All India Radio
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|Motto||Bahujanahitaya Bahujanasukhaya / बहुजनहिताय बहुजनसुखाय |
|Headquarters||Sansad Marg, New Delhi - 110001, India|
|8 June 1936|
|All India Radio, www.newsonair.nic.in|
All India Radio (AIR), officially known since 1956 as Ākāsha Vāṇī ("Voice from the Sky") is the national public radio broadcaster of India and is a division of Prasar Bharati. It was established in 1930. It is the sister service of Prasar Bharati's Doordarshan, an Indian television broadcaster. Headquartered in Akashvani Bhavan building in New Delhi, it houses the Drama Section, the FM Section, the National Service, and is also home to the Indian television station Doordarshan Kendra, (Delhi).
All India Radio is the largest radio network in the world and one of the largest broadcasting organizations in the world in terms of the number of languages broadcast and the spectrum of socio-economic and cultural diversity it serves. AIR’s home service comprises four hundred and twenty stations located across the country, reaching nearly ninety two percent of the country’s area and 99.19% of the total population. AIR originates programming in twenty three languages and one hundred and seventy nine dialects.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Domestic services
- 4 External services
- 5 Direct-To-Home service (DTH)
- 6 Other services
- 7 Gallery
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 External links
Ākāśavāni (आकाशवाणी) is a Sanskrit word meaning 'celestial announcement' or 'voice from the sky/heaven'. In Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism, Akashvanis are often featured in stories as a medium of communication from heaven to mankind.
'Akashvani' was first used in the context of radio by M. V. Gopalaswami in 1936 after setting up India's first private radio station in his residence, "Vittal Vihar" (about two hundred yards from AIR’s current Mysore radio station). Akashvani was later adopted as All India Radio's on-air name in 1957.
Broadcasting began in June 1923 during the British Raj with programs by the Bombay Presidency Radio Club and other radio clubs. According to an agreement on 23 July 1927, the private Indian Broadcasting Company Ltd (IBC) was authorized to operate two radio stations: the Bombay station which began on 23 July 1927, and the Calcutta station which followed on 26 August 1927. The company went into liquidation on 1 March 1930. The government took over the broadcasting facilities and began the Indian State Broadcasting Service (ISBS) on 1 April 1930 on an experimental basis for two years and permanently in May 1932 it then went on to become All India Radio on 8 June 1936.
On 1 October 1939, the External Service began with a broadcast in Pushtu. It was intended to counter radio propaganda from Germany directed to Afghanistan, Iran and the Arab nations. 1939 also saw the opening of the Dhaka station of Eastern India, in what is now Bangladesh. This station catered and nurtured the pioneers of Bengali intellectuals. The foremost among them, Natyaguru Nurul Momen, became the trail-blazer of talk-show in 1939. He wrote and directed the first modern radio-play of this station in 1942. When India became independent in 1947, the AIR network had only six stations (Delhi, Bombay, Calcutta, Madras, Lucknow, and Tiruchirappalli); three radio stations at Lahore, Peshawar and Dhaka fell in the share of Pakistan. The total number of radio sets at that time was about 275,000 in India. On 3 October 1957, the Vividh Bharati Service was launched, to compete with Radio Ceylon. Television broadcasting began in Delhi in 1959 as part of AIR, but was split off from the radio network as Doordarshan on 1 April 1976. FM broadcasting began on 23 July 1977 in Chennai, and expanded during the 1990s.
Deccan Radio (Nizam Radio 1932), the first radio station of Hyderabad State (now Hyderabad, India), went live on air on 3 February 1935. It was launched by Mir Osman Ali Khan the 7th Nizam of Hyderabad with a transmitting power of 200 Watts. On 1 April 1950, Deccan Radio was taken over by the Indian Government and in 1956, it was merged with All India Radio (AIR). Since then, it is known as AIR-Hyderabad (100 kW).
AIR has many services in a number of languages, each serving different regions across India.
Vividh Bharati is one of the best-known services of All India Radio. Its name roughly translates to "Diverse Indian", and it is also known as the Commercial Broadcasting Service or CBS. It is the commercially most accessible AIR network and is popular in Mumbai and other large cities. Vividh Bharati offers a wide range of programs including news, film, music and comedy. It operates on different medium wave-band frequencies for each city.
Some programs broadcast on Vividh Bharati are:
The headquarters of the Regional Deputy Directors General are located in Delhi and Chandigarh (NR), Lucknow and Bhopal (CR), Guwahati (NER), Kolkata (ER), Mumbai and Ahmedabad (WR), Chennai and Bangalore (SR). All frequencies are in kHz, unless otherwise noted.
|Delhi C (Vividh Bharti) (विविध भारती)||1368||Delhi D (Yuv-vani) (युव वाणी)||1017||Delhi (National Channel)||1215|
|Jaipur A||1476||Jalandhar A||837||Jalandhar B||702|
|Jammu A||990||Jodhpur A||531||Kalpa (Kinnaur)||1584|
|Kargil A||684||Kargil B||1584||Khalsi||1485|
|Lucknow A||747||Lucknow C||1278||Mathura||1584|
|Varanasi A||1242||Sawai Madhopur||101.5||Raebareli||102.8|
|Bhagalpur||1458, 1206||Chinsurah (Kolkata A, 1 MW)||594 & 1134 Akashvani Maitree|
|Kolkata B||1008||Kolkata C (Vividh Bharati)||1323|
|Patna A||621||Ranchi A||549|
|Muzaffarpur A||100.1 MHz||Muzaffarpur B||106.4 MHz|
|Kolkata (FM Rainbow)||107||Kolkata (FM Gold)||100.2|
|Kurseong||1440 kHz||Siliguri||711 kHz|
|Bhopal A||1593||Chhindwara||102.2 MHz|
|Mumbai A||1044||Mumbai B (Asmita Marathi Programme)||558|
|Mumbai C (Vividh Bharati)||1188||Nagpur A||585|
|Nagpur B (National Channel, 1 MW)||1566||Panaji A||1287|
|Panaji B (Vividh Bharati)||828||Pune A||792|
The external services of All India Radio are broadcast in twenty seven languages to countries outside India via high-power shortwave band broadcasts. Medium wave is also used to reach neighbouring countries. In addition to broadcasts targeted at specific countries by language, there is a General Overseas Service broadcasting in English with 8¼ hours of programming each day aimed at a general international audience. The external broadcasts were begun on 1 October 1939 by the British government to counter the propaganda of the Nazis directed at the Afghan people. The first broadcasts were in Pushto, beamed to Afghanistan and the North-West Frontier Province. Broadcasts soon began in other languages including Dari, Persian, Arabic, English, Burmese, Japanese, Chinese, Malay and French. The external services broadcast in sixteen foreign and eleven Indian languages, with a total program output of 70¼ hours per day on medium and shortwave frequencies.
|Location||Number of transmitters||kW||Frequency||DRM !|
|Bengaluru (SPT)||6||500||100 kW|
|Chennai (Madras)||1||100||720 kHz||MW|
|Jalandhar (Goraya)||1||300||702 kHz||MW|
|Kolkata-Chinsurah/Mogra (SPT)||1||1000||1134 kHz and 594 kHz(Kolkata - A)||1142 KHZMW|
|Nagpur (SPT)||1||1000||1566 kHz||MW|
|Rajkot (SPT)||1||1000||1071 kHz AIR URDU||1080 kHz(2 MegaWatt)Vividha Bharti|
Two high powered FM stations of All India Radio are under installation in Amritsar and Fazilka in Punjab to supplement the programs put out from transmitters operating from Jalandhar, New Delhi, Chandigarh and Mumbai and to improve the broadcast services during disturbed weather conditions in the border regions of Punjab.
Today, the External Services Division of All India Radio broadcasts daily in fifty-seven transmissions with almost seventy-two hours covering over 108 countries in 27 languages, out of which fifteen are foreign and twelve Indian. The foreign languages are Arabic, Baluchi, Burmese, Chinese, Dari, French, Indonesian, Persian, Pushtu, Russian, Sinhala, Swahili, Thai, Tibetan and English (General Overseas Service). The Indian languages are Bengali, Gujarati, Marathi, Konkani, Kashmiri, Hindi, Kannada, Malayalam, Nepali, Punjabi, Saraiki, Sindhi, Tamil, Telugu and Urdu.
The longest daily broadcast is the Urdu Service to Pakistan, around the clock on DTH and on short- and medium wave for 12¼ hrs. The English-language General Overseas Service is broadcast 8¼ hours daily. During Hajj, there are special broadcasts beamed to Saudi Arabia in Urdu. AIR is planning to produce programmes in the Baluchi language, sources claim. The external services of AIR are also broadcast to Europe in DRM (Digital Radio Mondiale) on 9950 kHz between 1745-2230 UTC.
The transmissions are broadcast by high-power transmitters located at Aligarh, Bengaluru, Chennai, Delhi, Gorakhpur, Guwahati, Mumbai and Panaji on shortwave and from Jalandhar, Kolkata, Nagpur, Rajkot and Tuticorin on mediumwave. Soon All India Radio Amritsar will start a booster service on FM band too. Some of these transmitters are 1000 kW (1 MW) or 500 kW. Programs are beamed to different parts of the world except for the Americas and received in very good Reception Quality in the Target areas. In each language service, the program consists of news, commentary, a press review, talks on matters of general or cultural interest, feature programmes, documentaries and music from India and the target region. Most programs originate at New Broadcasting House on Parliament Street in New Delhi, with a few originating at SPT Bengaluru, Chennai, Hyderabad, Jalandhar, Kolkata, HPT Malad Mumbai, Thiruvananthapuram and Tuticorin.
The External Services Division of AIR is a link between India and rest of the world, especially in countries with Indian emigrants and people of Indian origin. It broadcasts the Indian point of view on matters of national and international importance and demonstrates the Indian way of life through its programs. QSL cards (which are sought-after by international radio hobbyists) are issued to radio hobbyists by AIR in New Delhi for reception reports of their broadcasts.
Direct-To-Home service (DTH)
Direct-to-home service is a satellite television service in which a large number of television channels are digitally compressed, encrypted, up-linked, and beamed down over a territory from a high-power satellite. The DTH signals can be received directly at homes using a small-sized dish receiver unit containing a dish antenna installed on the building’s rooftop or on a wall facing clear south and one indoor. DTH service is offered on twenty one channels via Insat.
- AIR Agartala - Bengali & Kokborok
- AIR Aizawl - Mizo
- AIR Assamese
- AIR Bangla
- AIR Bhopal - Hindi
- AIR FM Gold Chennai - Tamil, Hindi & English
- AIR FM Gold Delhi - Hindi & English
- AIR FM Gold Kolkata - Bengali, Hindi & English
- AIR FM Gold Mumbai - Hindi, Marathi & Gujarati
- AIR FM Rainbow Bangalore - Kannada, Hindi & English
- AIR FM Rainbow Chennai - Tamil & English
- AIR FM Rainbow India - Hindi & English
- AIR FM Rainbow Kolkata - Bengali, Hindi & English
- AIR FM Rainbow Mumbai - Hindi, English & Marathi
- AIR FM DARBHANGA - HINDI & MAITHILI
- AIR Gujarati
- AIR Hindi
- AIR Imphal - Manipuri
- AIR Itanagar - Nyishi, Hindi & English
- AIR Jaipur - Hindi & Rajasthani
- AIR Kannada
- AIR Kohima - Nagamese, Hindi & English
- AIR Lucknow - Hindi & Urdu
- AIR Malayalam
- AIR Marathi
- AIR National - Hindi & English
- AIR North-East - Hindi & English
- AIR Odia
- AIR Patna - Hindi, Urdu & Bihari
- AIR Punjabi
- AIR Rohtak - Hindi & Haryanvi
- AIR Shimla - Hindi & Himachali
- AIR Tamil
- AIR Telugu
- AIR Urdu
- AIR Varanasi - Hindi & Urdu
- AIR Vijayawada - Telugu
- Raagam - Indian Classical Music
- Radio Kashmir Jammu - Dogri, Urdu & Hindi
- Radio Kashmir Srinagar - Kashmiri, Urdu & Hindi
- Vividh Bharati - Hindi
Details of the transmissions and frequencies are as follows:
- 0130 - 0230 UTC on 11715 kHz Nepali (Nepal)
- 0315-0415 UTC on 15185 kHz Hindi, (E.Africa, Mauritius)
- 0415-0430 UTC on 15185 kHz Gujarati, (E.Africa, Mauritius)
- 0430-0530 UTC on 15185 kHz Hindi(E.Africa, Mauritius)
- 1300 - 1500 UTC on 15050 kHz Sinhala (Sri Lanka)
- 1615-1715 UTC on 15140 kHz Russian (E. Europe)
- 2245-0045 UTC on 11645 GOS-I English (NE Asia)
Above transmissions are in addition to following existing DRM txn's:
- 0900-1200 on 6100 Vividh Bharati, DRM NVIS
- 1745-1945 UTC on 9950 English (W. Europe)
- 1945-2045 UTC on 9950 Hindi (W. Europe)
- 2045-2230 UTC on 9950 English (W. Europe)
All India Radio launched news-on-phone service on 25 February 1998 in New Delhi; it now has service in Chennai, Mumbai, Hyderabad, Indore, Patna and Bangalore. The service is accessible through STD, ISD and local calls. There are plans to establish the service in eleven more cities: Ahmedabad, Bhopal, Guwahati, Gwalior, Jabalpur, Jaipur, Kolkata, Lucknow, Ranchi, Shimla and Thiruvananthapuram. English and Hindi hourly news bulletins may be heard live. News in MP3 format may be directly played from the site, and filenames are time-stamped. AIR news bulletins are available in nine regional languages (Tamil, Kannada, Gujarati, Bengali, Marathi, North East, Punjabi, Telugu and Urdu).
There is a long tradition of documentary features on AIR. There is great interest in radio documentaries, particularly in countries like India, Iran, South Korea and Malaysia. The doyen of English Features was Melville De Mellow and of Hindi Features was Shiv Sagar Mishra. This format has been revived because of its flexibility, cost-cutting capacity, messaging potential and creative potential with producers employed with AIR, all across the nation.
Central Drama Unit
AIR's Central Drama Unit (CDU) is responsible for the national broadcast of plays. Plays produced by the CDU are translated and produced by regional stations. Since its inception in the 1960s, the unit has produced more than 1,500 plays, and the CDU houses a repository of old scripts and productions. The National Programme of Plays is broadcast by the CDU on the fourth Thursday of each month at 9.30 pm. Each play included in the National Programme of Plays is produced in 22 Indian languages and broadcast at the same time by all regional and national network stations. The CDU also produces Chain Plays, half-hour dramas broadcast in succession by a chain of stations.
Social Media Cell
The News Service Division's Social Media Cell was established on 20 May 2013 and is responsible for providing AIR news on new media platforms such as websites, Twitter, Facebook, and SMS.
Kolkata Centre of All India Radio
- Vividh Bharati
- AIR FM Rainbow
- AIR FM Gold
- 106.4 FM Radio Gold
- Telugu Radio
- Radio Kashmir
- Telecommunications in India
- "Mission Of AIR".
- "Milestones of AIR (official website)". All India Radio. Retrieved 13 January 2013.
- "Default". allindiaradio.gov.in. Retrieved 2018-06-26.
- "Mysore Akashavani is now 75 years old". Business Standard.
- "AIR Manual, Chapter 1: History of All India Radio" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 September 2010.
- "Milestones of AIR". All India Radio. Archived from the original on 12 June 2010.
- "The Long and Interesting Story of All India Radio, Hyderabad–Part 2". Wavescan-NWS78. 15 August 2010.
- "Primary Channel Services". allindiaradio.gov.in. Retrieved 2018-07-30.
- "National Channel". Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 2 May 2014.
- "All India Radio". Know India. Archived from the original on 3 September 2011. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
- IANS (31 August 2016). "All India Radio to revamp Baluchi language programme" – via Business Standard.
- "DD Free Dish (DTH)". ddindia.gov.in. Retrieved 2016-07-21.
- "Prasar Bharati". Retrieved 17 October 2011.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to All India Radio.|
|Look up Akashvani in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
- All India Radio Official web-site
- All India Radio Commercial Broadcasting Service Vividh Bharati On Line
- All India Radio Commercial Broadcasting Service Vividh Bharati On Line
- All India Radio General Overseas Service / External Services Division 1-4 On Line
- Know India: Radio
- All India Radio (AIR) Station Frequencies (National/International)
- Children's wing of All India Radio
- External Service of All India Radio