Help:IPA/Punjabi

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The charts below show the way (both in Gurmukhi and Shahmukhi scripts) in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Punjabi language pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see {{IPA-pa}} and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

IPA Consonant[1][2]
IndiaGurmukhi PakistanShahmukhi Gurmukhi letter Shahmukhi letter Examples English equivalent
Gurmukhi Shahmukhi
b ਬ, ਭ ب، بھ abash
d ਦ, ਧ د، دھ ado
ɖ ਡ, ਢ ڈ، ڈھ somewhat like guard
ਜ, ਝ ج، جھ hedge
, f f ਫ਼ ف food
ɡ ਗ, ਘ گ، گھ ਘਰ گھر gate
ɦ ہ ahead
j ی yak
k ਕ, ਘ ک، گھ scan
کھ can
l ل leaf
ɭ ਲ਼ [3]
(mainly ل)
roughly girl
m م much
n ن not
ɳ ݨ
(mainly ن)
somewhat like burner
ŋ ن٘
(mainly ن)
bank, sing
p ਪ, ਭ پ، بھ span
پھ pan
k q ਕ਼ ق a k pronounced like a g, in the back of the throat
ɾ[4] ر US: better
ɽ ڑ somewhat like US: larder
s س sue
ʃ ਸ਼ ش shoe
t ਤ, ਧ ت، دھ stable
تھ table
ʈ ਟ, ਢ ٹ، ڈھ ਢੂੰਡ ڈھونڈ somewhat like art
ʈʰ ٹھ somewhat like table
ਚ, ਝ چ، جھ ਚਲ چل archer
tʃʰ چھ ਛੋਟਾ چھوٹا catch
v و ਵੇਗ ویگ very
x ਖ਼ خ ਖ਼ਾਲੀ خالی Scottish loch
g ɣ ਗ਼ غ ਬਗ਼ੈਰ بغیر somewhat like ch in Scottish ‘loch’ or French ‘r
, z z ਜ਼ ز ਜ਼ਿੰਦਗੀ زندگی zen


Vowels
IPA India

Gurmukhi

Pakistan

Shahmukhi

English equivalent
Initial Final Example Final Medial Initial
'ਨਾਂ' '̃'

('Name')

ناں ـا آ bra
ਤੇਰਾ Tērā

(‘Yours’)

تیرا ے ـیـ ایـ play
ɛː ਮੈੰ Mɛ̃

(‘Me’)

مَیں ـے◌َ ـیـ◌َ اَیـ yell
ə ਅਸੀਂ Asĩ

(‘Us’)

اَسِیں ـا or ـہ ◌َ اَ nut
[5] ـی ـیـ◌ِ اِیـ feet
ɪ [5] ਿ ਨਿੱਕਾ Nikka

(‘Tiny’)

نِکّا ـی ◌ِ اِ bin
ਮੋਟਾ Mōtā

(‘Fat’)

موٹا و او old
ɔː ਸੌ Sau

(‘Hundred’)

سَو ـو◌َ اَو dog
[5] ਪੂਰਾ Pūra

(‘Complete’)

پُورا ـو◌ُ اُو loot
ʊ [5] ਮੁੱਕਾ Mukka

(‘Punch’)

مُکّا ـو ◌ُ اُ look
◌ ̃ ੰ, ਂ ਮਹਿੰਗਾ Mengā

(‘Expensive’)

مہن٘گا ں ـن٘ـ Nasalised[6] vowels e.g.
([ãː], [õː], etc.)


Suprasegmentals
IPA Gurmukhi Shahmukhi
ˈ stress
(placed before stressed syllable)
ː ◌ّ doubled consonant
í ì... tone (placed over vowel)[7]


Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Consonants can be germinated (doubled)
  2. ^ As Punjabi is a tonal language, some aspirated letters are not pronounced such as ‘ਭ’/‘بھ’ (bʰ)
  3. ^ (Lām with small Tah -  لؕ)
  4. ^ /ɾ/ may be either tapped [ɾ] or trilled [r] depending on the speaker and variety.
  5. ^ a b c d /iː, ɪ/ and /uː, ʊ/ are neutralized to [i, u] at the end of a word.
  6. ^ Example Portuguese: São Paulo
  7. ^ In any word, there is a choice of three tones: high-falling (ì), low-rising (í), and level (i)