Double acute accent
|Double acute accent|
The double acute accent ( ˝ ) is a diacritic mark of the Latin script. It is used primarily in written Hungarian, and consequently is sometimes referred to by typographers as Hungarumlaut, a portmanteau of Hungarian umlaut. The signs formed with diacritic marks are letters in their own right in the Hungarian alphabet (for instance, they are separate letters for the purpose of collation).
Length marks first appeared in Hungarian orthography in the 15th-century Hussite Bible. Initially, only á and é were marked, since they are different in quality as well as length. Later í, ó, ú were marked as well.
In the 18th century, before Hungarian orthography became fixed, u and o with umlaut + acute (ǘ, ö́) were used in some printed documents. 19th century typographers introduced the double acute as a more aesthetic solution.
Standard Hungarian has 14 vowels in a symmetrical system: seven short vowels (a, e, i, o, ö, u, ü) and seven long ones, which are written with an acute accent in the case of á, é, í, ó, ú, and with the double acute in the case of ő, ű. Vowel length has phonemic significance in Hungarian, that is, it distinguishes different words and grammatical forms.
Another symmetric system of vowels in Hungarian, partly denoted by diacritical marks, is between "sharp" and "flat" vowels. This categorization is important because no Hungarian word contains a sharp and a flat vowel.
é, i, and í can be in either sort of word. (Budapest is a compound name, representing the union of Buda and Pest.)
At the beginning of the 20th century, the letter A̋ a̋ (A with double acute) was sometimes used in Slovak as a long variant of the short vowel Ä ä (A with diaeresis), representing the vowel /æː/ in dialect or in some loanwords. Other long vowels are written with a single acute accent.
The letter is still used for this purpose in Slovak phonetic transcription systems.
The Chuvash language written in the Cyrillic script uses a double-acute Ӳ, ӳ /y/ as a front counterpart of Cyrillic letter У, у /u/ (see Chuvash vowel harmony), likely after the analogy of handwriting in Latin script languages. In other minority languages of Russia (Khakas, Mari, Altai, and Khanty), the umlauted form Ӱ is used instead.
International Phonetic Alphabet
One may encounter this use as a tone sign in some IPA-derived orthographies of minority languages, such as in the North American Native Tanacross (Athapascan). In line with the IPA usage it denotes the extra-high tone.
|Hungarian and English|
In ISO 8859-2 Ő, ő, Ű, ű take the place of some similar looking (but distinct, especially at bigger font sizes) letters of ISO 8859-1.
All occurrences of "double acute" in the Unicode 4.1 standard:
WITH DOUBLE ACUTE
WITH DOUBLE ACUTE
DOUBLE ACUTE ACCENT
WITH DOUBLE ACUTE
In modern X11 system, the double acute can be typed by pressing the Compose key followed by = (the equal sign) and desired letter (o or u).
- Ray Larabie (18 Aug 2010). "The Low Profile Acutes vs. Hungarumlaut". typophile.com. Retrieved 2014-09-17.
- "Short, illustrated outline about the Hungarian double acutes". www.font.hu. Retrieved 2014-09-17.
- Czambel, S. 1902. Rukoväť spisovnej reči slovenskej. Turčiansky Sv. Martin: Vydanie Knihkupecko-nakladateľshého spolku, p. 2.
- A possible explanation of the diacritic being influenced by the German handwritten form is the early version of the Chuvash alphabet devised much more than 50 years before the other ones mentioned.
|Look up ő or ű in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
- Diacritics Project — All you need to design a font with correct accents (contains some incorrect/sloppy data on history)