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Granola is a breakfast food and snack food consisting of rolled oats, nuts, honey or other sweeteners such as brown sugar, and sometimes puffed rice, that is usually baked until it is crisp, toasted and golden brown. During the baking process, the mixture is stirred to maintain a loose breakfast cereal consistency. Dried fruit, such as raisins and dates, and confections such as chocolate are sometimes added. Granola is often eaten in combination with yogurt, honey, fresh fruit (such as bananas, strawberries or blueberries), milk or other forms of cereal. It also serves as a topping for various pastries, desserts or ice cream.
The names Granula and Granola were registered trademarks in the late 19th century United States for foods consisting of whole grain products crumbled and then baked until crisp, in contrast to the, at that time (about 1900), contemporary invention, muesli, which is traditionally neither baked nor sweetened. The name is now a trademark only in Australia and New Zealand, but is still more commonly referred to as muesli there.
Granula was invented in Dansville, New York by Dr. James Caleb Jackson at the Jackson Sanitarium in 1863. The Jackson Sanitarium was a prominent health spa that operated into the early 20th century on the hillside overlooking Dansville. It was also known as Our Home on the Hillside; thus the company formed to sell Jackson's cereal was known as the Our Home Granula Company. Granula was composed of Graham flour and was similar to an oversized form of Grape-Nuts. A similar cereal was developed by John Harvey Kellogg. It too was initially known as Granula, but the name was changed to Granola to avoid legal problems with Jackson.
The food and name were revived in the 1960s, and fruits and nuts were added to it to make it a health food that was popular with the health and nature-oriented hippie movement. At the time, several people claim to have revived or re-invented granola. During Woodstock, a soon-to-be hippie icon known as Wavy Gravy, popularized granola as a means of feeding large numbers of people during the festival. Another major promoter was Layton Gentry, profiled in Time as "Johnny Granola-Seed". In 1964, Gentry sold the rights to a granola recipe using oats, which he claimed to have invented himself, to Sovex Natural Foods for $3,000. The company was founded in 1953 in Holly, Michigan by the Hurlinger family with the main purpose of producing a concentrated paste of brewers yeast and soy sauce known as "Sovex". Earlier in 1964, it had been bought by John Goodbrad and moved to Collegedale, Tennessee. In 1967, Gentry bought back the rights for west of the Rockies for $1,500 and then sold the west coast rights to Wayne Schlotthauer of Lassen Foods in Chico, California, for $18,000. Lassen was founded from a health food bakery run by Schlotthauer's father-in-law. Canadian rights were ceded in 1972 to the Congregation Shalom Ba-olam, a charitable organization which produced "Layton Gentry's Original Crunchy Granola" as a fundraiser.
In 1972, an executive at Pet Milk (later Pet Incorporated) of St. Louis, Missouri, introduced Heartland Natural Cereal, the first major commercial granola. At almost the same time, the Quaker Oats Company introduced Quaker 100% Natural Granola. Quaker was threatened with legal action by Gentry, and they subsequently changed the name of their product to Harvest Crunch. Within a year, Kellogg's had introduced its "Country Morning" granola cereal and General Mills had introduced its "Nature Valley". In 1974, McKee Baking (later McKee Foods), makers of Little Debbie snack cakes, purchased Sovex. In 1998, the company also acquired the Heartland brand and moved its manufacturing to Collegedale. In 2004, Sovex's name was changed to "Blue Planet Foods".
Granola bars (or muesli bars) have become popular as a snack, similar to the traditional flapjack familiar in the Commonwealth countries. Granola bars consist of granola mixed with honey or other sweetened syrup, pressed and baked into a bar shape, resulting in the production of a more convenient snack. Granola bars are always individually packaged in a sealed pouch, even when a box of multiple bars is purchased. This enables people to place the packaged bar in a purse, backpack or other bag for consumption at a later point. The product is most popular in the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, parts of southern Europe, Brazil, Israel, South Africa, and Japan.
Jayne Hurley, a senior nutritionist who works for the Center for Science in the Public Interest, states that granola bars are "not health food" and "[t]hey're basically cookies masquerading as health food". Compared to a Kit Kat chocolate bar, per weight, a peanut butter Nature Valley granola bar contains similar amounts of calories and fat, and significantly more sodium but half the sugar.
Matzo granola is a breakfast food eaten by Jewish people during the holiday of Passover. It consists of broken up matzo pieces in place of oats. Many variations are possible by adding other ingredients.
- Granula, breakfast cereal of baked graham flour
- Muesli, breakfast dish based on uncooked rolled oats, fruit and nuts
- Registration 20067 The trademark is owned by the Australian Health & Nutrition Association Ltd.'s Sanitarium Health Food Company in Australia"IP Australia Trademark#32227". Retrieved 27 May 2012. and Australasian Conference Association Limited in New Zealand.
- "The Nibble: Granola Girl. Part 1, the History of Granola". Retrieved 6 April 2020.
- Time 1972
- Klein 1978
- pers. communication Fulton (legal council for Gentry, Salinas Calif. 1972
- Bruce 1995 p. 244
- "Blue Planet Foods, Inc. history". Archived from the original on 2007-02-03. Retrieved 2006-12-16.
- Mixson, Jm (Mar 2002). "Heartland History". Journal of the History of Dentistry. 50 (1): 35–9. ISSN 1089-6287. PMID 11944502. Archived from the original on October 31, 2006. Retrieved 2006-12-16.
- "McKee Foods Company History". Archived from the original on 2008-03-15. Retrieved 2006-12-16.
- Weeks, Carly (2018-04-30). "Granola bars: A healthy snack or dressed- up junk food?". The Globe & Mail. Retrieved 2020-05-09.
- Heilbrun, Michele Streit; Kirschner, David (7 March 2017). Matzo: 35 Recipes for Passover and All Year Long. p. 22. ISBN 9780804189002.
- Modern Jewish Cooking: Recipes & Customs for Today's Kitchen, Leah Koenig, page 24
- Recipe for Passover matzo granola, Boston Globe, 18 April 2016