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the land of martyrs
ਸ਼ਹੀਦਾਂ ਦੀ ਧਰਤੀ
The National Martyrs Memorial, built at Hussainiwala in memory of Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev and Rajguru
|Founded by||Firoz Shah Tughluq|
|• Deputy Commissioner||D.P.S. Kharbanda (IAS)|
|• Member of Parliament||Sher Singh Ghubaya (SAD)|
|• Member of the Legislative Assembly||Parminder Singh Pinky (INC)|
|• Senior Superintendent of Police||Hardial Singh Mann (IPS)|
|Elevation||182 m (597 ft)|
|• Density||380/km2 (1,000/sq mi)|
|• Other||Hindi and English|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|Vehicle registration||PB 05|
|Sex ratio||885/1000 ♂/♀|
|Lok Sabha constituency||Firozpur|
|Vidhan Sabha constituency||Firozpur City|
|Major Highways||NH95 SH15 SH 20|
Firozpur officially spelled Ferozepur is a city on the banks of the Sutlej River in Firozpur District, Punjab, India. It was founded by Sultan Firoz Shah Tughluq (1351–88), a Muslim ruler of the Tughluq dynasty, who reigned over the Sultanate of Delhi from 1351 to 1388. Firozpur today is an administrative and transportation center.
Firozpur is called ‘the land of martyrs’. After partition of India in 1947, it became a border town on the Indo-Pakistan border with memorials of India's freedom fighters. Firozpur also holds a historic place in Indian history as it was from here that British Raj established control over much of North-West India as well as what is now Pakistan through the Anglo-Sikh Wars that were fought in this region. Firozpur Cantonment is adjacent to and south of the city; during British times it was one of the largest cantonments in the country. Even today it is the headquarters of a division of the Western Command of the Indian Army.
Shaheed Bhagat Singh College of Engineering and Technology is located on Moga road in Firozpur. It is a government Engg. College and has an excellent reputation.
Firozpur has easy access by road and rail to other places such as Amritsar, Ludhiana, Jalandhar, Delhi, and Chandigarh; the city is a center of numerous holy shrines and historic places. At the nearby city of Zira, is located a Jain Shwetambar Temple with ancient brass icons and wall murals.
In addition to cotton and grain cultivation and agriculture-related services, Firozpur has some light manufacturing. Commercial progress has been restricted by its vicinity to the border with Pakistan. Normalizing relations between the two nuclear nations promises to raise the city's profile as a potential trade hub. Firozpur is the oldest British district of the Punjab, established in 1833 as district headquarters even well before Ludhiana and Amritsar became districts. Firozpur district, even after the independence of Pakistan in 1947, included many areas which were later re-organised to be a part of the Faridkot, Moga, Muktsar, Bathinda and Fazilka Districts. The per hectare wheat yields of this district are comparable to the best in the world and they matched wheat yields per hectare of Ontario Province in Canada.
- 1 History
- 2 Location
- 3 Climate
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Education
- 6 Hospitals
- 7 Sports
- 8 Cinema Halls
- 9 Parks
- 10 Firozpur Cantonment
- 11 Places of interest
- 12 Religious Places
- 13 Religion
- 14 Transport
- 15 Media
- 16 Interesting Facts
- 17 Born here
- 18 Notable personalities
- 19 Notes
- 20 References
- 21 External links
Firozpur is an ancient city situated close to the present day Indo-Pakistan border. It is believed to have been founded by Firoz shah Tughluq in the 14th century.
Firozpur's strategic position in the northwest of the country has resulted in its being part of many military expenditions in the area. During the first Anglo-Sikh war in 1845, it due to the negligence of the British commander at Firozpur that the Khalsa was able to cross the Sutlej unopposed. When Lord Hardinge declared war on the Sikhs, the first battle was fought at Mudki, 20 miles south-east of Firozpur. In 1838, Firozpur was the centre from where British troops advanced to Kabul during the rist Anglo-Afghan war.
Three heroic martyrs of India's freedom struggle Shaheed Bhagat Singh and his associates Shaheed Rajguru and Shaheed Sukhdev have their final resting place on the banks of the river Sutlej in Firozpur. On March 23, 1931, despite popular protest, these three heroes were executed in Lahore and were stealthily cremated in the dead of night near Firozpur. They were killed for raising the flag of revolutionary terrorism against the British, displaying their deep patriotism and defiance for the foreign rulers till the very end.
Today, a Shaheed Bhagat Singh Memorial marks the spot and every year on March 23, thousands of people gather to pay homage of these noble heroes. Firozpur has another historical memorial, the Saragarhi Gurudwara, commemorating the sacrifice of 21 Sikh soldiers who perished at Saragarhi in Baluchistan. On 12 September, every year, people gather here to pay tribute to the heroic soldiers and celebrate Saragarhi Day. The memorial service also provides an occasion for exservicemen to have a reunion. 
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (May 2012)|
Firozpur city is to the south-west of Amritsar city and located some 109 km from Amritsar. Another nearby city to the north of Firozpur is Tarn Taran. To the east is Ludhiana about 120 km away. In the west it has Kasur and Lahore in Pakistan across the international border at Hussainiwala/Ganda Singh Wala. Other nearby cities include Fazilka and Abohar located 85 km and 122 km respectively to the south-west of Firozpur. To the north-east of Firozpur are the towns of Nakodar, Kapurthala and Jalandhar (120 km away). The cities of Muktsar and Faridkot are to the South of Firozpur.
Important distances from the city of Firozpur are shown below:
The climate of the Firozpur District is, on the whole, dry and is characterized by a very hot summer, a short rainy season and a bracing winter. The year may be divided into four seasons. The cold season is from November to March. This is followed by the summer season which lasts up to about the end of June. The period from July to the middle of September constitutes the south-westerly monsoon season. The latter half of September and October may be termed the post-monsoon or the transition period.
|Climate data for Firozpur|
|Average high °C (°F)||19
|Average low °C (°F)||7
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||20.3
As per provisional data of 2011 census, Firozpur had a population of 110,091, out of which males were 58,401 and females were 51,690. The literacy rate was 79.75 per cent.
According to the 2001 Indian census, Firozpur had a population of 95,451, which increased from 78,738 in 1991. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Firozpur has an average literacy rate of 71%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 73%, and female literacy is 68%. In Firozpur, 11% of the population is under 6 years of age.
Firozpur Cantonment is a cantonment town in Firozpur district in the state of Punjab, India. It is located adjacent to and south of the city of Firozpur.During the First Anglo-Sikh War, Firozpur Cantonment played a key role for the British Indian Army. Today, it is the Headquarters for a Division of the Indian Army.The district's key administrative offices and residences (such as the district courts and the commissioner's office ) are in the Cantonment rather than the city.The Mall road is the main road in the Cantonment and runs through most of the its length. All key offices and institutions as well as residences are located on or in close proximity to the Mall Road.
As of 2001 India census, Firozpur Cantonment had a population of 57,418. Males constitute 60% of the population and females 40%. Firozpur Cantonment has an average literacy rate of 75%, higher than the national average of 74.04%: male literacy is 80%, and female literacy is 68%. In Firozpur Cantonment, 11% of the population is under 6 years of age.
Historically this was an important Cantonment for the British, it was a base for the Anglo-Sikh Wars in the 1840s. And continued as an important cantonment that was a base for supporting forward positions in modern day Pakistan. Till World War II, it was one of the largest Cantonments in this region. After Partition the cantt's importance declined. There is an abandoned airstrip of British Vintage in the Cantt. The Battle of Saragarhi Gurudwara is a part of the Cantonment's military history as the men in the battle were mostly from adjoining areas.
Places of interest
- Barki Memorial
The Barki Memorial was constructed in 1969 to perpetuate the memory of the soldiers of the 7 Infantry Division who made the Supreme sacrifice on the battle field in 1965 and paved the way for the fall of Barki a town situated at a distance of 15 miles South East of Lahore. The foundation stone of this memorial was laid by Lt Gen Harbakhsh Singh VC on September 11,1969 and unveiling ceremony was performed by Lt Gen HK Sibal MVC. The memorial which now forms a part of Saragarhi Complex has a pillar in the centre, a Patten tank and a Barki mile stone on the south and a water fountain on the North The pillar is 27 feet high and is built of red and white sand stone and gneise. The mouldings and relief carvings are in the classical Indian architectural style. The fountain denotes symbolically that the memory of those who laid down their lives will for ever remain green and lush by an abundant spray of water.
- National Martyrs Memorial
The National Martyrs Memorial, situated in Hussainiwala, is dedicated to Bhagat Singh, Rajguru and Sukhdev. The memorial was built to honour these revolutionaries for sacrificing their lives while fighting for the independence of the country.
- Harike Wildlife Sanctuary
The Harike Wildlife Sanctuary is also known as the 'Hari-ke-Pattan'. It is located at the confluence of River Sutlej and River Beas, along the Firozpur-Taran Tarn border. The site stretches over an area of about 86 sq km and was declared a Wildlife Sanctuary in 1999. It was considered as a Ramsar site in 1990 by the International Body of Wetlands. This sanctuary is home to many birds, including migratory birds from various regions like the Arctic region and Siberia. Around 375 bird species can be seen in the sanctuary. During the migratory season, travellers can spot around 45,000 ducks, in addition to shoveller, common teal, pintail, brahminy duck and wigeon. Different types of diving ducks like common pochard, tufted ducksand crested pochard can be seen. Other animals like the jungle cat, Indian wild boar, common mongoose, smooth Indian otter and jackal can also be spotted here. Tourists can see 27 different species of fish and 7 breeds of turtles in this sanctuary.
Shan-e-Hind, which is 56 ft high, 42 ft long and 91 ft wide, was designed by the chief architect of Punjab. The structure was constructed to match the Fakhr-E-Pak structure of Pakistan which is 30 feet high.
- Chak Sarkar Forest
The Chak Sarkar Forest is situated close to the Forest Division of Firozpur. This Forest Reserve encompasses a compact region of natural forests, along with an area that has been rehabilitated through artificial regeneration.
- Saragarhi Memorial Gurudwara
The Saragarhi Memorial Gurudwara was constructed to honour the 21 Sikh soldiers who belonged to the 36th Sikh Regiment. The soldiers died while defending the Fort Saragarhi on 12th September 1897 in Wazirstan. It was constructed by the Army Authorities. The Gurudwara was inaugurated by the Lieutenant Governor of Punjab, Sir Charles Pevz in 1904. Every year, on 12th September, two separate meetings are held here, a religious assemblage in the morning and a reunion of ex-servicemen in the evening.
- Gurudwara Jamani Sahib
Gurudwara Shri Jamni Sahib, is situated in Village Bazidpur, Distt Firozpur. It is situated on the Firozpur-Ludhiana Road, Just 8 km from Firozpur City. Shri Guru Gobind Singh Ji came here after battle of Mukatsar Sahib. A Jatt Farmer had borrowed some money from Brahmin on the gaurantee of Guru Sahib. But he had not returned the money and had passed away. In his second life he became a tittar (Bird) and Brahmin became Baaz (Hawk Bird). When Guru Sahib came here he got tittar bird killed from Baaz and got himself free from gaurantee he had given in that case.
- Anglo Sikh War MemorialThe Anglo Sikh War Memorial was built by the Punjab Government to honour the soldiers who died while fighting against the British army at Mudki Ferozeshah Sabhraon and Chellianwala. It is a three storeyed building designed by the senior architect H S Chopra of Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana.nTourists can see quotes carved on bronze, relating to the wars of Shah Mohammad and the Cunningham’s history of Sikhs. The Anglo Sikh War weapons from the Museum of Patiala are also displayed here. The Memorial Hall has paintings by the famous artist, Kirpal, portraying the wars of Ferozeshah Sabhraon, Chellianwala and Mudki.
The Pothimala Building, built under the supervision of Guru Jiwan Mal in 1745, is situated in the Guruharsahai Village. The building has beautiful wood carvings on the walls as well as on the ceilings. This site is famous for the Annual Mela, when worshippers can see Guru Nanak’s padam, topi, pothi and mala.
- Indo-Pak Border
A very famous picnic spot of the city where tourists embark in large number, the Indo-Pak Border is an amazing place. Indian BSF soldiers and Pakistani Rangers can be seen on their respective side of borders. The memorials of Sukhdev, Shaheed Bhagat Singh and Rajguru are located just 1 Km from the border. The check post is located 100 ft and 600 ft away from zero line for India and Pakistan respectively. 
According to 2011 census, the religious statistics of Firozpur is as follows.
The nearest International Airport from the city is Sri Guru Ram Das Jee International Airport, Amritsar, roughly 2 hr drive from Firozpur. The airport is connected to other parts of the country by regular flights. Several airlines operate flights from abroad, including Birmingham, Dubai and Doha. The airport now handles as many as 48 flights every week up from the occasional, intermittent ones some years ago. The second nearest International Airport is Indira Gandhi International Airport, New Delhi, roughly a 5-hour drive from the city. Ludhiana Domestic Airport is at a distance of 125 km. The government is planning to construct an airport in Firozpur.
There are two railway stations located in Firozpur. The Firozpur Cantonment Railway Station is the major railway station located in the cantonment place of Firozpur and is connected with the cities such as Mumbai, Ahmedabad, Jammu etc. Firozpur Cantonment railway station is served by three railway lines – Ludhiana-Fazilka line, Delhi-Firozpur line and Jalandhar-Firozpur line. The Firozpur city Railway Station serves just Firozpur-Fazilka line.
The Firozpur division is headed by Divisional Railway Manager (DRM). The history of Firozpur Division is almost as old as of the Indian Railways. The first railway line of the area, from Amritsar to Atari, was opened in April, 1862. The division, with a route kilometerage of 1550, including 164 km of narrow gauge, and 235 stations, caters to the Rail Transport needs of Punjab, Jammu and Kashmir and a part of Himachal Pradesh. Firozpur Division serves a large number of industrial and important towns like Amritsar, Jalandhar, Hoshiarpur, Ludhiana, Firozpur and Kapurthala in Punjab and Kangra, Palampur, Baijnath Paprola and Joginder Nagar in Himachal Pradesh. Jammu Tawi is another important station in the division which acts as a gateway to a large number of tourists and pilgrims visiting the scenic Kashmir Valley and the holy shrine of Vaishno Devi. Firozpur is also an important division for freight traffic, the main commodities loaded being food grains, petroleum products, cotton, machinery and components. Inward traffic comprises iron and steel, fertilizer, coal, petroleum products and cement.
Firozpur is connected to Chandigarh via Ludhiana through NH 95. NH 15 passes through Talwandi and Zira which are very close to Firozpur. Firozpur is connected to Faridkot via SH 15. Firozpur is connected to Fazilka-Abohar via SH 20. SH 19 passes through Makhu which is very close to Firozpur. The city is well connected with all the neighboring cities through buses of Punjab Roadways, Pepsu Road Transport Corporation (PRTC) & other privately operated buses.
Firozpur has an All India Radio Relay station known as Akashvani Firozpur. It broadcasts on 100.1 MHz frequency.
There is a building in Toori Bazaar Firozpur which was reportedly used by Shaheed Bhagat Singh and his associates for making bombs and holding secret meeting. Bhagat Singh got his haircut at Firozpur.
Firozpur has produced many people of note from time to time. Politicians, shooters, entertainers, writers, military Generals and other prominent personalities have been born in this historic city. Some notable people are mentioned below:
|Mahabali Shera||Professional Wrestler|
|Amit Machhral||Social Worker|
|Gagan Ajit Singh||Hockey Player|
|Preet Bharara||U.S. Attorney|
|Gurbaj Singh||Hockey Player|
|Manjeet Singh||Rowing Player|
|Manavjit Singh Sandhu||Shooter|
|Pandit Balmukand Sharma||Politician|
|Sher Singh Ghubaya||Politician|
|Zora Singh Maan||Politician|
|Ramesh Kumar Nibhoria||Engineer|
|Narain Chand Parashar||Politician|
|Ajit Singh||Hockey Player|
|Mohinder Singh Randhawa||civil servant known for playing major roles in the Green Revolution in India|
|Baba Gurditta ji||son of Guru Hargobind ji and the father of Guru Har Rai ji|
|Rana Gurmeet Singh Sodhi||Shooter|
|Harmeek Singh||Hockey Player|
|Janmeja Singh Sekhon||Politician|
|Lieutenant General O P Nandrajog||retired Army Commander.|
|Lieutenant General Narula||retired Director General of Artillery|
- Sen, Sailendra (2013). A Textbook of Medieval Indian History. Primus Books. p. 98. ISBN 978-9-38060-734-4.
- "tribuneindia... Regional Vignettes". Tribuneindia.com. Retrieved May 2013.
- "tribuneindia... Regional Vignettes". Tribuneindia.com. Retrieved May 2013.
- "Firozpur". Info Punjab. Retrieved 2006-10-14.
- "Firozpur". Classic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2006-10-18.
- "History". Official website. Retrieved 2015-02-03.
- "Average Weather for Firozpur - Temperature and Precipitation". The Weather Channel. Retrieved February 25, 2008.
- "Urban Agglomerations/Cities having population 1 lakh and above" (PDF). Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011. Retrieved 2012-07-07.
- "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 2004-06-16. Retrieved 2008-11-01.
- "Sports". Official website. Retrieved 2015-01-02.
- "Places Of Interest". Official website. Retrieved 2014-12-14.
- "Religious Places". Official website. Retrieved 2015-01-06.
- Demographics of Punjab, India
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Ferozepur". Encyclopædia Britannica 10 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.