A blended whiskey (or blended whisky) is the product of blending different types of whiskeys and sometimes also neutral grain spirits, coloring, and flavorings. It is generally the product of mixing one or more higher-quality straight or single malt whiskies with less expensive spirits and other ingredients. This allows for a low-priced product, though expensive "premium" varieties also exist.
Some examples of blended whiskey include Canadian Mist, Jameson Irish Whiskey, Seagram's Seven American whiskey, the premium Japanese brand Hibiki and the premium Scottish brand variant Johnnie Walker Blue Label.
Ingredients and uses
Higher proof, less aged spirits are usually much less expensive to produce than straight whiskey or single malt whisky, and are thus used as the primary spirits in most blends, with the more premium whiskies and other ingredients added for flavoring.
Most cocktails and mixed drinks that contain whiskey are made using economically priced blended whiskey rather than higher priced whiskey, since the presence of the other ingredients makes the subtleties of the taste of the whiskey less critical to the overall taste of the drink. However, drinks establishments will often upsell the use of a premium top-shelf liquor in mixed drinks for better taste (and higher revenue).
Scotland and Ireland
Scotch and Irish blended whiskeys often contain light spirits that are very neutral in flavoring – as the governing regulations in the Republic of Ireland and the UK allow whisky distillation processes to approach up to 94.8% alcohol by volume (ABV), which is very near the achievable limits of ordinary distillation technology (as alcohol and water form an azeotropic mixture at 95.6% ABV).
Scotch whisky regulations also allow the addition of caramel color, regardless of whether the final product is labelled as blended or not. A mix of single malts only, without other types of whisky such as those made from grains other than malted barley, may be called a blended malt (formerly known as a vatted malt, a term no longer permitted).
Irish blended whiskey is defined by the Republic of Ireland's Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine as a blend of two or more different whiskey types among the pot still, malt, and grain whiskey categories, and its production usually includes Irish grain whiskey that is produced from a distillate that "is much less intense in flavour when compared to Pot Still distillates ... at a strength of c. 94.5% vol."
American "blended whiskey" (alternatively labeled as "whiskey – a blend") must contain a minimum of 20% straight whiskey. Blended whiskey that contains a minimum of 51% straight whiskey of one particular grain type (i.e., rye, malt, wheat or bourbon whiskey) includes the grain type in its label description – e.g., "blended rye whiskey" or "blended bourbon whiskey". Spirits containing less than 20% straight whiskey but greater than 5% straight whiskey can be labelled "spirit whiskey".
American "blended whiskey" is not to be confused with American whiskey labeled as a "blend of straight whiskeys". A "blend of straight whiskeys" is a mixture of one or more straight whiskeys that either includes straight whiskeys produced in different U.S. states or coloring and flavoring additives (and possibly other approved "blending materials"), or both, but does not contain neutral grain spirits.
Most Canadian whiskeys are blends. Any grain spirit aged for at least three years in Canada may be called Canadian whiskey. Regulations do not specify any distillation limit, although in practice it differs little from the Scottish and Irish limit of 94.8%, as the purity of neutral grain spirit has a practical limit of approximately that value. Canadian whiskey may contain both caramel and flavorings.
Most blended whiskeys do not list an age, although the regulations governing its production in some countries specify a minimum aging requirement. All spirits in a Canadian, Scottish, or Irish whiskey must be aged at least three years, and any age statement refers to the minimum age of the spirits used in the blend. In the United States, the age statement only refers to the minimum age of the straight whiskey used within the blend (which must comprise at least 20% of the content). As neutral spirits are not considered whiskey, they need not be aged at all for the production of U.S. blended whiskey.
- Technical File setting out the Specifications with which Irish Whiskey/Uisce Beathe Eireannach/Irish Whisky Must Comply, Food Industry Development Division, Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, Republic of Ireland, October, 2014 (accessed 18 June 2015).
- "The Scotch Whisky Regulations 2009". UK Govt. 30 October 2009. Retrieved 2011-02-09.
- Scotch Whisky Regulations Guidance 2009, Scotch Whisky Association, December 2, 2009.
- "Standards of Identity for Distilled Spirits, Title 27 Code of Federal Regulations, Pt. 5.22" (PDF). U.S. Govt. Retrieved 2008-10-17.