|New Testament manuscript|
|Text||Gospel of Luke †|
|Found||Colin Macaulay, 1820|
|Now at||Cambridge University Library|
|Cite||Tregelles, Codex Zacynthius. Greek Palimpsest Fragments of the Gospel of Saint Luke, (1861)|
|Size||36 cm by 29 cm|
|Note||textually close to codex B|
Codex Zacynthius (designated by siglum Ξ or 040 in the Gregory-Aland numbering; A1 in von Soden) is a Greek New Testament codex, dated paleographically to the 6th century. First thought to have been written in the 8th century, it is a palimpsest—the original (lower) text was washed off its vellum pages and overwritten in the 12th or 13th century. The upper text of the palimpsest contains weekday Gospel lessons; the lower text contains portions of the Gospel of Luke, deciphered by biblical scholar and palaeographer Tregelles in 1861. The lower text is of most interest to scholars.
The manuscript came from Zakynthos, a Greek island, and has survived in a fragmentary condition. It was brought to England in 1821 and transferred to Cambridge University in 1985 which later purchased it after an appeal in 2014. It is often cited in critical editions of the Greek New Testament.
The lower text of the manuscript contains fragments of the chapters 1:1-11:33 of the Gospel of Luke. The codex comprises 86 thick, coarse parchment leaves and three partial leaves; it measures 36 x 29 cm. The text was written in a single column with well-formed uncial script. The letters are large, round and narrow, without spiritus asper, spiritus lenis, or accents. The manuscript was written by two scribes.
Abbreviations are rarely used in the codex. The handwriting is very close to that of the Rossano Gospels. The errors of itacism occur, but not so often as in Codex Sinaiticus and Codex Vaticanus. It uses grammatical forms typical of the ancient manuscripts (e.g. ειπαν, ηλθαν, ευραν), which are not used in later medieval manuscripts.
The codex uses a peculiar system of chapter divisions, which it shares with Codex Vaticanus and Minuscule 579. A more common system divides chapters according to their titles. The capital letters at the beginnings of sections stand out in the margin as in the Codices Alexandrinus and Ephraemi.
The text is surrounded by a marginal commentary; it is the only codex that has both text and commentary in uncial script. The commentary is a catena of quotations of nine church fathers: Origen, Eusebius, Titus of Bostra, Basil, Isidore of Pelusium, Cyril of Alexandria, Sever from Antioch, Victor from Antioch, and Chrysostom. The commentary surrounds the single-column text of Luke on three sides. Patristic text is written in small uncial letters. Most of the quotations are those of Ciril of Alexandria (93 scholia); next comes Titus of Bostra (45 scholia). The commentary was written in a different kind of uncial script than the biblical text.
The book contains the following chapters and verses of the Gospel of Luke: 1:1-9,19-23,27-28,30-32,36-60,77; 2:19,21-22,33-3; 3:5-8,11-20; 4:1-2,6-20,32-43; 5:17-36; 6:21; 7:6,11-37,39-47; 8:4-21,25-35,43-50; 9:1-28,32-33,35; 9:41; 10:18,21-40; 11:1-4,24-33.
Variations and omissions
- Luke 9:55b-56a — καὶ εἶπεν, Οὑκ οἴδατε οἵου πνεύματος ἑστε ὐμεῖς; ὀ γὰρ υἰὸς τοῦ ἁνθρώπου οὑκ ἦλθεν ψυχὰς ἁνθρώπων ἁπολέσαι ἁλλὰ σῶσαι (and He said: "You do not know what manner of spirit you are of; for the Son of man came not to destroy men's lives but to save them) is omitted, typical of Alexandrian text-type, as in codices Sinaiticus B C Θ L 33 700 892 1241 syr, and copbo.
- Luke 4:17 it has the textual variant καὶ ἀνοίξας τὸ βιβλίον (and opened the book) together with the manuscripts A, B, L, W, 33, 892, 1195, 1241, ℓ 547, syrs, h, pal, and copsa, bo, against variant καὶ ἀναπτύξας τὸ βιβλίον (and unrolled the book) supported by א, Dc, K, Δ, Θ, Π, Ψ, f1, f13, 28, 565, 700, 1009, and 1010.
- Luke 9:10 it has the textual variant εις πολιν καλουμενην Βηθσαιδα (to a city called Bethsaida), as do codices B, L, and 33; but later hand-written in the margin εις τοπον ερημον πολεως καλουμενην Βηδσαιδα (into a deserted place belonging to the city called Bethsaida).
The textual character of the codex is representative of the late Alexandrian text-type, and is similar to the Codex Regius. Kurt and Barbara Aland gave the following textual profile of it: 21, 82, 21/2, 3s. This means the text of the codex agrees with the Byzantine standard text 2 times, it agrees 8 times with the original text against the Byzantine and it agrees both with the Byzantine and original text 2 times. There are 3 independent or distinctive readings. On the basis of this profile the Alands considered the quality of the text to suit his Category III. According to the Claremont Profile Method, it represents the Alexandrian text in Luke 10 and mixed Byzantine text-type in Luke 1, which probably indicates sporadic Byzantine corrections.
The codex is a palimpsest, meaning that the original text was scraped off and overwritten and the parchment leaves folded in half. The upper text was written by a minuscule hand and contains lectionary 299 (ℓ 299) from the 12th or 13th century, though the lectionary text is not complete; it is written on 176 leaves (28.7 cm by 18.2 cm), in one column per page, 33-36 lines per page. Three folios are only the lower halves of leaves, one folio was supplied with paper (folio LXVIII). The manuscript contains weekday Gospel lessons (Evangelistarium), but is lacunose. Tregelles did not collate its text because of its secondary value. Scrivener designated it by siglum 200, Gregory by 299.
Lectionary 299 in Mark 6:33 has textual reading ἐκεῖ καὶ προῆλθον αὐτούς along with Codex Sinaiticus, Codex Vaticanus, 0187 (omit εκει), 892, ℓ 49, ℓ 69, ℓ 70, ℓ 303, ℓ 333, ℓ 1579, (ℓ 950 αυτους), itaur, vg, (copsa, bo).
The text of the lectionary is cited in some critical editions of the Greek New Testament (UBS3) in the following places: Matthew 10:4; 11:17; 12:47; 13:13; 14:22; 18:10; 22:30; 26:27; 28:9; Mark 1:27; 2:10.26; 4:16.20; 6:22.214.171.124. It is not cited in UBS4.
Tregelles dated the manuscript to the 8th century. Tregelles was aware that the handwriting is typical for the 6th century, but the handwriting of the commentary is much older. The letters ΕΘΟΣ are round, high, and narrow, and could not have been written before the 8th century. C. R. Gregory supported Tregelles's point of view. According to Nicholas Pocock, the manuscript could not have been written before the 6th century nor after the 8th century.
William Hatch in 1937, on the basis of palaeographical data, suggested that the codex should be dated to the 6th century. It does not use breathings and accents and the text of the commentary is written in uncial script. Aland supported Hatch's point of view.[n 1] This date is accepted by the majority of scholars.
David C. Parker in 2004 argued that manuscript was written later than the 6th century, because it has a small number of square letters, and the handwriting is not typical for the 6th century. Some letters were compressed (Μ, Δ, Ε), the bar over the letter Τ is short and the letter Υ is written in several ways. According to Parker the manuscript should be dated to the 7th century.
Discovery and further research
The early history of the manuscript is unknown. In 1821 it was brought by General Colin Macaulay to England from the Greek island Zakynthos in the Ionian Sea, after being presented to him by Prince Comuto (Antonios Dimitriou Komoutos, 1748-1833) a former President of the Septinsular Republic. Comuto inscribed the Codex to Macaulay as a token of his esteem. On his return to England Macaulay presented the Codex to British and Foreign Bible Society  which then placed it in its library (Mss 24) in London.
Scholz saw the manuscript in 1845, and Paul de Lagarde in 1853, but they did not decipher it. The subtext of the Palimpest was partly deciphered, transcribed, and edited by the Rev. Tregelles in 1861. Tregelles used types originally cast for printing the Codex Alexandrinus, which only approximately represented the shape of the letters of the codex. The hand-written letters are smaller than the later letters. Tregelles included one page of typographical facsimile in this edition. He did not decipher the small Patristic writing and doubted that it could be read without chemical restoration.
Nicholas Pocock found errors in Tregelles' edition, but William Hatch thought it satisfactory. J. Harold Greenlee corrected Tregelles' errors and edited the list of corrections in 1957, which was examined by William Hatch. In 1959 Greenlee published a commentary. The codex probably needs another examination with modern technology.
In 1985 it was loaned to the Cambridge University Library (BFBS Ms 213). In December 2013, the Bible Society announced plans to sell some manuscripts, among them the Codex Zacynthius, to raise funds for a Visitors Centre in Wales. The University was given right of first refusal and had until February 2014 to raise the money to acquire the codex.
The public appeal raised £1.1 million and the codex was purchased by the Cambridge University Library. A full spectrographic analysis was conducted and a definitive transcription of the Palimpest then published by Professor Hugh Houghton and Professor John Parker of the University of Birmingham.
- UBS3 from 1983 dated the manuscript to the 8th century (UBS3, p. XVI.), but in the second edition of Der Text des Neues Testaments (1989) Aland dated it to the 6th century. NA26 from 1991 dated it to the 6th century (NA26, p. 693.).
- Gregory, Caspar René (1908). Die griechischen Handschriften des Neuen Testament. Leipzig: J. C. Hinrichs'sche Buchhandlung. p. 36.
- Aland, Kurt; Aland, Barbara (1995). The Text of the New Testament: An Introduction to the Critical Editions and to the Theory and Practice of Modern Textual Criticism. Erroll F. Rhodes (trans.). Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. p. 118. ISBN 978-0-8028-4098-1.
- C. R. Gregory, "Canon and Text of the New Testament" (T & T Clark: Edinburgh 1907), p. 361
- R. Waltz, Codex Zacynthius Ξ (040) at the Encyclopedia of Textual Criticism
- Gregory, Caspar René (1900). Textkritik des Neuen Testaments,. 1. Leipzig: J.C. Hinrichs’sche Buchhandlung. p. 91.
- Parker, David C. (2009). Manuscripts, texts, theology: collected papers 1977-2007. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. p. 114. ISBN 978-3-11-021193-1. Archived from the original on 2010-12-19. Retrieved 2011-10-08.
- N. Pocock, The Codex Zacynthius, The Academy (London, 19 February 1881), s. 137a.
- William Hatch, A redating of two important uncial manuscripts of the Gospels - Codex Zacynthius and Codex Cyprius, in: Quantulacumque studies presented to Kirsopp Lake ([c1937]), p. 333.
- J. H. Greenlee, The Catena of Codex Zacynthius, Biblica 40 (1959), pp. 992-1001.
- J. Reuss, Bemerkungen zu den Lukas-Homilien des Titus von Bostra, Biblica 57 (1976), pp. 538-541.
- Lorenzo DiTommaso, Lucian Turcescu, The reception and interpretation of the Bible in late antiquity: proceedings of the Montréal colloquium in honour of Charles Kannengiesser, Brill 2008, p. 261.
- W. H. P. Hatch, A Redating of Two Important Uncial Manuscripts of the Gospels - Codex Zacynthius and Codex Cyprius, in Lake F/S, pp. 335.
- NA26, p. 190.
- Bruce M. Metzger, A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament (Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft: Stuttgart 2001), p. 114.
- NA26, p. 164.
- K. Aland, E. Nestle (1991). Novum Testamentum Graece (ed. 26). Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft. p. 185. ISBN 3-438-05100-1.
- Wisse, Frederik (1982). The profile method for the classification and evaluation of manuscript evidence, as Applied to the Continuous Greek Text of the Gospel of Luke. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. p. 52. ISBN 0-8028-1918-4.
- Bruce M. Metzger, Bart D. Ehrman, The Text of the New Testament: Its Transmission, Corruption, and Restoration, Oxford University Press, 2005, p. 83.
- INTF. "Codex Ξ/040 (GA)". Liste Handschriften. Münster. Retrieved January 23, 2016.
- Tregelles, S. P. (1861). Codex Zacynthius. Greek Palimpsest Fragments of the Gospel of Saint Luke. London. p. XII.
- "Liste Handschriften". Münster: Institute for New Testament Textual Research. Retrieved 16 March 2013.
- Gregory, Caspar René (1900). Textkritik des Neuen Testaments. 1. Leipzig: J.C. Hinrichs’sche Buchhandlung. p. 413.
- Tregelles, S. P. (1861). Codex Zacynthius. Greek Palimpsest Fragments of the Gospel of Saint Luke. London. p. XXIII.
- Scrivener, Frederick Henry Ambrose; Edward Miller (1894). A Plain Introduction to the Criticism of the New Testament. 1 (4th ed.). London: George Bell & Sons. p. 341.
- The Greek New Testament, ed. K. Aland, A. Black, C. M. Martini, B. M. Metzger, and A. Wikgren, in cooperation with INTF, United Bible Societies, 3rd edition, (Stuttgart 1983), p. 144.
- The Greek New Testament, ed. K. Aland, A. Black, C. M. Martini, B. M. Metzger, and A. Wikgren, in cooperation with INTF, United Bible Societies, 3rd edition, (Stuttgart 1983), p. XXVIII.
- Aland, K.; Black, M.; C. M. Martini, B. Metzger, A. Wikgren (1983). The Greek New Testament (3 ed.). Stuttgart: United Bible Societies.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- The Greek New Testament, ed. B. Aland, K. Aland, J. Karavidopoulos, C. M. Martini, and B. M. Metzger, in cooperation with INTF, United Bible Societies, 4th revised edition, (United Bible Societies, Stuttgart 2001), p. 21, ISBN 978-3-438-05110-3.
- N. Pocock, The Codex Zacynthius, The Academy (London, 19 February 1881), pp. 136c-137c.
- William Hatch, A redating of two important uncial manuscripts of the Gospels – Codex Zacynthius and Codex Cyprius, in: Quantulacumque studies presented to Kirsopp Lake ([c1937]), ss. 335-337.
- Parker, David C. (2009). Manuscripts, texts, theology: collected papers 1977-2007. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. p. 115. ISBN 978-3-11-021193-1. Archived from the original on 2010-12-19. Retrieved 2011-10-08.
- C.F. Smith, A Life of General Colin Macaulay, (Privately Published, 2019, ISBN 978-1-78972-649-7), pp. 53-54.
- Henry Alford, The Greek New Testament (London, 1863), Vol. 1, p. 113.
- Scrivener, Frederick Henry Ambrose (1861). A Plain Introduction to the Criticism of the New Testament (1st ed.). London. p. 126.
- J. H. Greenlee, A Corrected Collation of Codex Zacynthius (Cod. Ξ), JBL LXXVI (1957), pp. 237-241.
- J. H. Greenlee, The Catena of Codex Zacynthius, Biblica 40 (1959), pp. 992–1001.
- Scrivener, Frederick Henry Ambrose; Edward Miller (1894). A Plain Introduction to the Criticism of the New Testament. 1 (4th ed.). London: George Bell & Sons. p. 162.
- Aland, K.; Black, M.; C. M. Martini, B. Metzger, A. Wikgren (1983). The Greek New Testament (3 ed.). Stuttgart: United Bible Societies. p. XVI.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) [UBS3]
- Aland, B.; Aland, K.; J. Karavidopoulos, C. M. Martini, B. Metzger, A. Wikgren (1993). The Greek New Testament (4 ed.). Stuttgart: United Bible Societies. p. 11*. ISBN 978-3-438-05110-3.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- K. Aland, E. Nestle (1991). Novum Testamentum Graece (ed. 26). Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft. p. 49*. ISBN 3-438-05100-1.
- Nestle, Eberhard et Erwin (2001). Novum Testamentum Graece. communiter ediderunt: B. et K. Aland, J. Karavidopoulos, C. M. Martini, B. M. Metzger (27 ed.). Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft. p. 58. ISBN 978-3-438-05100-4.
- Cambridge University Library bids to purchase early Gospel manuscript, see also UK: Bible Society to sell important bible manuscripts
- S. P. Tregelles (1861). Codex Zacynthius. Greek Palimpsest Fragments of the Gospel of Saint Luke. London: Samuel Bagster and Sons.
- N. Pocock, The Codex Zacynthius, The Academy (London, 19 February 1881), pp. 136c-137c.
- J. H. Greenlee (1957). "A Corrected Collation of Codex Zacynthius (Cod. Ξ)". JBL. LXXVI: 237–241. JSTOR 3261574.
- J. H. Greenlee (Dec 1958). "Some examples of scholarly "agreement in error"" (PDF). JBL. 77.4: 363–364.
- J. H. Greenlee (1959). "The Catena of Codex Zacynthius". Biblica. 40: 992–1001.
- W. H. P. Hatch, A Redating of Two Important Uncial Manuscripts of the Gospels – Codex Zacynthius and Codex Cyprius, in Lake F/S, pp. 333–338.
- D. C. Parker & J. Neville Birdsall, The date of Codex Zacynthius (Ξ): A new proposal, JTS (2004) 55 (1): 117-131.
- "Codex Zacythius Project". Birmingham, England: University of Birmingham. Retrieved 27 January 2021.
- Robert Waltz, Codex Zacynthius Ξ (040) at the Encyclopedia of Textual Criticism (2007)
- "Codex Zacynthius". Münster: Institute for New Testament Textual Research. Retrieved 15 September 2011.
- "Lectionary 299". Münster: Institute for New Testament Textual Research. Retrieved 15 September 2011.
- "Codex Zacynthius". Cambridge, UK: University of Cambridge Digital Library. Retrieved 6 October 2020.