Robert Berdella

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Robert Berdella
Robert Berdella Kansas City December 1986.png
Robert Berdella pictured at his Westport shop, Bob's Bizarre Bazaar, December 1986.
Born Robert Andrew Berdella
(1949-01-31)January 31, 1949
Cuyahoga Falls, Ohio, U.S.
Died October 8, 1992(1992-10-08) (aged 43)
Jefferson City, Missouri, U.S.
Cause of death Heart attack
Other names The Kansas City Butcher
The Collector
Criminal penalty Life imprisonment without parole
Conviction(s)
Killings
Victims 6+
Span of killings
July 5, 1984–August 5, 1987
Country United States
State(s) Kansas City, Missouri
Date apprehended
April 2, 1988
Imprisoned at Jefferson City Correctional Center

Robert Andrew Berdella (January 31, 1949 – October 8, 1992) was an American serial killer known as The Kansas City Butcher and The Collector, who kidnapped, raped, tortured, and murdered at least six men between 1984 and 1987 in Kansas City, Missouri after having forced his victims to endure periods of up to six weeks of captivity.[1]

Describing his murders as being "some of my darkest fantasies becoming my reality",[2] Berdella pleaded guilty and was sentenced to life imprisonment without the possibility of parole for the first degree murder of one of his victims, Larry Pearson, in August 1988, and would later plead guilty to one further charge of first degree murder, and four charges of second degree murder in December 1988.[3] He died of a heart attack while incarcerated at the Jefferson City Correctional Center in October 1992.[4]

Berdella became known as the "The Kansas City Butcher" due to his practice of extensively dissecting his victims' bodies, which he would then dispose of in garbage bags, and "The Collector" due to both the movie which he stated was the basis of the fantasies behind the modus operandi of his crimes, and much of the evidence subsequently uncovered by investigators.[5]

Early life[edit]

Robert Andrew Berdella was born on January 31, 1949, in Cuyahoga Falls, Ohio,[6] the first of two sons born to Robert Berdella, Sr. (a die setter for the Ford Motor Company) and Alice Berdella (a homemaker). Berdella's father was a Catholic of Italian descent, and raised his family in a deeply religious household, in which the family regularly attended Mass, and both sons regularly attended religious education courses.

As a child, Berdella was intelligent, but a classic loner. He was also severely nearsighted, resulting in his being required to wear thick glasses at the age of five. He performed academically well in his studies, though teachers often found him difficult to teach, in part due both his aloofness, and his being the recipient of bullying by other students. Resultantly, as a child, he seldom socialized in social activities with his peers,[7] although in his early teens, he did form one brief relationship with a girl, which was short lived.[8]

Adolescence[edit]

By his mid-teens, Berdella had begun to display a degree of self confidence, which would often manifest itself via his attitude to other individuals in which he would exert a somewhat rude and condescending attitude—particularly toward women.[9] Nonetheless, he developed an aptitude for cookery, showmanship, and art. On Christmas Day 1965, Berdella's family drove to Canton to visit relatives. That evening, Berdella's father suffered a severe heart attack, from which he died two days later. Berdella was shocked, and initially sought a form of solace from his religion. He would later read extensively about many faiths and ideas, but never embraced any of them; gradually developing a cynical attitude toward any form of religion.

In 1965, Berdella saw the film adaptation of the John Fowles book The Collector. The plot of this movie revolves around a lonely male who stalks, then abducts a young woman he finds attractive, and holds her captive in his windowless, stone basement, viewing her as little more than an attractive specimen. After several weeks, the female captive dies of a contracted illness despite her captor's efforts to keep her alive. Berdella later stated this movie had formed a lasting impression on him.[10]

Shortly after the death of Berdella's father, his mother remarried. This act was met with resentment by her older son, who viewed the move as a form of betrayal against his father. As a result, Berdella became increasingly withdrawn, and further immersed himself in the solitary activities he had participated in since childhood such as collecting coins and stamps, and writing to foreign pen pals.[11]

Relocation to Kansas City[edit]

Shortly after Berdella graduated from Cuyahoga Falls High School in the summer of 1967, he relocated to Kansas City. Here, he enrolled in the Kansas City Art Institute,[12] with aspirations of becoming a professor. During his time in art school, he engaged in acts of animal torture on at least three occasions; during two of them he tortured a duck and a chicken, and on the third he experimented with sedatives and tranquilizers on a dog. He also began a criminal career, abusing alcohol and selling drugs. At the age of 19, he was arrested for possession of LSD and marijuana, but was released after five days due to a lack of evidence.

In 1969, he was expelled from college after killing a dog for the sake of art. Shortly thereafter, he became a successful full-time chef. As a member of a local chefs' association, he also helped set up a training program for aspiring chefs. The same year, Berdella moved into an address located within the Hyde Park[13] district of Kansas City: 4315 Charlotte Street.[14] His neighbors considered Berdella a flamboyant, yet helpful and civic-minded individual. He would become a member of his local crime‑prevention and neighborhood‑watch association,[15] and until the mid-1980s, would represent his neighborhood at fundraising events for the local public television station.[16]

Having by this stage long been open about being gay, Berdella held a brief relationship with a Vietnam veteran in the early 1970s, although shortly after this relationship ended, he began spending much of his free time with male prostitutes. These individuals he would typically befriend, and try to help them free themselves from their drug addictions and thus out of prostitution.[10] To several of his neighbors, Berdella stated he almost felt like a foster parent to these youths.[17] Nonetheless, he would often engage in sexual relations with several of these individuals.

Shortly after Berdella's 32nd birthday, he quit working as a cook and opened his own store, Bob's Bizarre Bazaar, at the Westport Flea Market. Bob's Bizarre Bazaar primarily sold primitive art, jewelry, and antiques. Here, he became acquainted with another merchant, Paul Howell, and his son, Jerry. (Unbeknown to his father, Jerry Howell occasionally earned money as a male prostitute.)[18]

Murders[edit]

First known victim[edit]

Berdella is believed to have started killing on July 5, 1984. Having become acquainted with the son of a fellow Westport Flea Market merchant, 19-year-old Jerry Howell;[19] he drugged the youth and kept him restrained in his basement for a period of approximately 28 hours. He repeatedly drugged, tortured and raped the youth throughout this period of captivity[20] before, according to Berdella, Howell "either asphyxiated on [his own] vomit or the combination of the gag and the medicines were too strong for him to be able to catch breath".[21] Berdella would later state that he did briefly attempt to perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation upon Howell after he had died before dragging his body to the basement. He then suspended Howell's body above a large cooking pot and made several incisions to the youth's inner elbows and jugular vein, before leaving the body suspended in this position overnight to allow the blood to drain from his corpse.[22] The following day, he dismembered Howell's body using a chainsaw and boning knives, before wrapping the sections in newspaper and trash bags. These bags were later placed inside larger trash bags which Berdella placed outside for a garbage crew to collect and take to a landfill.[23]

As would be the case with all Berdella's murders, he kept a log in which he documented each act of sexual and physical torture inflicted upon his victim. Berdella would recall that—like the subsequent victims he would hold captive—Howell had repeatedly pleaded for his ongoing abuse and torture to cease throughout the period of his capture, although he (Berdella) would either ignore these pleas, taunt his victim, or threaten him.[24]

Subsequent murders[edit]

On April 10, 1985, another acquaintance of Berdella, 18-year-old Robert Sheldon, arrived on his doorstep, asking to stay with him for a few days. According to Berdella, although Sheldon was responsible in paying rent, he considered him "an inconvenience" and, although he was not physically attracted to the youth, chose to drug and hold him captive for this reason on April 12 when he found Sheldon intoxicated in his home. Sheldon was drugged with sedatives and held captive in the third floor bedroom for three days, enduring forms of torture such as the swabbing of drain cleaner in his left eye,[25] the insertion of needles beneath his fingertips,[26] and the binding of his wrists with piano wire that permanently damaged the nerves in his hands.[27]

Three days after Berdella had begun holding Sheldon captive, on April 15, a workman came to perform some scheduled work on the roof of his home, leading Berdella to fatally suffocate Sheldon so he would not be heard. The following June, Berdella found Mark Wallace (whom he vaguely knew via Wallace having previously helped him with yard work) hiding in his tool shed to seek shelter from a severe thunderstorm. Berdella invited him inside his house, and, noting Wallace's acute state of depression, volunteered to inject him with chlorpromazine with the explanation this would "calm down and relax" him. Wallace accepted the offer and, 30 minutes later, Berdella decided to render him captive.[28] Wallace was carried to the third floor bedroom where he endured almost a day of captivity and torture including the application of alligator clips to his nipples to facilitate electrical shocks to his body at any point at which he (Wallace) began regressing into a state of unconsciousness. According to Berdella, Wallace died through a combination of "the drugs, the gag, and the lack of oxygen" at 7:00 p.m. on June 23.[29]

Increase in brutality[edit]

On September 26, 1985, Berdella answered a phone call from an acquaintance named James Ferris, who requested he be allowed to stay at his (Berdella's) for a short period of time. Berdella accepted this request, with the specific intention of kidnapping Ferris.[30] Despite the brutality he had exhibited upon his first three victims, according to Berdella, Ferris was the first individual upon whom he intentionally inflicted torture. Ferris was drugged with tranquilizers and tied to Berdella's bed where he was tortured on an almost constant basis for approximately 27 hours. This torture included the repeated administering of 7,700-volt electrical shocks administered to the shoulder and testicles for up to five minutes in each instance, and acupuncture via hypodermic needles to the neck and genitals. Ferris gradually became delirious,[31] although Berdella continued his physical and sexual assaults upon his victim until he noted in the log he kept upon Ferris: 'Unable to sit up more than 10-15 seconds.' Shortly thereafter, Berdella wrote that his victim had died with a simple notation translating as 'Stop the project'.[32][10]

In June 1986, Berdella lured Todd Stoops, a 21-year-old male prostitute he had known for some time, and to whom he had been extremely physically attracted, to his house. He was held captive for two weeks before he died, with Berdella gradually making concerted efforts to terrify his captive and render him a cooperative and incapacitated sex slave with efforts including forcing Stoops to endure electrical shocks through his closed eyes in an effort to blind him, and injecting drain cleaner into his larynx in an (unsuccessful) effort to render him mute. On one occasion on the second week of his capture, Stoops asked Berdella if he could have a soft drink and a sandwich, which Berdella refused, at which point Stoops burst into tears.[33] Berdella stated that, towards the end of Stoops' two-week period of capture, he "was so weak he was unable to breathe while in a sitting position". His assumption was that this victim died of a combination of a fever and blood loss contracted due to the repeated sexual assaults and abuse he had been forced to endure.[34]

In the spring of 1987, Berdella became friendly with a 20-year-old named Larry Wayne Pearson. This casual friendship began when Pearson entered his shop and explained to Berdella that, as a child, he had held an interest in both witchcraft and wizadry. According to Berdella, he did not initially intend to capture this individual, but formed the plan to do so on June 23 when, having bailed Pearson out of jail, the younger man began bragging about his practice of robbing gay men in Wichita.[35] That evening, Berdella ensured Pearson became intoxicated before injecting him with chlorpromazine and moving him down to his basement, where he bound Pearson's hands above his head, then linked the rope he had used for this purpose to a brick column, before injecting Pearson's larynx with drain cleaner. He then brought an electrical transformer to the basement.[36]

According to Berdella, Pearson was by far the most cooperative of his six murder victims. On the fifth day of his captivity, having by this stage endured torture such as the repeated administration of electrical shocks with the transformer, and the breaking of several hand bones with an iron rod to render him submissive,[37] Berdella deduced Pearson had earned his trust as to his continued cooperation in his sexual and physical abuse; as a form of reward, Pearson was moved to the third floor. Throughout the latter part of his six weeks of captivity, Pearson trained himself to sleep without moving, in order that he did not antagonize Berdella and thus invite further torture or being returned to the basement.[38]:312 After six weeks of captivity, Berdella killed Pearson by first bludgeoning him into unconsciousness, and later suffocating him with a bag and ligature.

Final victim[edit]

On March 29, 1988, Berdella abducted his last victim, a 22-year-old prostitute named Christopher Bryson, whom he lured to his house upon the promise of payment for sex. At Berdella's home, Bryson was knocked unconscious with an iron bar, then bound to Berdella's bed, where he was subjected to similar methods of abuse and torture endured by previous victims, although in Bryson's case, Berdella repeatedly swabbed his eyes with ammonia, before exclaiming to him: "The only things you need to think about are you, me, and this house." After several days, Berdella explained to Bryson he had begun to "trust" his captive, and that although he was willing to discuss aspects of the abuse and torture he was receiving, there would be no negotiations pertaining to his sexual abuse. Berdella finished this discussion with a stern warning: "I've gotten this far with other people before, and they're dead now, because of mistakes they made."[39]

Escape[edit]

By the third day of his capture, Bryson had earned sufficient trust from Berdella to persuade him to establish a regime of tying his hands in front of him after his sexual abuse rather than above his head and to the bed upon the excuse that his (Berdella's) doing so was restricting the circulation to his arms; he had also persuaded Berdella to leave a television on within the room, with the remote control placed between his legs whenever Berdella was out of the room. However, he would later state to investigators that he had thought almost constantly about escaping.[40] The following day, he managed to break free of his restraints by burning through them using a book of matches Berdella had inadvertently left in the room and within his reach when he had left the house to go to his place of work.[41]

Bryson then managed to escape from the house by jumping from a second floor window, wearing nothing besides a dog collar around his neck, breaking a bone in his foot in the process; he then ran toward a meter reader walking across the other side of the street, shouting for this individual to call the police. This individual led Bryson to the house he had been approaching, whereupon the occupants promptly called the police, who arrived minutes later.[42]

Arrest[edit]

Questioned in greater detail at the Kansas City Police Department, Bryson stated he had been held against his will by the occupant of 4315 Charlotte Street, who had subjected him to four days of repeated sexual abuse, humiliation, and torture. Bryson further divulged that this individual had shown him Polaroid images of men who appeared to be deceased,[43] with the explanation these had been previous individuals he had unsuccessfully attempted to "collect" as his sexual slaves. Furthermore, this individual had informed Bryson he had no intention of ever allowing him to leave his property, and that he had claimed to have killed the previous individuals he had captured and treated in this manner.

Search warrant[edit]

That afternoon, Berdella was arrested on charges pertaining to the sexual assault of Christopher Bryson. He declined to allow officers inside his home,[44] and a search warrant was drafted to search his property.[45] This search of the house and grounds of 4315 Charlotte Street uncovered two human skulls which forensic anthropologists would later identify as those of Larry Pearson and Robert Sheldon.[46] The search also uncovered several human vertebrae scarred by knife marks stowed in a hallway,[47] and several human teeth stowed in an envelope. A chainsaw was found to be soiled with bloodstains, flesh, and pubic hairs. In addition, a total of 350 Polaroid pictures of various male individuals were also found stowed in various locations within Berdella's house;[48] these images depicted Bryson and several other individuals both in life and in death.[49] The search also uncovered numerous restraining and sexual devices; pornographic literature; hypodermic needles;[50] and a book devoted to the creation and remedies of narcotics. Atop a chest of drawers in one bedroom, officers discovered a stenographer's pad containing the detailed torture logs he had taken of each victim,[51] and a driving license belonging to a missing person named James Ferris was discovered in a closet on the second floor of the property.[52]

Shortly after the search had concluded, Berdella was informed of the discoveries at his property. He was formally charged with felonious restraint, assault, forcible sodomy, and murder by dismemberment as investigators formally compiled charges against him. Bail was set at $750,000.[53]

On July 23, Berdella was indicted for the murder of Larry Wayne Pearson[54] and chose to confess to each of the murders shortly thereafter. In this confession, Berdella claimed a movie he had first seen in 1965, The Collector, had left a major impression on him and that, following the senses of shock and disgust he claimed to have initially experienced after killing his first victim,[55] resurfaced in his memory and became a motivating psychological force in the actions he exhibited against his victims in his subsequent murders.[56] These methods of torture included the administration of electrical shocks, the puncturing their anal cavities with his fist, applying bleach to their eyes by way of cotton swabs, and the injecting their vocal cords with drain cleaner. He had tried to gouge one of his victim's eyes out simply "to see what would happen".

In reference to the coded notations within the actual torture logs, Berdella confessed that many of the abbreviated entries were simply shorthand terms for methods of abuse he had inflicted upon his victims, whereas others would describe either their reactions to these ongoing acts of abuse and torture, or his initial observations upon viewing them when he entered the room where he had kept them restrained. The entry reading "CP", for example, had referred to the injections of chlorpromazine he had injected into his victims to assist in his restraining them, whereas entries reading "DC" would refer to the swabbing of their eyes with drain cleaner or the injection of the substance into their vocal cords. Entries reading "EK" or "EKG" had referred to the method of torture administered to his captives with electrical shots, whereas several other entries would also read the location Berdella had administered the abuse or torture, to his victims. For example, at one point in relation to victim James Ferris, Berdella had written an entry reading: "2 1/2 ket nk + shoulder" to indicate he had injected 2.2 cubic centimeters of ketamine into his victim's neck and shoulder. Other entries such as "gag loose, no resist in retie" or "very delayed breathing, snoring"[57] were more self explanatory.[58]

Alternately, Berdella confessed to having buried two victims' skulls in his backyard[59] (one of which had been retrieved and placed inside a closet on the second floor of his property, with the teeth removed and stowed inside an envelope in the same room)[38]:36–37 although he was adamant there had been no rational or sinister reason for his doing so.

Berdella was able to name many of his victims to investigators, and although a few victims had been individuals whom he had seized by opportunity; others he claimed he had captured as he had initially, unsuccessfully, helped steer away from their lifestyles, and had thus simply become frustrated at the failure of his efforts. Upon all his victims' capture, Berdella described in graphic detail the sexual, physical and emotional abuse he had subjected his victims to, and which he had recorded upon his torture logs. Nonetheless, he did claim he had tried to assist these individuals from developing malnutrition or infection by occasionally administering antibiotics as his torture escalated.[60]

The dismembered bodies of all six of Berdella's victims had been stowed in trash bags and subsequently taken to a landfill, although their bodies were never recovered.[10]

Confessions and plea bargain[edit]

On July 22, Berdella was indicted for the murder of Larry Wayne Pearson.[61] The following month, he was arraigned and pleaded guilty in the 4th Circuit of the Jackson County Court before Judge Alvin C. Randall to the first degree murder of Larry Pearson.[62] In this plea, Berdella admitted to having suffocated Pearson with a plastic bag after having held him captive for approximately six weeks.[63] He was sentenced to life imprisonment without the possibility of parole. A second guilty plea on August 24 earned Berdella a further life term without parole for charges of sodomy against Christopher Bryson; he would also receive a further term of seven years pertaining to one count of assault against Bryson on this date.[64]

Berdella ultimately conducted a plea bargain to avoid the death penalty in the remaining five murder charges.[65] In this plea bargain, heard in the Jackson County Circuit Court before Judge Robert Meyers on December 19, 1988, Berdella pleaded guilty to each of the outstanding murder charges, in return for the prosecution agreeing not to seek the death penalty.[66] Berdella testified in graphic detail before the court as to how he had kidnapped and subsequently caused the death of each of these victims.[67] In response, Judge Meyers imposed five further concurrent life sentences, with an additional condition barring any future prospect of parole.[10]

Death[edit]

Berdella died of a heart attack at Jefferson City Correctional Center on October 8, 1992.[68] Prior to his death, he had written several letters to a minister claiming the prison officials were not giving him his prescribed heart medication.[69] On this subject, the judge at Berdella's trial, Alvin Randall, said: "Couldn't have happened to a nicer guy."[70]

Victims[edit]

By the time of Berdella's April 1988 arrest, he had abducted, tortured and murdered at least six young men (although the Kansas City Police Department suspect Berdella of involvement in two other disappearances).

  • Jerry Howell, 19, July 5, 1984: An acquaintance of Berdella who died of asphyxiation after 28 hours of captivity, which included repeated sexual assaults.[38]:258 Howell had known Berdella since 1979.[71]
  • Robert Sheldon, 18, April 12, 1985: Sheldon had lodged with Berdella on April 10 prior to his "formulating the intent" to keep him captive on April 12. He was killed by suffocation on April 15.[38]:272 His head was initially buried in Berdella's garden. Later, his skull was retrieved and stowed in Berdella's bedroom closet.[72]
  • Mark Wallace, 20, June 22, 1985: Discovered by chance hiding from a thunderstorm in Berdella's toolshed. Wallace died of a combination of a lack of oxygen and injected drugs at 7 p.m. on June 23.[38]:281
  • Walter James Ferris, 25, September 26, 1985: The first victim whom Berdella stated he had intentionally tortured prior to his death.[38]:258 Berdella noted that Ferris became delirious during his captivity as a result of the torture he had exhibited and the medication he had administered to him, with one of the final notations in his log of Ferris's capture being, "unable to sit up more than 10-15 [seconds]".[38]:289 His death was noted in Berdella's torture log with the notation "Stop the project".[38]:289
  • Todd Stoops, 21, June 17, 1986: Kidnapped due to Berdella being "sexually frustrated" with him. The torture he endured prior to his death included electric shocks via a spatula placed across his eyelid in an unsuccessful attempt to blind him. Stoops died of a combination of blood loss and infection on July 1.[38]:302
  • Larry Wayne Pearson, 20, June 23, 1987: Held captive until August 5.[38]:316 Pearson was killed by suffocation after six weeks of captivity, which included having a piano wire tied around his wrists with the intention of causing nerve damage. His head was kept and buried in Berdella's garden.[38]:312

In media[edit]

Film[edit]

  • The 2009 feature film Berdella is directly based upon the murders committed by Robert Berdella. Written and directed by William Taft, and co-directed by Paul South, the film stars Seth Correa as Berdella.[73]

Books[edit]

  • Jackman, Tom; Cole, Troy (1995) [1992]. Rites of Burial. London: Pinnacle Books. ISBN 0-86369-996-0. 
  • Rosewood, Jack (2015). Robert Berdella: The True Story of the Kansas City Butcher. London: CreateSpace. ISBN 978-1-517-25635-7. 

Television[edit]

  • A 2004 documentary, Bazaar Bizarre, is based upon the murders committed by Robert Berdella. Directed by Benjamin Meade, Bazaar Bizarre recounts the murders committed by Berdella, and includes archive footage of interviews with Berdella prior to his death. Christopher Bryson is among those interviewed for this documentary.[74][75]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Bob Berdella". Orlando Sentinel. July 20, 2014. Retrieved May 20, 2017. 
  2. ^ Rites of Burial p. 264
  3. ^ "Robert A. Berdella, Already Convicted of One Count of First-Degree Murder, Pleads Guilty to A Second Charge". Orlando Sentinel. December 20, 1988. Retrieved May 20, 2017. 
  4. ^ "Kansas City Sicko Kept Detailed Diary, Photos of Sex Torture, Bondage and Murder". 23 July 2016. Retrieved 19 May 2017. 
  5. ^ Rites of Burial p. 47
  6. ^ Robert Berdella: The True Story of the Kansas City Butcher p. 7
  7. ^ Rites of Burial pp. 46-47
  8. ^ Rites of Burial p. 47
  9. ^ Robert Berdella: The True Story of the Kansas City Butcher p. 8
  10. ^ a b c d e Fisher, Ryan; Aust, Ashley; Bisset, Danielle; Jamba, Timothy; Jones, John; King, Audrey; Kowalski, Jennifer; Krell, Elizabeth; Layton, Jaclyn (2006). Aamodt, Mike, ed. "Robert Berdella: The Butcher of Kansas City, Missouri". Radford, Virginia: Radford University. Archived from the original on November 3, 2015. 
  11. ^ "Kansas City Sicko Kept Detailed Diary, Photos of Sex Torture, Bondage and Murder". 23 July 2016. Retrieved 19 May 2017. 
  12. ^ Rites of Burial p. 46
  13. ^ "Talk of Reopening Serial Killer Bob Berdella's Bazaar Bizarre is Dismissed as a Hoax". The Kansas City Star. October 13, 2016. Retrieved June 14, 2017. 
  14. ^ Rites of Burial p. 247
  15. ^ "House of Horrors Shocks Residents". July 31, 1988. Retrieved June 12, 2017. 
  16. ^ "House of Horrors Shocks Residents". July 31, 1988. Retrieved June 12, 2017. 
  17. ^ "House of Horrors Shocks Residents". July 31, 1988. Retrieved June 12, 2017. 
  18. ^ "Kansas City Sicko Kept Detailed Diary, Photos of Sex Torture, Bondage and Murder". 23 July 2016. Retrieved 19 May 2017. 
  19. ^ "Kansas City Sicko Kept Detailed Diary, Photos of Sex Torture, Bondage and Murder". 23 July 2016. Retrieved 19 May 2017. 
  20. ^ Rites of Burial p. 258
  21. ^ Rites of Burial p. 258
  22. ^ Rites of Burial pp. 259-261
  23. ^ "Bob Berdella: KC True Crime". The Kansas City Star. July 10, 2017. Retrieved June 14, 2017. 
  24. ^ Rites of Burial p. 311
  25. ^ Rites of Burial p. 266
  26. ^ Rites of Burial p. 268
  27. ^ Rites of Burial p. 271
  28. ^ Rites of Burial p. 278
  29. ^ Rites of Burial p. 281
  30. ^ Rites of Burial p. 285-286
  31. ^ "Rites of Burial" p. 288
  32. ^ "Rites of Burial" p. 289
  33. ^ "Rites of Burial" p. 300
  34. ^ "Rites of Burial" p. 302
  35. ^ Rites of Burial p. 307
  36. ^ Rites of Burial p. 309
  37. ^ Rites of Burial p. 311
  38. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Jackman, Tom; Cole, Troy (1992). Rites of Burial. New York: Pinnacle Books. ISBN 978-1-55817-611-9. LCCN 93-124893. OCLC 25994503. OL 1465540M. 
  39. ^ Rites of Burial p. 15
  40. ^ Rites of Burial p. 16
  41. ^ Rites of Burial p. 17
  42. ^ Rites of Burial p. 17
  43. ^ Rites of Burial p. 20
  44. ^ Rites of Burial p. 26
  45. ^ The Encyclopedia of Kidnappings ISBN 978-1-43812-988-4 p. 25
  46. ^ "Missourian Admits Murders of Five Men". The New York Times. December 20, 1988. Retrieved June 12, 2017. 
  47. ^ Rites of Burial p. 44
  48. ^ "Kansas City Sicko Kept Detailed Diary, Photos of Sex Torture, Bondage and Murder". 23 July 2016. Retrieved 19 May 2017. 
  49. ^ Rites of Burial p. 36
  50. ^ The Encyclopedia of Kidnappings ISBN 978-1-43812-988-4 p. 25
  51. ^ Rites of Burial p. 37
  52. ^ Rites of Burial p. 41
  53. ^ "House of Horrors Shocks Residents". July 31, 1988. Retrieved June 12, 2017. 
  54. ^ The Encyclopedia of Kidnappings ISBN 978-1-43812-988-4 p. 25
  55. ^ Rites of Burial p. 270
  56. ^ Ramsland, Katherine. "The Kansas City Butcher: The Confession". truTV Crime Library. Archived from the original on October 6, 2012. 
  57. ^ Rites of Burial p. 289
  58. ^ "Kansas City Sicko Kept Detailed Diary, Photos of Sex Torture, Bondage and Murder". Daily News. July 23, 2016. Retrieved June 15, 2017. 
  59. ^ "Man Convicted of Murder After a Head Was Found in Garden". L A Times. December 18, 1998. Retrieved 21 May 2017. 
  60. ^ Rights of Burial p. 300
  61. ^ The Encyclopedia of Kidnappings ISBN 978-1-43812-988-4 p. 25
  62. ^ "Man Convicted of Murder after a Head was Discovered in His Yard". Orlando Sentinel. December 18, 1988. Retrieved June 17, 2017. 
  63. ^ "Missourian Admits Murders of Five Men". The New York Times. December 20, 1988. Retrieved June 12, 2017. 
  64. ^ The Encyclopedia of Kidnappings p. 25
  65. ^ "Missourian Admits Murders of Five Men". The New York Times. December 20, 1988. Retrieved May 25, 2017. 
  66. ^ "Man Convicted of Murder after a Head was Discovered in His Yard". Orlando Sentinel. December 18, 1988. Retrieved June 17, 2017. 
  67. ^ "Missourian Admits Murders of Five Men". The New York Times. December 20, 1988. Retrieved May 25, 2017. 
  68. ^ "Bob Berdella: KC True Crime". The Kansas City Star. July 10, 2017. Retrieved June 14, 2017. 
  69. ^ Logan, Casey (September 9, 2004). "The Lighter Side of Torture". The Pitch. Kansas City, Missouri. Archived from the original on January 7, 2016. Meade cuts to commentary by the Rev. Roger Coleman, who spent an agonizing time counseling a suicidal Berdella during the killer’s initial incarceration. Four years later, a panicked Berdella called Coleman and said prison officials were withholding his heart medication. Shortly thereafter, Berdella died of a heart attack. 
  70. ^ "Kansas City Sicko Kept Detailed Diary, Photos of Sex Torture, Bondage and Murder". 23 July 2016. Retrieved 19 May 2017. 
  71. ^ Rites of Burial p. 80
  72. ^ "Man Guilty in House of Horrors Case". Chicago Tribune. August 5, 1988. Retrieved May 20, 2017. 
  73. ^ Scherstuhl, Alan (24 September 2009). "Berdella: The Movie is torture to sit through". thepitch.com. The Pitch. Retrieved 18 March 2017. 
  74. ^ Gore, Chris (8 November 2005). "Bazaar Bizarre". filmthreat.com. Film Threat. Retrieved 18 March 2017. 
  75. ^ "Crime Documentary: Bazaar Bizarre". crimedocumentary.com. 2014-07-15. Retrieved 2017-06-05. 

Cited works and further reading[edit]

  • Jackman, Tom; Cole, Troy (1995) [1992]. Rites of Burial. London: Pinnacle Books. ISBN 0-86369-996-0. 
  • Krajicek, David (2011). True Crime: Missouri: The State's Most Notorious Criminal Cases. Pennsylvania: Stackpole Books. ISBN 978-0-811-70708-4. 
  • Lane, Brian; Gregg, Wilfred (1995) [1992]. The Encyclopedia Of Serial Killers. New York City: Berkley Books. pp. 46–47. ISBN 0-425-15213-8. 
  • Newton, Michael (2002). The Encyclopedia of Kidnappings. Florida: Checkmark Books. ISBN 978-0-81604-487-0. 
  • Ramsland, Katherine M. (2006). Inside the Minds of Serial Killers: Why They Kill. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger. ISBN 0-275-99099-0. 
  • Ressler, Robert (1993). Whoever Fights Monsters. Sydney: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-671-71561-5. 
  • Rosewood, Jack (2015). Robert Berdella: The True Story of the Kansas City Butcher. London: CreateSpace. ISBN 978-1-517-25635-7. 
  • Whittington-Egan, Richard; Whittington-Egan, Molly (1992). The Murder Almanac. Glasgow: Neil Wilson Publishing. p. 13. ISBN 1-897784-04-X. 

External links[edit]