Murder of Vincent Chin
|Murder of Vincent Chin|
Photo of Vincent Chin
|Location||Highland Park, Michigan, U.S.|
|Date||June 19, 1982|
|Motive||Disgruntlement with their unemployment, which they attributed to auto manufacturing jobs leaving the U.S. for Japan, Anti-Asian sentiment|
|Litigation||Ebens ordered to pay $1.5 million to Chin's family, Nitz ordered to pay $50,000|
Vincent Jen Chin (simplified Chinese: 陈果仁; traditional Chinese: 陳果仁; pinyin: Chén Guǒrén; May 18, 1955 – June 23, 1982) was a Chinese-American man who was severely beaten in the Detroit suburb of Highland Park, Michigan, in June 1982. The beating led to his death four days later.
The perpetrators were Chrysler plant superintendent Ronald Ebens and his stepson, Michael Nitz. The lenient sentencing of these two men in a plea bargain generated public outrage over the murder attack, which included blows to the head from a baseball bat, and possessed attributes consistent with hate crimes. Many of the layoffs in Detroit's auto industry, including Nitz's in 1979, had been due to the increasing market share of Japanese automakers, particularly due to Chrysler's increased sales of captively-imported Mitsubishi models rebadged and sold under the Dodge and now-defunct Plymouth brands, leading to allegations that Vincent Chin received racially charged comments attributing the layoffs to him while being beaten.
The case became a rallying point for the Asian American community, and Ebens and Nitz were put on trial for violating Chin's civil rights. Ebens was convicted of violating Chin's civil rights and was sentenced to 25 years in prison, but the conviction was overturned on appeal. Because the subsequent conviction was due to public pressure from a coalition of many Asian ethnic organizations, Chin's murder is often considered the beginning of a pan-ethnic Asian American movement.
- 1 Early life
- 2 Homicide
- 3 Legal history
- 4 Aftermath
- 5 Legacy
- 6 In media
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 Further reading
- 10 External links
Chin was born on May 18, 1955, in Guangdong province, China. He was the only child of "David" Bing Hing Chin (simplified Chinese: 陈炳兴; traditional Chinese: 陳炳興; pinyin: Chén Bǐngxīng; a.k.a. C.W. Hing) and Lily Chin (simplified Chinese: 陈余琼芳; traditional Chinese: 陳余瓊芳; pinyin: Chén Yú Qióngfāng). His father earned the right to bring a Chinese bride into the United States through his service in World War II. After Lily suffered a miscarriage in 1949, the couple adopted Vincent from a Chinese orphanage in 1961.
Throughout most of the 1960s, Vincent grew up in Highland Park. In 1971, after the elderly Hing was mugged, the family moved to Oak Park, Michigan. Vincent graduated from Oak Park High School in 1973, going on to study at Control Data Institute. At the time of his death, he was employed as an industrial draftsman at Efficient Engineering, an automotive supplier, as well as working weekends as a waiter at the former Golden Star restaurant in Ferndale, Michigan. He was engaged, and the wedding date set for June 27, 1982.
On the night of June 19, 1982, a fight occurred at the Fancy Pants strip club on Woodward Avenue in Highland Park where Chin was having his bachelor party. The group was thrown out and, after a heated exchange of words, subsequently parted ways. Ebens allegedly instigated the incident by declaring, "It's because of you little motherfuckers that we're out of work!" referring to U.S. auto manufacturing jobs having been lost to Japan, particularly referring to sales of Chrysler's rebadged Mitsubishis as captive imports, assuming the Chinese-American Chin as being Japanese.
Chin taunted Ebens to keep fighting after they were all thrown out. Ebens and Nitz searched the neighborhood for 20 to 30 minutes and even paid another man $20 to help look for Chin, before finding him at a McDonald's restaurant. Chin tried to escape but was held by Nitz while Ebens repeatedly bludgeoned Chin with a baseball bat until Chin's head cracked open. A policeman who witnessed the beating said Ebens was swinging the bat like he was swinging "for a home run". When rushed to Henry Ford Hospital, Chin was unconscious and died after four days in a coma on June 23, 1982.
Inaction by government and advocacy groups
At the time, government officials, politicians, and several prominent law organizations generally dismissed theories of civil rights aspects of the Vincent Chin beating. The local Michigan ACLU and Detroit chapter of the National Lawyers Guild did not see the connection between civil rights and Chin's death.
At first, only a new group called the American Citizens for Justice (ACJ) lent their support for the theory that existing civil rights laws should be applied to Asian Americans. Eventually the national body of the National Lawyers Guild endorsed their efforts.
State criminal charges
Ronald Ebens was arrested and taken into custody at the scene of the crime by two off-duty police officers who had witnessed the beating. Ebens and Nitz were convicted in a county court for manslaughter by Wayne County Circuit Judge Charles Kaufman, after a plea bargain brought the charges down from second-degree murder. They served no jail time, were given three years probation, fined $3,000 and ordered to pay $780 in court costs. In a response letter to protests from American Citizens for Justice, Kaufman said, "These weren't the kind of men you send to jail... You don't make the punishment fit the crime; you make the punishment fit the criminal."
Federal civil rights charges
The verdict angered the Asian American community in the Detroit area and around the country. Journalist Helen Zia and lawyer Liza Chan (traditional Chinese: 陳綽薇; simplified Chinese: 陈绰薇; pinyin: Chén Chuòwēi) led the fight for federal charges, which resulted in the men's being accused of two counts of violating Chin's civil rights, under section 245 of title 18 of the United States Code. For these charges, it was not enough that Ebens had injured Chin, but that "a substantial motivating factor for the defendant's actions was Mr. Chin's race, color, or national origin, and because Mr. Chin had been enjoying a place of entertainment which serves the public." Because of possible mitigating factors that could lead to reasonable doubt, such as intoxication leading to the defendant's inability to form the specific intent, the prosecution's proving the evidence of uttered racial slurs was not self-sufficient for conviction. In addition, the defense found Racine Colwell, the witness who overheard the "It's because of you motherfuckers we're out of work" remark, to have received some clemency on a jail sentence for a prostitution charge, which suggested that the government might have tried to cut a deal for her testimony.
The 1984 federal civil rights case against the men found Ebens guilty of the second count and sentenced him to 25 years in prison; Nitz was acquitted of both counts. After an appeal, Ebens' conviction was overturned in 1986—a federal appeals court found an attorney improperly coached prosecution witnesses.
A civil suit for the unlawful death of Vincent Chin was settled out of court on March 23, 1987. Michael Nitz was ordered to pay $50,000. Ronald Ebens was ordered to pay $1.5 million, at $200/month for the first two years and 25% of his income or $200/month thereafter, whichever was greater. This represented the projected loss of income from Vincent Chin's engineering position, as well as Lily Chin's loss of Vincent's services as laborer and driver. However, the estate of Vincent Chin would not be allowed to garnish social security, disability, or Ebens' pension from Chrysler, nor could the estate place a lien on Ebens' house.
In November 1989, Ebens reappeared in court for a creditor's hearing, where he detailed his finances and reportedly pledged to make good on his debt to the Chin estate. However, in 1997, the Chin estate was forced to renew the civil suit, as it was allowed to do every ten years. With accrued interest and other charges, the adjusted total became $4,683,653.89. Ebens sought in 2015 to have the resulting lien against his house vacated.
Chin was interred at Detroit's Forest Lawn Cemetery.
In September 1987, Chin's mother, Lily Chin, moved from Oak Park back to her hometown of Guangzhou, China, to avoid being reminded of the tragedy. She returned to the United States for medical treatment in late 2001, and died on June 9, 2002. Prior to her death, Lily Chin had established a scholarship in Vincent's memory, to be administered by American Citizens for Justice.
The attack was considered by many a hate crime, but predated hate crime laws in the United States. Michigan, being the first state to abolish the death penalty by legislation, has a long history of leniency toward those who commit murder. Nevertheless, during a 1998 House of Representatives hearing on the Hate Crimes Prevention Act of 1997, Congressman John Conyers, who is an African-American, suggested that the problem in making people sufficiently aware of the causes for and injustices of Chin's case was that it was a political "hot potato" that did not get picked up for "political reasons", with respect to the automobile industry.
Chin's case has been cited by some Asian Americans to support the idea that they are seen as not fully citizens or "perpetual foreigners" compared to "real" Americans. Lily Chin stated: "What kind of law is this? What kind of justice? This happened because my son is Chinese. If two Chinese killed a white person, they must go to jail, maybe for their whole lives... Something is wrong with this country."
- Who Killed Vincent Chin? (1988), documentary by Renee Tajima and Christine Choy. Nominated for a 1989 Academy Award for Best Documentary.
- Vincent Who? (2009), documentary written and produced by Curtis Chin and directed by Tony Lam.
- Killer Swing Fatal Encounters. Investigation Discovery. July 23, 2013.
In popular culture
- Because They Thought He Was... is a sculpture by Consuelo Echeverria. It is a life size depiction of the incident made from forged steel auto parts.
- In 1998, a play based on the case, Cherylene Lee's Carry the Tiger to the Mountain, was performed at the Contemporary American Theater Festival in Shepherdstown, West Virginia. The West End Theatre in Manhattan performed the play in June 2007 as part of the first National Asian American Theater Festival.
- Chin is referenced in the Blue Scholars' song "Morning of America".
- Allusions were made to the incident in the 1989 comedy Collision Course, starring Jay Leno and Pat Morita.[better source needed]
- Chin is referenced in the Dead Milkmen song "Anthropology Days".
- On January 30, 2013, Judge Denny Chin along with faculty and professors from the University of California, Hastings College of the Law performed a reenactment of the Vincent Chin trial.
- Referenced in The Twilight Zone, season 1, episode 21, titled "Wong's Lost and Found Emporium" (aired November 22, 1985), as a central reason for the protagonist to have lost his compassion.
- In 1983, Lily Chin appeared on The Phil Donahue Show to bring public attention to the case.
- The 2001 book A Day for Vincent Chin and Me by Jacqueline Turner Banks (ISBN 9780618548798) is about a Japanese-American child's efforts to slow down the traffic on a residential street in Kentucky, while his parents form a local protest in support of the Chin case.
- Automotive industry in Japan
- Yoshihiro Hattori
- Lyon Wong
- Hate crime laws in the United States
- History of the Chinese Americans in Metro Detroit
- Henry Yee and the Estate of Vincent Chin (deceased) vs. Ronald Ebens, Michael Nitz, and Fancy Pants lounge, 83-309788 CZ (Mich 3rd Cir 1983).
- Wei, William (2002-06-14). "An American Hate Crime: The Murder of Vincent Chin". Tolerance.org. Southern Poverty Law Center. Archived from the original on September 28, 2007. Retrieved 2007-03-14.
- "Yellowworld.org: Remembering Vincent Chin". yellowworld.org. Retrieved 2016-05-03.
- "透视美国华人女性的百年记忆". Epoch Times (in Chinese). June 3, 2016. Retrieved June 21, 2018.
- Zia, Helen (May 18, 2001). Asian American Dreams: The Emergence of an American People. Farrar, Straus and Giroux. pp. 58–64. ISBN 9780374527365. Retrieved June 21, 2018.
- Lee, Jonathan H. X. (November 12, 2015). Chinese Americans: The History and Culture of a People: The History and Culture of a People. ABC-CLIO. p. 27. ISBN 9781610695503. Retrieved June 21, 2018.
- Darden, Joe T.; Thomas, Richard W. (March 1, 2013). Detroit: Race Riots, Racial Conflicts, and Efforts to Bridge the Racial Divide. MSU Press. p. 251. ISBN 9781609173524. Retrieved June 21, 2018.
- Lee, Jonathan H. X.; Nadeau, Kathleen M. (December 21, 2010). Encyclopedia of Asian American Folklore and Folklife. ABC-CLIO. p. 235. ISBN 9780313350672. Retrieved June 21, 2018.
- "Ronald Ebens, the Man Who Killed Vincent Chin, Apologizes 30 Years Later". The Huffington Post. Retrieved September 3, 2015.
- Bedi, Sheila (2003). "The Constructed Identities of Asian and African Americans: A Story of Two Races and the Criminal Justice System. Havard Blackletter Law Journal. 19, 181–199.
- Hung, Louise. "35 years after Vincent Chin's brutal murder, nothing has changed". Global Comment. Retrieved August 9, 2017.
- Detroit: Race Riots, Racial Conflicts, and Efforts to Bridge the Racial Divide.
- Weingarten, Paul (July 31, 1983). "Deadly Encounter". Chicago Tribune.
- C.N. Le. "Asian-Nation: Anti-Asian Racism". Asian-Nation. Retrieved 2007-03-14.
- Ni, Ching-Ching (July 25, 2010). "Irvin R. Lai dies at 83; Chinese American community leader in Los Angeles". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved January 17, 2016.
- Defendant's Requested Jury Instruction No. 30, U.S. v. Ebens.
- Defendant's Requested Jury Instruction No. 18, U.S. v. Ebens.
- Defendant's Requested Jury Instruction No. 31, U.S. v. Ebens.
- U.S. vs. Ebens transcript, Tuesday, June 19, 1984, pp. 209–211.
- US. v. Ebens, 800 F.2d 1422 (U.S. App. 6th Cir. 1986).
- US. v. Ebens, 654 F. Supp. 144 (E.D. Mich. 1987).
- Finkelstein, Jim (November 30, 1989). "The Man Convicted In Chin Case Pledges To Make Good On Debt". Detroit Free Press. p. 1B.
- Paul Dufault, Temporary Person Representative of the Estate of Vincent Jen Chin, Deceased, vs. Ronald M. Ebens, 97-727321-CZ (Mich 3rd Cir 1997).
- Guillermo, Emil; Wang, Frances Kai-Hwa (December 11, 2015). "Man Charged With Vincent Chin's Death Seeks Lien Removed, Still Owes Millions". NBC News. Retrieved July 7, 2016.
- "30 years later, Vincent Chin's family awaits justice in fatal beating". The Detroit News. June 21, 2012. Archived from the original on February 2, 2014.
- "OCA Mourns Death of Lily Chin". Organization of Chinese Americans. Retrieved 2007-03-14.
- United States House of Representatives. "Hate Crimes Prevention Act of 1997. Hearing". U.S. Government Printing Office. Retrieved 2007-03-14.
- Frank H. Wu. "Asian Americans and the Perpetual Foreigner Syndrome". Archived from the original on 2007-09-28. Retrieved 2007-06-14.
- Iris Chang. The Chinese in America: A Narrative History. Viking, 2003. 0-670-03123-2. p. 320.
- "Multicultural Studies: Who Killed Vincent Chin?". Filmakers Library. Archived from the original on October 20, 2006. Retrieved March 14, 2007.
- "Vincent Who? (2009)". IMDb. April 4, 2009. Retrieved September 3, 2015.
- Video on YouTube
- Zia, p. 81.
- "Race and the Performing Arts". NPR Morning Edition. July 20, 1998.
- "Carry the Tiger to the Mountain". National Asian American Theater Festival. Archived from the original on August 14, 2007. Retrieved August 17, 2007.
- Patrin, Nate (June 5, 2007). "Blue Scholars: Bayani Album Review". Pitchfork. Retrieved June 21, 2018.
- Gill, Sean (July 11, 2014). "Film Review: COLLISION COURSE (1989, Lewis Teague)". Junta Juleil's Culture Shock. Retrieved June 21, 2018.
- "The Dead Milkmen – Anthropology Days". Genius. Retrieved June 21, 2018.
- Video on YouTube
- UC Hastings College of the Law, The Killing of Vincent Chin, January 14, 2014.
- Zia, p. 73.
- "American Citizens for Justice Records: 1983-2004". Bentley Historical Library. University of Michigan. Retrieved June 21, 2018.
The Vincent Chin Case and Aftermath series (0.5 linear feet, 1983-1989) contains files relating to the Vincent Chin incident and legal case, including clippings and articles, ACJ's involvement with the case (court watch documents, petitions, remembrance services), as well as public reaction, including response letters from viewers of a Phil Donahue show that covered the Chin case in 1983.
- Yip, Alethea. "Remembering Vincent Chin" at the Wayback Machine (archived March 10, 2010). (Archive) AsianWeek. June 13–15, 1997.
- Partial transcripts from Who Killed Vincent Chin? at the Wayback Machine (archived August 23, 2002)
- Frank H. Wu. Opening Lecture at The 5th Annual Conference in Citizenship Studies: Boundaries, March 27–29, 2008, Wayne State University
- Thirty years since the murder of Vincent Chin
- Lewis, Shawn D. "30 years later, Vincent Chin's family awaits justice in fatal beating." The Detroit News. June 21, 2012.