Cardinals created by Pius XII

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Pope Pius XII (1876-1958).

Pope Pius XII (r. 1939–1958) created 56 cardinals in two consistories.

18 February 1946[edit]

José María Caro (1866–1958)
Bernard Griffin (1899–1956)
James Charles McGuigan (1894–1974)
Adam Stefan Sapieha (1867–1951)

On 23 December 1945, Pope Pius XII announced he would create 32 cardinals at a consistory on 18 February 1946. The new cardinals came from 19 countries, with the number in the College of Cardinals from the Western Hemisphere growing from three to fourteen. Countries with their first cardinal included Australia, Chile, China, and Cuba. It was "probably" the largest group of cardinals created at one time, exceeding the earlier record of 27 named by Pope Pius VII in 1801.[1] With this consistory, Italians became a minority in the College of Cardinals, holding 28 of the anticipated 70 places.[2] The size of the College had not been as high as 70–the maximum established on 3 December 1586 by Pope Sixtus V–since the eighteenth century.[3] Pius said: "we have been anxious that the greatest number of races and peoples should be represented, so that this creation may portray in a living manner the universality of the church."[3] As a symbolic recognition of the end of World War II, two of the new cardinals, Bernard Griffin from Great Britain and Konrad von Preysing of Germany embraced when they met on 12 February in the Vatican.[4] The membership of the College did not reach 70 with this consistory as planned because Cardinal Pietro Boetto died on 31 January at the age of 74.[5]

The large number of new cardinals required moving the ceremony where the pope meets with the new cardinals from the papal apartments to the Hall of Benedictions, and for the public ceremony the papal throne was repositioned from the apse of St. Peter's Basilica to the steps of the Altar of Confession to allow for a larger crowd of spectators.[6] Three of the new cardinals were unable to attend the ceremonies on 18 February: Johannes de Jong and Jules-Géraud Saliège were unable to travel to Rome because of illness, and József Mindszenty was having problems obtaining a visa to travel from Hungary.[7] Mindszenty arrived for public ceremony on 21 February, but José María Caro and Manuel Arteaga y Betancourt were suffering from influenza.[8] The next day, when the new cardinals received their rings, Juan Guevara was sick as well.[9] Arteaga and Guevara received their insignia in a private ceremony with Pius on 28 February.[10] Anticipating he would never be healthy enough to travel to Rome, de Jong received his biretta in Utrecht on 28 February as well.[10] Finally, Caro and Saliège received their insignia from Pius on 17 May.[11] By then the number of cardinals had fallen to 68 with the death of one of the new cardinals, John J. Glennon, on 9 March.[12]

  1. Grégoire-Pierre Agagianian (1895–1971)
  2. John J. Glennon (1862–1946)
  3. Benedetto Aloisi Masella (1879–1970)
  4. Clemente Micara (1879–1965)
  5. Adam Stefan Sapieha (1867–1951)
  6. Edward Mooney (1882–1958)
  7. Jules-Géraud Saliège (1870–1956)
  8. James Charles McGuigan (1894–1974)
  9. Samuel Stritch (1887–1958)
  10. Agustín Parrado y García (1872–1946)
  11. Clément-Emile Roques (1880–1964)
  12. Johannes de Jong (1885–1955)
  13. Carlos Carmelo Vasconcellos Motta (1890–1982)
  14. Pierre Petit de Julleville (1876–1947)
  15. Norman Thomas Gilroy (1896–1977)
  16. Francis Spellman (1889–1967)
  17. José María Caro (1866–1958)
  18. Teódosio de Gouveia (1889–1962)
  19. Jaime de Barros Câmara (1894–1971)
  20. Enrique Pla y Deniel (1876–1968)
  21. Manuel Arteaga y Betancourt (1879–1963)
  22. Josef Frings (1887–1978)
  23. Juan Guevara (1882–1954)
  24. Bernard Griffin (1899–1956)
  25. Manuel Arce y Ochotorena (1879–1948)
  26. József Mindszenty (1892–1975)
  27. Ernesto Ruffini (1888–1967)
  28. Konrad von Preysing (1880–1950)
  29. Clemens August Graf von Galen (1878–1946)
  30. Antonio Caggiano (1889–1979)
  31. Thomas Tien Ken-sin (1890–1967)
  32. Giuseppe Bruno (1875–1954)

12 January 1953[edit]

Stefan Wyszyński (1901–1981)

On 29 November 1952 Pope Pius XII announced he would create 24 new cardinals in a consistory on 12 January 1953. Eleven of them were Italian and the membership of the college would reach the maximum of 70, with 27 Italians. Two were thought to be virtual prisoners in their countries, Aloysius Stepinac in Yugoslavia and Stefan Wyszyński in Poland. Those from Ecuador and Colombia were those countries' first cardinals.[13] Stepinac and Wyszyński chose not to travel to Rome, fearing they would not be allowed to reenter their countries.[14]

One of those Pius named, Carlo Agostini, died on 28 December at the age of 64.[15] The next day, the Vatican announced Valerian Gracias would be made a cardinal, the first from India, allowing the College to reach its maximum membership of 70, with 26 of them Italian.[16]

Reviving a custom that had been interrupted, Pius announced that he was granting the request of Catholic heads of state in four countries to serve as the his legate in delivering the cardinal's biretta to six of them, either residential bishops in or papal nuncios to their country: Generalissimo Francisco Franco of Spain for Gaetano Cicognani, Benjamín de Arriba y Castro, and Fernando Quiroga y Palacios; the socialist President of France Vincent Auriol for Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli;[17] the President of Portugal for Pietro Ciriaci; and President Luigi Einaudi of Italy for Francesco Borgongini Duca.[14][18][19] At the consistory Pius sharply criticized Yugoslavia and in milder language Poland and said the honor he was showing to two of their citizens was meant to honor their countries as well.[20][21]

  1. Celso Benigno Luigi Costantini (1876–1958)
  2. Augusto da Silva (1876–1968)
  3. Gaetano Cicognani (1881–1962)
  4. Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli (1881–1963) (Pope John XXIII; 1958–1963)
  5. Valerio Valeri (1883–1963)
  6. Pietro Ciriaci (1885–1966)
  7. Francesco Borgongini Duca (1884–1954)
  8. Maurice Feltin (1883–1975)
  9. Marcello Mimmi (1882–1961)
  10. Carlos María de la Torre (1873–1968)
  11. Aloysius Stepinac (1898–1960)
  12. Georges-François-Xavier-Marie Grente (1872–1959)
  13. Giuseppe Siri (1906–1989)
  14. John D'Alton (1882–1963)
  15. James McIntyre (1886–1979)
  16. Giacomo Lercaro (1891–1976)
  17. Stefan Wyszyński (1901–1981)
  18. Benjamín de Arriba y Castro (1886–1973)
  19. Fernando Quiroga y Palacios (1900–1971)
  20. Paul-Émile Léger (1904–1991)
  21. Crisanto Luque Sánchez (1889–1959)
  22. Joseph Wendel (1901–1960)
  23. Alfredo Ottaviani (1890–1979)
  24. Valerian Gracias (1900–1978)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Warren, Virginia Lee (24 December 1945). "Spellman Chosen to be a Cardinal; 31 Others Named". New York Times. Retrieved 6 September 2017. 
  2. ^ Warren, Virginia Lee (30 December 1945). "Choice of U.S. Pope Discussed in Rome". New York Times. Retrieved 6 September 2017. 
  3. ^ a b Pope Pius XII (25 December 1945). "Test of Pope Pius' Address Outlining the Fundamentals for Effectuating Peace on Earth". New York Times. Retrieved 6 September 2017. 
  4. ^ Brewer, Sam Pope (14 February 1946). "Briton and German in Vatican Reunion". New York Times. Retrieved 6 September 2017. 
  5. ^ "Cardinal Boetto, Foe of Nazis, Dies". New York Times. 1 February 1946. Retrieved 6 September 2017. 
  6. ^ Brewer, Sam Pope (18 February 1946). "Pope to Name 32 Prelates to the Cardinalate Today". New York Times. Retrieved 6 September 2017. 
  7. ^ Brewer, Sam Pope (19 February 1946). "32 New Cardinals Notified of Titles in Vatican Rites". New York Times. Retrieved 6 September 2017. 
  8. ^ Matthews, Herbert L. (22 February 1946). "Thousands Fill S. Peter's as Cardinals Get Red Hat". New York Times. Retrieved 6 September 2017. 
  9. ^ Matthews, Herbert L. (23 February 1946). "Pius Gives Rings to New Cardinals". New York Times. Retrieved 6 September 2017. 
  10. ^ a b Brewer, Sam Pope (1 March 1946). "Pope to Receive Spellman Today". New York Times. Retrieved 6 September 2017. 
  11. ^ "2 Cardinals Get Hats in Private Consistory". New York Times. 18 May 1946. Retrieved 6 September 2017. 
  12. ^ "Glennon Mourned by Church Leaders". New York Times. 10 March 1946. Retrieved 6 September 2017. 
  13. ^ Cortesi, Arnaldo (30 November 1952). "24 New Cardinals Named by Vatican; American Included". New York Times. Retrieved 6 September 2017. 
  14. ^ a b Cortesi, Arnaldo (10 January 1953). "M'Intyre in Roem for Cardinal Rite". New York Times. Retrieved 6 September 2017. 
  15. ^ "Msgr. Agostini, 64, Succumbs in Italy". New York Times. 28 December 1952. Retrieved 6 September 2017. 
  16. ^ "Prelate in India to be a Cardinal". New York Times. 30 December 1952. Retrieved 6 September 2017. 
  17. ^ Pham, John-Peter (2004). Heirs of the Fisherman: Behind the Scenes of Papal Death and Succession. Oxford University Press. p. 69. Retrieved 17 September 2017. 
  18. ^ "Heads of 4 States to Vest Cardinals". New York Times. 13 December 1952. Retrieved 6 September 2017. 
  19. ^ Cortesi, Arnaldo (12 January 1953). "Pope to Elevate Cardinals Today". New York Times. Retrieved 6 September 2017. 
  20. ^ Cortesi, Arnaldo (13 January 1953). "24 Cardinals Invested by Pope Pius in Majestic Ceremonies at Vatican". New York Times. Retrieved 6 September 2017. 
  21. ^ "Cardinals Vested by Pope in Ritual". New York Times. 15 January 1953. Retrieved 6 September 2017.