Cyperquat; 1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium; N-Methyl-4-phenylpyridine
3D model (Jmol)
|Molar mass||170.25 g/mol|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
|what is ?)(|
MPP+ (1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium) is a positively charged molecule with chemical formula C12H12N+. It is toxic and acts by interfering with oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria by inhibiting complex I, leading to the depletion of ATP and cell death. Mitochondria in cells treated with MPP+ also display a phenotype indicative of apoptosis: small, round, and fewer in number. It also inhibits the synthesis of catecholamines, reduces levels of dopamine and cardiac norepinephrine, and inactivates tyrosine hydroxylase.
The neurotoxin MPTP is converted in the brain into MPP+ by the enzyme MAO-B, causing parkinsonism in primates by killing certain dopamine-producing neurons in the substantia nigra. MPP+-induced neurodegeneration is specific to dopamine neurons and can be prevented by drug treatment or by limiting the function of the dopamine transporter.
- PubChem Compound entry on MPP+
- Wiemerslage L, Lee D (2016). "Quantification of mitochondrial morphology in neurites of dopaminergic neurons using multiple parameters.". J Neurosci Methods. doi:10.1016/j.jneumeth.2016.01.008. PMID 26777473.
- Wiemerslage L, Schultz BJ, Ganguly A, Lee D (2013). "Selective degeneration of dopaminergic neurons by MPP(+) and its rescue by D2 autoreceptors in Drosophila primary culture.". J Neurochem. 126 (4): 529–40. doi:10.1111/jnc.12228. PMC . PMID 23452092.
- Jeong, Kyoung Hoon; Jeon, Min-Tae; Kim, Heung Deok; Jung, Un Ju; Jang, Min Cheol; Chu, Jin Woo; Yang, Seung Jun; Choi, Il Yoon; Choi, Myung-Sook (2014-10-17). "Nobiletin Protects Dopaminergic Neurons in the 1-Methyl-4-Phenylpyridinium-Treated Rat Model of Parkinson's Disease". Journal of Medicinal Food. 18 (4): 409–414. doi:10.1089/jmf.2014.3241. ISSN 1096-620X.