Centipede (video game)
Promotional flyer, showcasing the arcade cabinets used for the title
Superior Software (BBC)
|Platform(s)||Arcade, Apple II, Atari 2600, Atari 5200, Atari 7800, Atari 8-bit, BBC Micro, ColecoVision, C64, IBM PC, Intellivision, TI-99/4A, VIC-20|
|Mode(s)||Up to 2 players, alternating turns|
|CPU||1 × 6502 @ 1.512 MHz|
|Sound||1 × POKEY @ 1.512 MHz|
|Display||Raster, 240×256, vertical orientation, palette colors 16|
Centipede is a vertically oriented fixed shooter arcade game produced by Atari, Inc. in June 1981. The game was designed by Ed Logg and Dona Bailey. It was one of the most commercially successful games from the video arcade's golden age. The player fights off centipedes, spiders, scorpions and fleas, completing a round after eliminating the centipede that winds down the playing field.
Centipede was ported to Atari's own Atari 2600, Atari 5200, Atari 7800, and Atari 8-bit family. Under the Atarisoft label, the game was sold for the Apple II, Commodore 64, ColecoVision, VIC-20, IBM PC (as a PC booter), Intellivision, and TI-99/4A. Superior Software published the port for the BBC Micro.
The player is represented by a small, "somewhat humanoid head" at the bottom of the screen, later depicted as a caped, elf-like character on the Atari 2600, Atari 5200 and Atari 7800 cartridge graphics (though described as being a garden gnome in the trivia section of the cell phone interpretation). The player moves the character about the bottom area of the screen with a trackball and fires laser shots at a centipede advancing from the top of the screen down through a field of mushrooms. Shooting any section of the centipede creates a mushroom; shooting one of the middle segments splits the centipede into two pieces at that point. Each piece then continues independently on its way down the board, with the first section of the rear piece becoming a new head. If the head is destroyed, the section behind it becomes the next head.
The centipede starts at the top of the screen, traveling either left or right. When it hits a mushroom or the edge of the screen, it drops one level and switches direction. Thus, more mushrooms on the screen cause the centipede to descend more rapidly. The player can destroy mushrooms by shooting them, but each takes four hits to destroy.
If the centipede reaches the bottom of the screen, it moves back and forth within the player area and one-segment "head" centipedes are periodically added. This continues until the player has eliminated both the original centipede and all heads. When all the centipede's segments are destroyed, a new centipede forms at the top of the screen. Every time a centipede is eliminated, however, the next one is one segment shorter and is accompanied by one additional, fast-moving "head" centipede.
The player is also menaced by other creatures besides the centipedes. Fleas drop vertically, leaving additional mushrooms in their path; they appear when fewer than five mushrooms are in the player movement area, though the number required increases with level of difficulty. Spiders move across the player area in a zig-zag fashion and occasionally eat some of the mushrooms. Scorpions move horizontally across the screen and poison every mushroom they touch, but these never appear in the player movement region. A centipede touching a poisoned mushroom hurtles straight down toward the player area, then returns to normal behavior upon reaching it.
A player loses a life when hit by a centipede or another enemy, such as a spider or a flea, after which any poisoned or partially damaged mushrooms revert to normal. Points are awarded for each regenerated mushroom. A game ends if all lives are gone.
- Mushrooms: 1 (destroyed) or 5 points (regenerating upon losing life).
- Centipede: 10 (body) or 100 points (head).
- Fleas: 200 points.
- Spiders: 300, 600, or 900 points, depending how close the player shoots it.
- Scorpions: 1,000 points.
Players earn extra lives per 10,000, 12,000, 15,000, or 20,000 points scored. May have up to 6 lives. 999,999 points is the maximum high score.
Ed Logg and Dona Bailey developed Centipede for Atari. Logg, a supervisor, said that he did the design, while Bailey did about half of the programming. Bailey was one of the few female game programmers in the industry. Logg stated that the game was intended to attract women players; he believed that its design was not biased by gender, unlike a fighting or sports game. Bailey said "I really like pastels ... I really wanted it to look different, to be visually arresting". They succeeded; Centipede was one of the first arcade coin-operated games to have a significant female player base. How to Win Video Games (1982) estimated that half of its players and 60% of Pac-Man's were women, while 95% of Defender players were men.
In 1983 Softline readers named Centipede ninth on the magazine's Top Thirty list of Atari 8-bit programs by popularity. The game received the award for "1984 Best Computer Action Game" at the 5th annual Arkie Awards where the judges described it as "pack[ing] a real roundhouse punch", and suggested that some "insist that [the Centipede] Atari cartridge is the best home-arcade edition you can buy".:28 David H. Ahl of Creative Computing Video & Arcade Games said that the Atari 5200 version was "delightful fun".
In a 1984 Video review of the Apple II version of the game, Bill Kunkel and Arnie Katz commented that "the graphic limits of the Apple crimp the style," and expressed disappointment in the game's "sluggish" interfacing with trackball controllers.
In 1996, Next Generation listed the arcade version as number 84 on their "Top 100 Games of All Time", praising the cool concept, trackball control, and that it is accessible enough that "any human on the planet can play it well enough to enjoy it" yet "hard enough that even excellent gamers find it challenging."
- The game was included in the Sega Genesis Arcade Classics release, including this game as one in three. There was also a Game Gear game under the same title, and a similar Master System compilation titled Arcade Smash Hits.
- The game was released for Microsoft Windows 3.x as part of the Microsoft Arcade package in 1993.
- Accolade released a version for the Game Boy in 1995, as part of their Arcade Classics series.
- The game was included in the Midway Games published Arcade's Greatest Hits: The Atari Collection 1 for the Sega Saturn, Super Nintendo Entertainment System, and the PlayStation.
- The arcade original was included in the PlayStation and Dreamcast versions of the Centipede 3D remake, replacing the arcade mode from the PC and Macintosh versions.
- It is also included in Atari Arcade Hits 1, Atari Greatest Hits, Atari Anniversary Edition and Atari: 80 Classic Games in One!.
- The game has also been made available for the Xbox and PlayStation 2 (in both arcade and Atari 2600 versions) as part of Atari Anthology in 2004.
- The Xbox Live Arcade and PlayStation Portable's Atari Arcade Classics version was bundled with the sequel Millipede, which included an "evolution mode", featuring high-definition graphics and special effects like motion blur, trails, and particle-based explosions.
- 'The game was released via Xbox Live Arcade for the Xbox 360 on May 2, 2007.
- Glu Mobile released a licensed cellular phone version of Centipede that includes the original game as well as updated gameplay, skins, and modes.
- In 2008, Atari released the game via Apple's App Store for the iPhone and iPod Touch.
- The game was also made available on Retro Atari Classics for the DS alongside a graffiti themed version, as well as Atari Greatest Hits Volume 1 for the same system with both the Arcade and 2600 versions playable.
- Both the arcade and 2600 versions were released again in 2016 as part of Atari Vault.
Sequels and remakes
Centipede was followed by Millipede in 1982, a somewhat less successful arcade game. In 1992, Atari Games developed a prototype of an arcade game called Arcade Classics for their 20th anniversary, which includes Missile Command 2 and Super Centipede with co-op 2-player mode.
A 3D fantasy role-playing game based on the original game was being developed by Dark Science and planned to be published for the Atari Jaguar CD under the working title Centipede 2000 as part of a series of arcade game updates for the systems by Atari Corporation, but work on the project was stopped by Atari Corp. six months later due to marketing executives at the company deciding that remaking classic Atari titles was not in their interest before they discontinued the Jaguar and merged with JT Storage in 1996, while the source code of the project no longer exists, with the only remaining proof of its existence being a short video clip of the in-game engine created for it that was provided by the developer.
In 1998, Hasbro-owned Atari Interactive released a new version of the game for the PC, PlayStation, and Dreamcast. This version looks and plays very differently from the original game, with free movement around the map, 3D graphics, and a campaign which can be played in single-player or multiplayer mode. The original version of Centipede is available in this version, with slightly updated graphics. The computer version of Centipede's 1998 remake sold 176,713 units and earned $2.22 million from January through October 2000 in North America, according to PC Data.
In 2011, Centipede: Infestation was released for the Nintendo 3DS and Wii. This was a more story-driven remake that was set in a post-apocalyptic world and is played from a top-down perspective. It also makes use of motion controls, such as using the Wii Remote pointer to determine which direction to shoot, or the 3DS touchscreen to quickly change weapons. Players can also grow plants that can assist them in battle.
The Centipede concept was widely cloned, especially for home systems.
- War of the Bugs or Monsterous Manouvers in a Mushroom Maze, by Food and Fun Corp./Armenia Ltd in 1981
- Jackler, by Konami in 1982
- Slither, by GDI in 1982 and ported to ColecoVision
Home system clones
- Bug Attack, for the Apple II in 1981 by Cavalier Computer
- Arachnoid, for the VIC-20 in 1982 by UMI
- Arthropod, for the TI-99/4A in 1983 by North Hills
- Aqua Attack, for the BBC Micro as part of the Welcome disk/tape with the BBC Master
- Bug Blaster, for Commodore 64, BBC Micro, and Acorn Electron in 1983 by Alligata
- Bug Off!, for the Atari 8-bit family in 1982 by Adventure International
- Caterpillar, by Aardvark Software for the TRS-80 Color Computer
- Centi-Bug, for the ZX Spectrum in 1983 by DK'Tronics (titled Centipede on screen)
- Exterminator, by Nüfekop Software and Bubble Bus Software in 1982 for the VIC-20 and the C64
- Katerpillar Attack (Katerpillar, Kater-Pillar, or Katerpillar II) Tom Mix Software TRS-80 Color Computer, Dragon 32
- Maggotmania, in 1983 for the Commodore 64 by Commodore
- Megalegs, 1982 for the Atari 8-bit family by Megasoft
- Megapede, for the ZX Spectrum in 1983 by Computerware
- "Mouse Stampede" for the Apple Macintosh, by Mark of the Unicorn
- Myriapede, for the Atari 8-bit family in 1983
- Mushroom Alley, for the Commodore 64 in 1983 by Victory Software
- Spectipede, for the ZX Spectrum in 1983 by R&R Software
- Video Vermin, for the VIC-20 in 1982 by UMI
- Wiggle Worm, for the TRS-80 Color Computer in 1984 by Chromasette
- Decipede, a type-in version for the Commodore 64 published by COMPUTE!'s Gazette in January 1987
- Apeiron, for Mac OS in 1995 by Ambrosia Software
- Champ Centiped-em, for MS-DOS in 1997 by CHAMProgramming
In 1983, Milton Bradley released a board game based on the video game. The board game pits two players against each other in a race to be the first person to the opponent's home base with a centipede. Each player can utilize a blaster, as well as a scorpion and spider, to slow the opposing centipede's advance.
In March 2017, IDW Publishing announced that a new board game based on Centipede was in development. The game will be co-developed by Jon Gilmour and Cardboard Fortress Games, and is scheduled to be released in Fall 2017.
The game was chosen for the final round of the 1981 Atari World Championships run by Tournament Games International. The men's champion was Eric Ginner and the women's champion was Ok-Soo Han.
The world record score on the arcade version of Centipede was 16,389,547 points by Jim Schneider of the USA on August 1, 1984.
In other media
In 1989, a deadpan narration describing the original game appeared on side 2 of Negativland's third cassette release, The Weatherman (SSTC902), which consisted of clips from the live Over the Edge radio show sometime between 1982 and 1984. The narrator may be Ed Logg.
Centipede was featured on the first episode of Halt and Catch Fire when Cameron Howe plays at a dive bar.
In May 2016, It was announced that Emmett/Furla/Oasis Films has closed a deal to partner with Atari to produce and finance both Centipede and Missile Command.
In the Samurai Jack episode 'Jack is naked', the underground city is serviced by a network of centipede trains which are revealed in a runaway train sequence to be controlled by a trackball.
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