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Granola is a breakfast food and snack food consisting of rolled oats, nuts, honey, and sometimes puffed rice, that is usually baked until crisp. During the baking process the mixture is stirred to maintain a loose, breakfast cereal-type consistency. Dried fruits, such as raisins and dates, and confections such as chocolate are sometimes added.
Besides serving as food for breakfast and/or snacks, granola is also often eaten for an evening meal and by those who are hiking, camping, or backpacking because it is nutritious, lightweight, high in calories, and easy to store; these properties make it similar to trail mix and muesli. It is often combined into a bar form. Granola is often eaten in combination with yogurt, honey, fruit (such as bananas, strawberries, and/or blueberries), milk, and/or other forms of cereal. It can also serve as a topping for various types of pastries and/or desserts. Granola, particularly recipes that include flax seeds, is often used to improve digestion.
The names Granula and Granola were registered trademarks in the late 19th century United States for foods consisting of whole grain products crumbled and then baked until crisp; in contrast with the sort of contemporary (about 1900) invention, muesli, which is traditionally not baked nor sweetened. The name is now a trademark only in Australia and New Zealand, but is still more commonly referred to as muesli there. The trademark is owned by the Australian Health & Nutrition Association Ltd.'s Sanitarium Health Food Company in Australia and Australasian Conference Association Limited in New Zealand.
Granula was invented in Dansville, New York, by Dr. James Caleb Jackson at the Jackson Sanitarium in 1863. The Jackson Sanitarium was a prominent health spa that operated into the early 20th century on the hillside overlooking Dansville. It was also known as Our Home on the Hillside; thus the company formed to sell Jackson's cereal was known as the Our Home Granula Company. Granula was composed of Graham flour and was similar to an oversized form of Grape-Nuts.
A similar cereal was developed by John Harvey Kellogg. It too was initially known as Granula, but the name was changed to Granola to avoid legal problems with Jackson.
The food and name were revived in the 1960s, and fruits and nuts were added to it to make it a health food that was popular with the hippie movement. At the time, several people claim to have revived or re-invented granola. A major promoter was Layton Gentry, profiled in Time as "Johnny Granola-Seed". In 1964, Gentry sold the rights to a granola recipe using oats, which he claimed to have invented himself, to Sovex Natural Foods for $3,000. The company was founded in 1953 in Holly, Michigan by the Hurlinger family with the main purpose of producing a concentrated paste of brewers yeast and soy sauce known as "Sovex". Earlier in 1964, it had been bought by John Goodbrad and moved to Collegedale, Tennessee. In 1967, Gentry bought back the rights for west of the Rockies for $1,500 and then sold the west coast rights to Wayne Schlotthauer of Lassen Foods in Chico, California, for $18,000. Lassen was founded from a health food bakery run by Schlotthauer's father-in-law. The Hurlingers, Goodbrads, and Schlotthauers were all Adventists, and it is possible that Gentry was a lapsed Adventist who was familiar with the earlier granola.
In 1972, an executive at Pet Milk (later Pet Incorporated) of St. Louis, Missouri, introduced Heartland Natural Cereal, the first major commercial granola. At almost the same time, Quaker introduced Quaker 100% Natural Granola. Within a year, Kellogg's had introduced its "Country Morning" granola cereal and General Mills had introduced its "Nature Valley".
In 1974, McKee Baking (later McKee Foods), makers of Little Debbie snack cakes, purchased Sovex. In 1998, the company also acquired the Heartland brand and moved its manufacturing to Collegedale. In 2004, Sovex's name was changed to "Blue Planet Foods".
"Granola bars" have become popular as a snack, similar to the traditional flapjack (oat bar) or muesli bar familiar in the Commonwealth countries. Granola bars consist of granola pressed and baked into a bar shape, resulting in the production of a more convenient snack. The product is most popular in the United States and Canada, Australia and New Zealand, parts of southern Europe, Brazil, Israel, South Africa and Japan. Recently, granola has begun to expand its market into India and other southeast Asian countries.
- Granula, breakfast cereal of baked graham flour
- Muesli, breakfast meal based on uncooked rolled oats, fruit and nuts
- Registration 20067
- "IP Australia Trademark#32227". Retrieved 27 May 2012.
- Time 1972
- Klein 1978
- Bruce 1995 p. 244
- Blue Planet Foods, Inc. history, retrieved 2006-12-16
- Mixson, Jm (Mar 2002), "Heartland History", Journal of the history of dentistry 50 (1): 35–9, ISSN 1089-6287, PMID 11944502, archived from the original on October 31, 2006, retrieved 2006-12-16[dead link]
- McKee Foods Company History, retrieved 2006-12-16
- Klein, Joe (February 23, 1978), "A Social History of Granola", Rolling Stone (259): 40–44
- Bruce, Scott; Crawford, Bill (1995), Cerealizing America : The Unsweetened Story of American Breakfast Cereal, pp. 8, 21, 243–246