muhammad Emin Er, The Soul of Islam: Essential Doctrines and Beliefs, Shifâ Publishers, 2008, ISBN 978-0-9815196-0-9.
- See in particular the introduction by T. J. Winter to Abu Hamid Muhammad al-Ghazali, Al-Ghazali on Disciplining the Soul and on Breaking the Two Desires: Books XXII and XXIII of the Revival of the Religious Sciences, ISBN 978-0-946621-43-9.
- Akbar Ahmed, Diiscovering Islam, Making sense of Muslim History and Society,ISBN 0-415-28525-9(Pbk)
- Klaus K. Klostermaier, A Survey of Hinduism, ISBN 978-0-7914-7082-4 (Pbk)
- Abdullah Jawadi Amuli, "Dhikr and the Wisdom Behind It"
- Hakim Moinuddin Chisti The Book of Sufi Healing, ISBN 978-0-89281-043-7
- Naqshbandi Way of Dhikr
- Touma 1996, p.162
- What is Remembrance and what is Contemplation?
- Muhammad Emin Er, Laws of the Heart: A Practical Introduction to the Sufi Path, ISBN 978-0-9815196-1-6, p. 77.
- Salafi intolerance threatens Sufis| Baher Ibrahim| guardian.co.uk| 10 May 2010
- Mir, Tariq. "Kashmir: From Sufi to Salafi". November 5, 2012. Pulitzer Center on Crisis Reporting. Retrieved 20 February 2013.
- "Salafi Violence against Sufis". Islamopedia Online. Retrieved 24 February 2013.
- Momen, Moojan (1985). An Introduction to Shiʻi Islam: The History and Doctrines of Twelver Shiʻism. Yale University Press,. pp. 115–116.
- Yadav, Rama Sankar (2007). Global Encyclopaedia of Education (4 Vols. Set). Global Vision Publishing House. p. 406.
- Dalrymple, William (5 November 2005). "What goes round...". The Guardian (London).
- Introduction to Shi'i Islam, Momen, Moojan, Yale University Press, 1985 p.14-16
- "Salafi destruction of shrines and public property unacceptable". Ikhwanweb. 3 April 2011. Retrieved 24 February 2013.
- a think-tank based in Rawalpindi
- Sunni Ittehad Council: Sunni Barelvi activism against Deobandi-Wahhabi terrorism in Pakistan – by Aarish U. Khan| criticalppp.com| Let Us Build Pakistan
- John R. Schmidt states, "although most Deobandis are no more prone to violence than their Christian fundamentalist counterparts in the West, every jihadist group based in Pakistan save one is Deobandi, as are the Afghan Taliban". The Unraveling: Pakistan in the Age of Jihad | John R. Schmidt| 2011
- "Sects Within Sect: The Case of Deobandi–Barelvi Encounter in Pakistan". Tandfonline.com. 1 January 1970. Retrieved 24 February 2013.
- Chakrabarty, Rakhi (Dec 4, 2011). "Sufis strike back". The Times of India. Retrieved 5 March 2013.
- Researcher Amir Rana (a researcher and editor quarterly research journal Conflict and Peace Studies. What is young Pakistan thinking?) claims than Deobandi themselves are often Sufi, as "Naqshbandi, the major Sufi cult in Pakistan, is mainly comprised of the Deobandis" (source: Rana, Amir. "Where sufism stands". 1 August 2010. Express Tribune Blogs. Retrieved 4 March 2013.). Maulana Qasim Nomani, the Rector of Deobandi seminary Darul Uloom Deoband has denied either that his school is anti-sufi or promotes militancy, stating Deoband scholars like Ashraf Ali Thanwi, and others were Sufi saints as well and they had their Khanqahs (Sufi hospice).
Who said we are against Sufism? We very much follow the Sufi traditions and all of our elders were Sufi practitioners of Sufi tradition (source: Ali, Md. "Deoband hits back, rejects "baseless" charge of radicalizing Muslim youth". 19 October 2011. TwoCircles.net. Retrieved 4 March 2013.)
Scores of Deobandi leaders and members of Ahle Sunnat wal Jamat (ASWJ, formerly the banned Sipah-e-Sahaba Pakistan) have been assassinated in Karachi in recent years. Police sources say that the Sunni Tehrik, a Barelvi organization, is behind most of these assassinations. (source: Jamal, Arif. "Karachi's Deadly Political and Sectarian Warfare Threatens the Stability of Pakistan's Commercial Capital". Terrorism Monitor April 20, 2012. Jamestown Foundation. Retrieved 4 March 2013.)
- Timeline: Persecution of religious minorities| DAWN.COM | 4 November 2012
- "Pakistani Shiite massacre: Pakistan - Bari Imam shrine". May 27, 2005. Retrieved 5 March 2013.
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- Raja, Mudassir (31 July 2011). "Bari Imam Shrine attack 2005: Police await suspects on judicial remand in another case". Express Tribune. Retrieved 24 February 2013.
- Bari Imam blast: Masterminds belong to LJ linked group By Shahzad Malik| 14 June 2005
- Three LJ activists indicted in Nishtar Park blast case, Dawn (newspaper), 2 September 2009
- Tanoli, Ishaq (5 February 2012). "Six years on, Nishtar Park carnage trial remains inconclusive". Dawn. Retrieved 5 March 2013.
- PESHAWAR: Another faith healer shot dead in Peshawar| By Ali Hazrat Bacha| dawn.com| 18 February 2009
- "In Pakistan, faith healers have no shortage of believers", Alex Rodriguez, Los Angeles Times, March 29, 2012
- Faith Healing and Skepticism in Pakistan: Challenges and Instability | Ryan Shaffer | csicop.org| Volume 36.6, November/December 2012
- Terrorism Monitor Brief, March 19, 2009
- And now Sunni vs Sunni Riaz ul Hassan| circa July 2010
- Al-Alawi, Irfan. "Urbanised Islam behind Pakistan's Sufi shrine bombings". 15 March 2011. Lapidomedia. Retrieved 26 Feb 2013.
- "LUBP | Sarfraz Naeemi". Criticalppp.com. Retrieved 24 February 2013.
- Express Tribune, June 22, 2010
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- "Blast at Baba Farid's shrine kills six". Express Tribune. October 26, 2010. Retrieved 5 March 2013.
- "Extremist Deobandis' attack on Ghazi Baba shrine in Peshawar | LUBP". Criticalppp.com. 14 December 2010. Retrieved 24 February 2013.
- "Blast at Pakistan Shrine Kills Dozens". New York Times. April 3, 2011.
- "Three killed in Peshawar shrine blast". The News. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 5 March 2013.
- "Clashes follow fire at Kashmir Sufi shrine". BBC News. 25 June 2012. Retrieved 7 March 2013.
- Rana, Amir. "Kashmir: Sufi and Wahabbi Islam in Conflict". Pulitzer Center. Retrieved 24 February 2013.
- Ahmad, Mukhtar (June 25, 2012). "Fire destroys historic shrine, triggering anger in Kashmir". CNN. Retrieved 7 March 2013.
- "Libya and Mali: Salafi Islamists destroying shrines courtesy of Saudi Arabia and Qatar". Modern Tokyo Times. 26 August 2012. Retrieved 24 February 2013.
- Al Shabab of Somalia Destroy the Graves of Sufi Saints
- Timbuktu's Destruction: Why Islamists Are Wrecking Mali's Cultural Heritage| By Ishaan Tharoor|time.com| July 02, 2012
- "Sufism and Salafism, Mali's deep religious divide". Theafricareport.com. 21 December 2012. Retrieved 24 February 2013.
- "Destroying the Shrines of Timbuktu: Some Arab Responses". Retrieved 24 February 2013.
- "Timbuktu shrine destruction 'a war crime'". Telegraph. 2 July 2012. Retrieved 24 February 2013.
- Leila, Reem (23–29 July 2009). "Moulid ban The annual celebration of birth of Sayeda Zeinab has been banned amid concern over the spread of swine flu". Al Ahram. Retrieved 20 February 2013.
- "Libya S.O.S.: Democracy Arrives in Libya: Sufi religious sites attacked and destroyed by Salafis". Libyasos. 26 August 2012. Retrieved 24 February 2013.
- Libya: Stop Attacks on Sufi Sites | hrw.org | 31 August 2012
- Libya clashes break out over Sufi shrine attack | bbc.co.uk| 7 September 2012
- "UNESCO urges end to attacks on Libyan Sufi mosques, graves". Retrieved 27 September 2014.
- Benoit-Lavelle, Mischa (30 January 2013). "Tunisian Salafis on the Rise". al-monitor. Retrieved 18 April 2013.
- "Sheikh Murdered Over Religious Split Say Analysts | Russia | RIA Novosti". En.rian.ru. 30 August 2012. Retrieved 24 February 2013.
- "Sufi scholar, 5 others killed in Dagestan suicide bomb attack". Retrieved 27 September 2014.
- "single - The Jamestown Foundation". Retrieved 27 September 2014.
- Van den Bos, M. 2002. Mystic Regimes. Sufism and the State in Iran, from the late Qajar era to the Islamic Republic (Social, economic and political studies of the Middle East and Asia 83). Leiden: Brill.
- Esfandiari, Golnaz. "Wednesday, February 27, 2013 Features Sufism Under Attack In Iran". February 27, 2013. rferl.org. Retrieved 27 Feb 2013.
- United States Commission on International Religious Freedom (May 2009). "Annual Report of the United States Commission on International Religious Freedom: Iran". USG. Retrieved 25 December 2010.
- Schwartz, Stephen. "Iran Continues Crackdown on Sufis". 04/30/2013. Huffington Post. Retrieved 6 May 2014.
- Muhammad Emin Er, The Soul of Islam: Essential Doctrines and Beliefs, Shifâ Publishers, 2008, ISBN 978-0-9815196-0-9.
- Annemarie Schimmel, Mystical Dimensions of Islam (1975) pg. 99
- (source: [pp. 778–795 of The Reliance of the Traveller, by Shaykh Nuh Ha Meem Keller])
- The Amman Message Summary. Retrieved on Feb 2, 2010.
- Neo-Sufism: The Case of Idries Shah
- "Thareeqush Shukr". Shazuli.com. Retrieved 2012-08-13.
- "Deen islam -Hizb ul Bahr - Litany of the Sea". Retrieved 27 September 2014.
- K. al-Wasa'il, quoted in The Unlimited Mercifier, Stephen Hirtenstein, p. 246
- Memoirs of the Saints, p.108
- Ron Geaves, Theodore Gabriel, Yvonne Haddad, Jane Idleman Smith: Islam and the West Post 9/11, Ashgate Publishing Ltd., p. 67
- Jamal Malik, John R. Hinnells: Sufism in the West, Routledge, p. 25
- Philip Jenkins (January 25, 2009). "Mystical power". Globe Newspaper Company. Retrieved 26 June 2014.
- Tom Parfitt (23 November 2007). "The battle for the soul of Chechnya". Guardian News and Media Limited. Retrieved 26 June 2014.
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- A Sufi-Jewish Dialogue: Philosophy and Mysticism in Bahya ibn Paquda's Duties of the Heart, Diana Lobel
- Jewish pietism of the Sufi type, Mireille Loubet
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- Bageshree S. (26 March 2005). "Urban balladeer". The Hindu. Retrieved 2008-04-23.
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- Abun-Nasr, Jamil. Muslim Communities of Grace: The Sufi Brotherhoods in Islamic Religious Life. London, Hurst, 2007.
- Al-Badawi, Mostafa. Sufi Sage of Arabia. Louisville: Fons Vitae, 2005.
- Algan, Refik & Camille Adams Helminski, translators, Rumi's Sun: The Teachings of Shams of Tabriz, (Sandpoint, ID:Morning Light Press, 2008) ISBN 978-1-59675-020-3
- Ali-Shah, Omar. The Rules or Secrets of the Naqshbandi Order, Tractus Publishers, 1992, ISBN 978-2-909347-09-7.
- Angha, Nader. "Sufism: A Bridge Between Religions". MTO Shahmaghsoudi Publications, 2002, ISBN 0-910735-55-7
- Angha, Nader. "Sufism: The Lecture Series". MTO Shahmaghsoudi Publications, 1997, ISBN 978-0-910735-74-2.
- Angha, Nader. "Peace". MTO Shahmaghsoudi Publications, 1994, ISBN 978-0-910735-99-5.
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