Temporal range: Miocene–Pleistocene
|Paralouatta marianae skull|
Rivero & Arredondo, 1991
The Cuban fossil primate, Paralouatta varonai was described from a nearly complete cranium from the late Quaternary in 1991. This cranium and a number of isolated teeth and postcranial bones were found in a cave site in Pinar del Río Province. The initial description of the cranium included a proposal that Paralouatta varonai was a close Caribbean relative of the extant Alouatta (howler monkeys) of Central and South America, but this taxonomic placement has been called into question with the analysis of the dental remains. Based on shared similarities with the two other Caribbean primates Xenothrix mcgregori and Antillothrix bernensis, MacPhee and Horovitz have proposed that the Caribbean primates are part of a monophyletic radiation which entered the Caribbean at the Oligocene–Miocene boundary. More recent research confirms this assessment and places these three species in the tribe Xenotrichini. Limb modifications and its large size suggest it was partly terrestrial, and a likely example of island gigantism.
- Rivero, M. & Arredondo, O. (1991). "Paralouatta varonai, a new Quaternary platyrrhine from Cuba". Journal of Human Evolution. 21: 1–11. doi:10.1016/0047-2484(91)90032-Q.
- Horovitz, I. & MacPhee, R.D.E. (1999). "The quaternary Cuban platyrrhine Paralouatta varonai and the origin of the Antillean monkeys". Journal of Human Evolution. 36 (1): 33–68. PMID 9924133. doi:10.1006/jhev.1998.0259.
- MacPhee, R.D.E. & Horovitz, I. (2004). "New Craniodental Remains of the Quaternary Jamaican Monkey Xenothrix mcgregori (Xenotrichini, Callicebinae, Pitheciidae), with a Reconsideration of the Aotus Hypothesis". American Museum Novitates. 3434 (1): 1–51. doi:10.1206/0003-0082(2004)434<0001:NCROTQ>2.0.CO;2.
- MacPhee, R.D.E., Iturralde-Vinent, M.A., and Gaffney, E.S. (February 2003). "Domo de Zaza, an Early Miocene Vertebrate Locality in South-Central Cuba, with Notes on the Tectonic Evolution of Puerto Rico and the Mona Passage". American Museum Novitates. 3394 (1): 1–42. doi:10.1206/0003-0082(2003)394<0001:DDZAEM>2.0.CO;2.