American-born Chinese or ABC (simplified Chinese: 美国出生华裔; traditional Chinese: 美國出生華裔; pinyin: Měiguó chūshēng huáyì) is a term widely used to refer to American citizens of Chinese descent, excluding first-generation immigrants. It is therefore a sub-category of the term Chinese American, the latter of which also includes those who were born in Hong Kong, Mainland China, and Taiwan but naturalized as U.S. citizens.
According to some, the term has Perpetual Foreigner connotations. It has been noted that the term differs from existing patterns of immigrant designation in American English. For example, Peter Thiel is considered a "German-born American," and Elon Musk is considered a "South African-born American." In both of these cases, the first demographic word refers to the person's citizenship at birth, and the second refers to his citizenship at present. However, in the case of "American-born Chinese," the first demographic word refers to the subject's citizenship at birth (or at present) and the second to his (or her) race.
It has also been observed that, in practice, the term American-born Chinese includes hundreds of thousands of Americans of Chinese descent who were, technically speaking, not born in America, but rather, we brought over by their parents at a young age. This indicates that the term may be a misnomer.
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In differing degrees, many ABCs draw together Chinese family culture with American societal culture, developing a transnational life and identity. However, this begins to shift in subsequent generations as families structures change through interracial marriage. In 2000, approximately 45% of American-born Chinese marry non-Chinese Americans; this is contrasted with Chinese Americans more generally, whereby 81.5% of men and 77.9% of women married other Chinese Americans.
The term has been used in the 2006 comic book by Gene Luen Yang, entitled American Born Chinese. It draws together the stories of three seemingly unrelated characters: Jin Wang, who moves into a new school and neighborhood to find he is the only Chinese American; the Monkey King of the Chinese fable Journey to the West; and Danny, who has yearly visits from his Chinese cousin Chin-Kee which ruins his life.
- "Sino American Reunion (SAR)". sar.network.
- Liu, Haiming (2005). The Transnational History of a Chinese Family: Immigrant Letters, Family Business, and Reverse Migration. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press. pp. 163–209. ISBN 9780813535975.
- Zinzius, Birgit (2005). Chinese America: Stereotype and Reality: History, Present, and Future of the Chinese Americans. New York: Peter Lang. pp. 217–218. ISBN 9780820467443.
- Yang, Gene Luen (2006). American Born Chinese. New York: First Second. ISBN 9781429969369.
- Beebe, Nathaniel (May 9, 2015). "American Born Chinese". AAA 201: Introduction to Asian/Asian American Studies, Miami University. Retrieved June 15, 2018.