History of Senegal
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|History of Senegal|
The history of Senegal is commonly divided into a number of periods, encompassing the prehistoric era, the precolonial period, colonialism, and the contemporary era.
- 1 Paleolithic
- 2 Neolithic
- 3 Prehistory
- 4 Kingdoms and Empires
- 5 The era of trading posts and trafficking
- 6 Modern colonialism
- 7 Independence
- 8 1980–2006
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 Further reading
- 12 External links
The presence of man in the Lower Paleolithic is attested by the discovery of stone tools characteristic of Acheulean such as hand axes reported by Théodore Monod  at the tip of Fann in the peninsula of Cap-Vert in 1938, or cleavers found in the south-east. There were also found stones shaped by the Levallois technique, characteristic of the Middle Paleolithic. Mousterian Industry is represented mainly by scrapers found in the peninsula of Cap-Vert, as well in the low and middle valleys of the Senegal and the Falémé. Some pieces are explicitly linked to hunting, like those found in Tiémassass, near M'Bour, a controversial site that some claim belongs to the Upper Paleolithic, while other argue in favor of the Neolithic.
In the Senegambia the period when humans became hunters, fishermen and producers (farmer and artisan) are all well represented and studied. This is when more elaborate objects and ceramics emerged. But gray areas remain. Although the characteristics and manifestations of civilization from the Neolithic have been identified their origins and relationship have not yet fully defined. What can be distinguished is:
- The dig of Cape Manuel: the Neolithic deposit Manueline Dakar was discovered in 1940. Basalt rocks including ankaramite were used for making microlithic tools such as axes or planes. Such tools have been found at Gorée and the Magdalen Islands, indicating the activity of shipbuilding by nearby fishermen.
- The dig of Bel-Air: Neolithic Bélarien tools, usually made out of flint, are present in the dunes of the west, near the current capital. In addition to axes, adzes and pottery, there is also a statuette, the Venus Thiaroye
- The dig of Khant: the Khanty creek, located in the north near Kayar in the lower valley of the Senegal River, gave its name to a Neolithic industry which mainly uses bone and wood. This deposit is on the list of closed sites and monuments of Senegal.
- The dig the Falémé located in the south-east of Senegal, has uncovered a Neolithic Falemian tools industry that produced polished materials as diverse as sandstone, hematite, shale, quartz, and flint. Grinding equipment and pottery from the period are well represented at the site.
- The Neolithic civilization of the Senegal River valley and the Ferlo are the least well known due to not always being separated.
In the case of Senegal, the periodization of prehistory remains controversial. It is often described as beginning with the age of metallurgy, thus placing it between the first metalworking and the appearance of writing. Other approaches exist such as that of Guy Thilmans and his team in 1980, who felt that any archeology from pre-colonial could be attached to that designation or that of Hamady Bocoum, who speaks of "Historical Archaeology" from the 4th century, at least for the former Tekrur.
A variety of archaeological remains have been found:
- On the coast and in river estuaries of the Senegal, Saloum, Gambia, and Casamance rivers, burial mounds with clusters of shells often referred to as middens. 217 of these clusters have been identified in the Saloum Delta alone, for example in Joal-Fadiouth, Mounds in the Saloum Delta have been dated back as far as 400 BCE, and part of the Saloum Delta is now a World Heritage Site. Funerary sites or tumuli were built there during the 8th to 16th centuries. They are also found in the north near Saint-Louis, and in the estuary of the Casamance.
- The West is rich in burial mounds of sand that the Wolof refer to as mbanaar, which translates to "graves", A solid gold pectoral of mass 191 g has also been discovered near Saint-Louis.
- In a huge area of nearly 33,000 ((2 km)) located in the center-south around the Gambia there have been found alignments of boulders known as the Stone Circles of Senegambia which were placed on the list of UNESCO World Heritage sites in 2006. Two of these sites are located within the territory of Senegal: Sine Ngayène and Sine Wanar, both located in the Department of Nioro Rip. Sine Ngayène has 52 stone circles including a double circle. At Wanar, they number 24 and the stones are smaller. There are stone-carved lyre in the laterite, Y- or A-shaped.
- The existence of proto-historic ruins in the middle Senegal River valley was confirmed in the late 1970s. Pottery, perforated ceramic discs  or ornements have been unearthed. Excavations at thé site of Sinthiou Bara, near Matam, have proved particularly fruitful. They have revealed, for example, the flow of trans-Saharan trade from distant parts of North Africa.
Kingdoms and Empires
The region of modern Senegal was a part of the larger region called Upper Guinea by European traders. In the absence of written sources and monumental ruins in this region, the history of the early centuries of our era must be based primarily on archaeological excavations, the writing of early geographers and travelers, written in Arabic and data derived from oral tradition. Combining these data suggests that Senegal was first populated from the north and east in several waves of migration, the last being that of the Wolof, the Fulani and the Serer. Africanist historian Donald R. Wright suggests that Senegambian place-names indicate "that the earliest inhabitants might be identified most closely with one of several related groups—Bainunk, Kasanga, Beafada... To these were added Serer, who moved southward during the first millennium A.D. from the Senegal River valley, and Mande-speaking peoples, who arrived later still from the east." Probable descendants of Bafours[who?] were pushed southward by the Berber dynasty of Almoravids.
Before the arrival of European settlers, the history of the Saharan region is mainly characterized by the consolidation of settlements in large state entities – the Ghana Empire, the Mali Empire and the Songhai Empire. The cores of these great empires were located on the territory of the current Republic of Mali, so current-day Senegal occupied a peripheral position.
The earliest of these empires is that of Ghana, probably founded in the first millennium by Soninke and whose animists populations subsisted by agriculture and trade across the Sahara, including gold, salt and cloth. Its area of influence slowly spread to regions between the river valleys of the Senegal and Niger.
A contemporary empire of Ghana, but less extensive, the kingdom of Tekrur was its vassal. Ghana and Tekrur were the only organized populations before Islamization. The territory of Tekrur approximates that of the current Fouta Toro. Its existence in the 9th century is attested by Arabic manuscripts. The formation of the state may have taken place as an influx of Fulani from the east settled in the Senegal valley. John Donnelly Fage suggests that Takrur was formed through the interaction of Berbers from the Sahara and "Negro agricultural peoples" who were "essentially Serer" although its kings after 1000 CE might have been Soninke (northern Mande). The name, borrowed from Arabic writings, may be linked to that of the ethnicity Toucouleur. Trade with the Arabs was prevalent. The Kingdom imported wool, copper and pearls and exported gold and slaves. Indeed the growth of a vast empire by Arab-Muslim Jihads is not devoid of economic and political issues and brought in its wake the first real growth of the slave trade. This trade called the Arab slave trade provided North Africa and Saharan Africa with slave labor. The Tekrur were among the first converts to Islam, certainly before 1040.
Two other major political entities were formed and grew during the 13th and 14th century: the Mali Empire and the Jolof Empire which become the vassal of the first in its heyday. Originating in the Mandinka invasion, Mali continued to expand, encompassing first eastern Senegal, and later almost all the present territory. Founded in the 14th century by the possibly mythical chief of the Wolof Ndiadiane Ndiaye, who was a Serer of Waalo (Ndiaye is originally a Serer surname  which is also found among the Wolof). Djolof expanded its dominance of small chiefdoms south of the Senegal River (Waalo, Cayor Baol, Sine – Saloum), bringing together all the Senegambia to which he gave religious and social unity:[dubious ] the "Grand Djolof"  which collapsed in 1550.
The Jolof Empire was founded by a voluntary confederacy of States; it was not an empire built on military conquest in spite of what the word "empire" implies. The Serer tradition of Sine attests that the Kingdom of Sine never paid tribute to Ndiadiane Ndiaye nor to any member of his descendants that ruled Djolof. Historian Sylviane Diouf states that "Each vassal kingdom—Walo, Takrur, Kayor, Baol, Sine, Salum, Wuli, and Niani—recognized the hegemony of Jolof and paid tribute." It went on to state that, Ndiadiane Ndiaye himself received his name from the mouth of Maissa Wali (the King of Sine). In the epics of Ndiadiane and Maissa Wali, it is well acknowledged that Maissa Wali was pivotal in the founding of this Empire. It was he who nominated Ndiadiane Ndiaye and called for the other states to join this confederacy, which they did, and the "empire" headed by Ndiadiane, who took residence at Djolof. It is for this reason scholars propose that the empire was more like a voluntary confederacy than an empire built on military conquest.
The arrival of Europeans engendered autonomy of small kingdoms which were under the influence of Djolof. Less dependent on trans-Saharan trade with the new shipping lanes, they turn more readily to trade with the New World. The decline of these kingdoms can be explained by internal rivalries, then by the arrival of Europeans, who organized the mass exodus of young Africans to the New World. Ghazis, wars, epidemics and famine afflicted the people, while the powerful practice of the Atlantic slave trade, in exchange for weapons and manufactured goods. Under the influence of Islam, these kingdoms were transformed and marabouts played an increasing role.
In Casamance, the Baïnounks, the Manjaques and Diola inhabited the coastal area while the mainland – unified 13th century under the name of Kaabu – was occupied by the Mandingo. In the 15th century, the king of one of the tribes, Kassas gave his name to the region: Kassa Mansa (King of Kassas). Until the French intervention The Casamance was a heterogeneous entity, weakened by internal rivalries.
The era of trading posts and trafficking
According to several ancient sources, including occasions by the Dictionnaire de pédagogie et d'instruction primaire by Ferdinand Buisson in 1887, the first French settlement in Senegal dates back to the Dieppe Mariners in the 14th century. Flattering for Norman sailors, this argument gives credence also to the idea of a precedence of the French presence in the region, but it is not confirmed by subsequent work.
In the mid-15th century, several European nations reached the coast of West Africa, vested successively or simultaneously by the Portuguese, the Dutchman, the English and French. Europeans first settled along the coasts, on islands in the mouths of rivers and then a little further upstream. They opened trading posts and engaged in the "trade:" – a term which, under the Ancien Régime, means any type of trade (wheat, pepper ivory...), and not necessarily, or only the slave trade, although this "infamous traffic", as it was called at the end of the 18th century, was indeed at the heart of a new economic order, controlled by powerful companies in privilege.
Encouraged by Henry the Navigator and always in search of the Passage to India, and not forgetting gold and slaves, Portuguese explorers explored the African coast and ventured still farther south.
In 1444 Dinis Dias went off the mouth of the Senegal River to reach the westernmost point of Africa he calls Cabo Verde, Cape Vert, because of the lush vegetation seen there. He also reached the island of Gorée, referred to by its inhabitants as Berzeguiche, but which he called Ilha de Palma, the island of Palms. The Portuguese did not settle there permanently, but used the site for landing and engaged in commerce in the region. They built a chapel there in 1481. Portuguese trading posts were installed in Tanguegueth  in Cay, a town they renamed Fresco Rio (the future Rufisque) because of the freshness of its sources in the Baol Sali (later the seaside town of Saly) which takes the name of Portudal, or to Joal in the Kingdom of Sine.
The Dutch West India Company
After the Act of Abjuration in 1581, the United Provinces flouted the authority of the King of Spain. They based their growth on maritime trade and expanded their colonial empire in Asia, the Americas and the South Africa. In West Africa trading posts were opened at some points of the current Senegal, Gambia, Ghana and Angola.
Created in 1621, the Dutch West India Company purchased the island of Gorée in 1627. The company built two forts that are in ruins today: in 1628 on the face of Nassau Cove and 1639 at Nassau on the hill, as well as warehouses for goods destined for the mainland trading posts .
The Dutch settlers occupied the island for nearly half a century, but were dislodged several times: in 1629 by the Portuguese, in 1645 and 1659 by the French and in 1663 by the British troops. They dealt in wax, amber, gold, ivory and also participated in the slave trade, but kept away from trading posts on the coast.
Against the backdrop of Anglo-French rivalry
The "trade" and the slave trade intensified in the 17th century. In Senegal, the French and English competed mainly on two issues, the island of Gorée and St. Louis. On 10 February 1763 the Treaty of Paris ended the Seven Years' War and reconciled, after three years of negotiations, France, Great Britain and Spain. Great Britain returned the island of Gorée to France, but now the premiere colonial power, it acquired, among many other territories, "the river of Senegal, with forts & trading posts St. Louis, Podor, and Galam and all rights & dependencies of the said River of Senegal.".
Under Louis XIII and especially Louis XIV, the privileges were quite extensively granted to certain French shipping lines, which still faced many difficulties. In 1626 Richelieu founded the Norman Company, an association of Dieppe and Rouen merchants responsible for the operation in Senegal and the Gambia. It was dissolved in 1658 and its assets were acquired by the Company of Cape Vert and Senegal, itself expropriated following the creation by Colbert in 1664 of the French West India Company.
The Company of Senegal was in turn founded by Colbert in 1673. It became the major tool of French colonialism in Senegal, but saddled with debt, it was dissolved 1681 and replaced by another that lasted until 1694, the date of creation of the Royal Company of Senegal, whose director, Andre Brue, would be captured by the Damel of Cay and released against ransom in 1701. A third Company of Senegal was founded in 1709 and lasted until 1718. On the British side, the monopoly of trade with Africa was granted to the Royal African Company in 1698.
Grand Master of the naval war of Louis XIV, Admiral Jean Estrées seized Gorée on November 1, 1677. The island was taken up by the English on February 4, 1693 before being again occupied by the French four months later. In 1698 the Director of the Company of Senegal, Andre Brue, restored the fortifications. But Gorée became English once again in the middle of the 18th century.
The excellent location of St. Louis caught the attention of English who occupied it three times for a few months in 1693, then during the Seven Years' War of 1758 until it was taken by the Duc de Lauzun in 1779, lastly 1809 in 1816.
Appointed governor in 1785, Knight Boufflers focuses for two years to enhance the colony, while engaged in the smuggling of gum arabic and gold with signares.
A trading economy
The Europeans were sometimes disappointed because they hoped to find more gold in West Africa, but when the development of plantations in the Americas, mainly in the Caribbean, in Brazil and in the south of the United States raised a great need for cheap labor, the area received more attention. The Papacy who had sometimes opposed to the slavery, did not condemn it explicitly to the end of the 17th century; in fact the Church itself has an interest in the colonial system. Traffic of "ebony" is also an issue for warriors who traditionally reduces the vanquished to slavery, some people specialized in the slave trade – in the case of Dyula in West Africa – states and kingdoms also competed, as well as private traders who became much richer in the triangular trade, although some shipments sometimes resulted in real financial disaster. Politico-military instability in the region was compounded by the slave trade.
The Black Code, enacted in 1685, regulated the trafficking of slaves in the American colonies.
In Senegal, trading posts were established in Gorée, St. Louis, Rufisque, Portudal and Joal and the upper valley of the Senegal River, including Fort St. Joseph Galam was in the 18th century a French engine of trafficking in Senegambia.
In parallel, a mestizo society develops in St. Louis and Gorée.
Slavery was abolished by the National Convention in 1794, then reinstated by Bonaparte in 1802. Abolished in the British Empire in 1833, in France it was finally abolished in the Second Republic in 1848, under the leadership of Victor Schoelcher.
The progressive weakening of the colony
After the departure of Governor Schmaltz (he had taken office at the end of the wreck of the Medusa), Roger Baron particularly encourages the development of the peanut, "the earth pistachio", whose monoculture would be long because of the severe economic backwardness of Senegal. Despite the ferocity of the Baron, the company is a failure.
The colonization of the Casamance also continued. The island of Carabane, acquired by France in 1836, was profoundly transformed between 1849 and 1857 by the resident Emmanuel Bertrand Bocandé, Nantes businessman.
Various European powers – Portugal, the Netherlands, and England – competed for trade in the area from the 15th century onward, until in 1677, France ended up in possession of what had become a minor slave trade departure point—the infamous island of Gorée next to modern Dakar. In 1758 the French settlement was captured by a British expedition as part of the Seven Years' War, but was later returned to France. It was only in the 1850s that the French, under the governor, Louis Faidherbe, began to expand their foothold onto the Senegalese mainland, at the expense of the native kingdoms.
The Four Communes of Saint-Louis, Dakar, Gorée, and Rufisque were the oldest colonial towns in French controlled west Africa. In 1848, the French Second Republic extended the rights of full French citizenship to their inhabitants. While those who were born in these towns could technically enjoy all the rights of native French citizens, substantial legal and social barriers prevented the full exercise of these rights, especially by those seen by authorities as full blooded Africans.
Most of the African population of these towns were termed originaires: those Africans born into the commune, but who retained recourse to African and/or Islamic law (the so-called "personal status"). Those few Africans from the four communes who were able to pursue higher education and were willing to renounce their legal protections could 'rise' to be termed Évolué ('Evolved') and were nominally granted full French citizenship, including the vote. Despite this legal framework, Évolués still faced substantial discrimination in Africa and the Metropole alike.
On 27 April 1848, following the February revolution in France, a law was passed in Paris enabling the Four Quarters to elect a Deputy to the French Parliament for the first time. On 2 April 1852 the parliamentary seat for Senegal was abolished by Napoleon III. Following the downfall of the French Second Empire the Four Quarters was again allowed a parliamentary seat which was granted by law on 1 February 1871. On 30 December 1875 this seat was again abolished, but only for a few years as it was reinstated on 8 April 1879, and remained the single parliamentary representation from Africa anywhere in a European legislature until the fall of the third republic in 1940.
It was only in 1916 that originaires were granted full voting rights while maintaining legal protections. Blaise Diagne, who was the prime advocate behind the change, was in 1914 the first African deputy elected to the French National Assembly. From that time until independence in 1960, the deputies of the Four Communes were always African, and were at the forefront of the decolonisation struggle.
List of deputies elected to the French Parliament
- Barthélémy Durand Valantin 1848–1850 (Mixed race)
- Vacant 1850-1852
- Abolished 1852-1871
- Jean-Baptiste Lafon de Fongauffier 1871–1876 (Mixed race)
- Abolished 1876-1879
- Alfred Gasconi 1879–1889 (Mixed race)
- Aristide Vallon 1889-1893
- Jules Couchard 1893-1898
- Hector D'Agoult 1898-1902
- François Carpot 1902–1914 (Mixed race)
- Blaise Diagne 1914–1934 (African)
- Galandou Diouf 1934–1940 (African)
- Amadou Lamine Guèye 1945-1951 (African)
- Léopold Sedar Senghor 1945-1959 (African)
- Abbas Guèye 1951-1955 (African)
- Mamadou Dia 1956-1959 (African)
Following the 1945 elections to the Constituent Assembly in France, which were held with a very limited franchise, the French authorities gradually extended the franchise until in November 1955 the principle of universal suffrage was passed into law and implemented the following year. The first electoral contest held under universal suffrage were the municipal elections of November 1956, the first national contest the 31 March 1957 election of the Territorial Assembly.
In January 1959, Senegal and the French Sudan merged to form the Mali Federation, which became fully independent on 20 June 1960, as a result of the independence and the transfer of power agreement signed with France on 4 April 1960. Due to internal political difficulties, the Federation broke up on 20 August 1960. Senegal and Soudan (renamed the Republic of Mali) proclaimed independence. Léopold Senghor, internationally known poet, politician, and statesman, was elected Senegal's first president in August 1960.
The 1960s and early 1970s saw the continued and persistent violating of Senegal's borders by the Portuguese military from Portuguese Guinea. In response, Senegal petitioned the United Nations Security Council in 1963, 1965, 1969 (in response to shelling by Portuguese artillery), 1971 and finally in 1972.
After the breakup of the Mali Federation, President Senghor and Prime Minister Mamadou Dia governed together under a parliamentary system. In December 1962, their political rivalry led to an attempted coup by Prime Minister Dia. The coup was put down without bloodshed and Dia was arrested and imprisoned. Senegal adopted a new constitution that consolidated the President's power.
Senghor was considerably more tolerant of opposition than most African leaders became in the 1960s. Nonetheless, political activity was somewhat restricted for a time. Senghor's party, the Senegalese Progressive Union (now the Socialist Party of Senegal), was the only legally permitted party from 1965 until 1975. In the latter year, Senghor allowed the formation of two opposition parties that began operation in 1976—a Marxist party (the African Independence Party) and a liberal party (the Senegalese Democratic Party).
In 1980, President Senghor retired from politics, and handed power over to his handpicked successor, Prime Minister Abdou Diouf, in 1981.
Senegal joined with the Gambia to form the nominal confederation of Senegambia on 1 February 1982. However, the envisaged integration of the two countries was never carried out, and the union was dissolved in 1989. Despite peace talks, a southern separatist group in the Casamance region has clashed sporadically with government forces since 1982. Senegal has a long history of participating in international peacekeeping.
Abdou Diouf was president between 1981 and 2000. He encouraged broader political participation, reduced government involvement in the economy, and widened Senegal's diplomatic engagements, particularly with other developing nations. Domestic politics on occasion spilled over into street violence, border tensions, and a violent separatist movement in the southern region of the Casamance. Nevertheless, Senegal's commitment to democracy and human rights has strengthened over time. Diouf served four terms as President. In the presidential election of 2000, he was defeated in a free and fair election by opposition leader Abdoulaye Wade. Senegal experienced its second peaceful transition of power, and its first from one political party to another.
On 30 December 2004 President Abdoulaye Wade announced that he would sign a peace treaty with two separatist factions of the Movement of Democratic Forces of Casamance (MFDC) in the Casamance region. This will end West Africa's longest-running civil conflict. As of late 2006, it seemed the peace treaty was holding, as both factions and the Senegalese military appeared to honor the treaty. With recognized prospects for peace, refugees began returning home from neighboring Guinea-Bissau. However, at the beginning of 2007, refugees began fleeing again, as the sight of Senegalese troops rekindled fears of a new outbreak of violence between the separatists and the government.
- History of Africa
- History of West Africa
- Four Communes
- Government of Senegal
- Prime Minister of Senegal
- List of Presidents of Senegal
- Politics of Senegal
- Timeline of Dakar
- Unless otherwise stated, the material in this part is based on Ndiouga Benga and on Mandiomé Thiam, "prehistory prehistory and history", in Atlas du Sénégal, op. cit., p. 74
- (French) Théodore Monod, « Sur la découverte du Paléolithique ancien à Dakar », Bulletin du Comité d'études historiques et scientifiques de l'AOF, t. XXI, 1938, pp. 518–519
- (French) Abdoulaye Camara et Bertrand Duboscq, La préhistoire dans le Sud-Est du Sénégal, Actes du 2e Colloque de Kédougou, 18–22 fév. 1985, Doc. du CRA du Musée de l'Homme (Paris), n° 11, 1987, pp. 19-48
- (French) Th. Dagan, « Le Site préhistorique de Tiémassas (Sénégal) », Bulletin de l'Institut français d'Afrique noire, 1956, pp. 432-448
- (French) Cyr Descamps, « Quelques réflexions sur le Néolithique du Sénégal », West African Journal of Archaeology, 1981, vol. 10–11, pp. 145-151
- (French) Mandiomé Thiam, La céramique au Sénégal : Archéologie et Histoire, Université de Paris I, 1991, 464 pages (thèse de doctorat)
- (French) « Le gisement du Cap Manuel », conférence de Cyr Descamps, en ligne 
- (Spanish) « Prehistoria de África: Manifestaciones artísticas. Esculturas. Senegal » 
- (French) Marie-Amy Mbow, « Le site archéologique du Khant (région de Saint-Louis du Sénégal) : nouveaux éléments », Présence africaine, 1998, n° 158, pp. 7-22
- "Arrêté n° 12.09.2007 portant publication de la liste des sites et monuments historiques classés" (in French). Ministre de la Culture et du Patrimoine historique classé. 12 September 2007. Retrieved 2 July 2008.
- (French) Guy Thilmans, Cyr Descamps et B. Khayat, Protohistoire du Sénégal : recherches archéologiques, tome 1 : Les Sites Mégalithiques, IFAN, Dakar, 1980, 158 pages
- See his third thesis supported at the Sorbonne in 1986, La Métallurgie du fer au Sénégal et ses travaux des années 1990 on this topic
- (French) Edmond Dioh et Mathieu Gueye, « Les amas coquilliers de la lagune de Joal-Fadiouth (région de Thiès) », dans Senegalia, op. cit., pp. 323-328
- "Saloum Delta". World Heritage Site. Retrieved 29 August 2012.
- (French) Annie Ravisé, Contribution à l'étude des Kjökkenmöddinger (amas artificiels de coquillages) dans la région de Saint-Louis, Dakar, Université de Dakar, 1969 (mémoire de Maîtrise)
- Olga Linares de Sapir, « Shell middens of lower Casamance and problems of Diola protohistory », West African Journal of Archaeology, Oxford University Press, Ibadan, 1971, vol. I, pp. 23-54
- (French) Jean-Léopold Diouf, Dictionnaire wolof-français et français-wolof, Karthala, Paris, 2003, p. 216
- (French) Raymond Mauny, Tableau géographique de l'Ouest africain au Moyen-Âge d'après les sources écrites, la tradition et l'archéologie, Swets et Zeitlinger, Amsterdam, 1967, p. 163
- "Cercles mégalithiques de Sénégambie" (in French). UNESCO. Retrieved 2 July 2008.
- (French) Augustin Holl et Hamady Bocoum, « Variabilité des pratiques funéraires dans le mégalithisme sénégambien : le cas de Sine Ngayène », dans Senegalia, op. cit., pp. 224-234
- (French) Bruno Chavane, Recherches archéologiques dans la moyenne vallée du fleuve Sénégal, 1979 (thèse)
- (French) Guy Thilmans, « Les disques perforés en céramique des sites protohistoriques du fleuve Sénégal », Notes africaines, n° 162, 1979, pp. 29-35
- (French) Guy Thilmans et Annie Ravisé, Protohistoire du Sénégal, Recherches archéologique, tome II, Sinthiou-Bara et les sites du Fleuve, 1983, Dakar, 213 pages (mémoire IFAN)
- Wright, Donald (2010). The World and a Very Small Place in Africa: A History of Globalization in Niumi, the Gambia (3rd ed.). M.E. Sharpe. p. 51. ISBN 978-0765624840.
- (French) Gerti Hesseling, Histoire politique du Sénégal. Institutions, droit et société, Karthala, Paris, 1985, p. 103
- (French) Mahamadou Maiga, Le bassin du fleuve Sénégal – De la traite négrière au développement sous-régional autocentré, Paris, L’Harmattan, 1995, p. 20
- Hrbek, I. (1992). General History of Africa volume 3: Africa from the 7th to the 11th Century: Africa from the Seventh to the Eleventh Century v. 3 (Unesco General History of Africa (abridged)). James Carey. p. 67. ISBN 978-0852550939.
- Creevey, Lucy (August 1996). "Islam, Women and the Role of the State in Senegal". Journal of Religion in Africa 26 (3): 268–307. doi:10.1163/157006696x00299.
- Fage, John Donnelly (1997). "Upper and Lower Guinea". In Roland Oliver. The Cambridge History of Africa, Volume 3. Cambridge University Press. p. 484. ISBN 978-0521209816.
- (French) « Discussion sur les croisements ethniques », séance du 2 février 1865, Bulletin de la société d'anthropologie, tome 6, fasc. 4, p. 67
- (French) Gerti Hesseling, op. cit., p. 104
- (French) Raymond Mauny, op. cit., p. 523
- (French) Samba Lampsar Sall, Njajaan Njaay. Les mythes de fondation de l'Empire du Djolof, Dakar, Université de Dakar, 1982, 157 pages (Mémoire de Maîtrise)
- William J. Foltz. From French West Africa to the Mali Federation, Volume 12 of Yale studies in political science, p136. Published by Yale University Press, 1965
- Both Ndiadiane's name and surname are Serer in origin. For the surname Njie or Ndiaye which Ndiadiane Ndiaye got his name from see Cheikh Anta Diop and Egbuna P. Modum. "Towards the African renaissance: essays in African culture & development", 1946-1960, p28. Published by Karnak House (1996). ISBN 0-907015-85-9
- The name comes from the Serer language. See: Victoria Bomba Coifman. History of the Wolof state of Jolof until 1860 including comparative data from the Wolof state of Walo, p276. Published by University of Wisconsin–Madison, 1969
- See also: Godfrey Mwakikagile. Gambia and Its People: Ethnic Identities and Cultural Integration in Africa, p94
- Mam Kumba Njie (or Ndiaye) is a Serer Goddess in the Serer religion as well as the Almoravid invasion of Tekrur. See: Henry Gravrand. La Civilisation Sereer, Pangool, p 91. See also:
- Ed Hindson & Ergun Caner. The Popular Encyclopedia of Apologetics: Surveying the Evidence for the Truth of Christianity. Page 21. Harvest House Publishers, 2008. ISBN 0-7369-2084-6
- (French) Jean Boulègue, Le grand Jolof, XIIIe-XVIe siècle, vol. 1 : Les Anciens Royaumes Wolof, Façades, Blois ; Karthala, Paris, 207 pages
- Charles, Eunice A. Precolonial Senegal: the Jolof Kingdom, 1800-1890. African Studies Center, Boston University, 1977. p 3
- Ham, Anthony. West Africa. Lonely Planet. 2009. p 670. (ISBN 1741048214)
- Diouf, Sylviane, Servants of Allah: African Muslims enslaved in the Americas (New York: New York University Press, 1998), 19
- Diouf, Niokhobaye. "Chronique du royaume du Sine" par suivie de Notes sur les traditions orales et les sources écrites concernant le royaume du Sine par Charles Becker et Victor Martin. Bulletin de l'Ifan, Tome 34, Série B, n° 4, 1972. p706
- Stride, G.T. & C. Ifeka: "Peoples and Empires of West Africa: West Africa in History 1000-1800" page 22. Nelson, 1971
- (French) Gerti Hesseling, op. cit., p. 105
- (French) Djibril Diop, Décentralisation et gouvernance locale au Sénégal. Quelle pertinence pour le développement local ?, L'Harmattan, Paris, 2006, p. 29
- (French) Ferdinand Édouard Buisson, Dictionnaire de pédagogie et d'instruction primaire, 1887, p. 442
- (French) Olivier Pétré-Grenouilleau, Les traites négrières. Documentation photographique, La Documentation française, n° 8032, 2003
- (French) Joseph Roger de Benoist et Abdoulaye Camara (et al.), Histoire de Gorée, Maisonneuve et Larose, Paris, 2003, p. 12
- This place corresponds to the area of Cape Vert in Senegal today and not to the îles du Cap-Vert which aren't discovered until 1456.
- (French) Joseph Roger de Benoist et Abdoulaye Camara, op. cit., p. 15 and p. 139
- (French) Abbé David Boilat, « Notice sur Tanguegueth ou Rufisque », Esquisses sénégalaises, Karthala, Paris, 1984 (1st éd. 1853), p. 55
- (French) Christian Roche, Histoire de la Casamance. Conquête et résistance : 1850–1920, Karthala, Paris, 1985 (1st éd. 1976), p. 67
- The date of 1617, cited by Olfert Dapper in Description de l'Afrique contenant les noms, la situation & les confins de toutes ses parties, leurs rivières, leurs villes & leurs habitations, leurs plantes & leurs animaux : les moeurs, les coutumes, la langue, les richesses, la religion & le gouvernement de ses peuples : avec des cartes des États, des provinces & des villes, & des figures en taille-douce, qui representent les habits & les principales cérémonies des habitants, les plantes & les animaux les moins connus, W. Waesberge, Boom et Van Someren, Amsterdam, édition de 1686, p. 229, is reprised in many sources. Implausible, given thé date of creation of the company, it is challenged by two historians of Gorée: J.-R. de Benoist et A. Camara, op. cit., pp. 15-18
- (French) Olfert Dapper, op. cit., p. 229
- Wikisource: Article 10 of the Treaty of Paris of 1763 Treaty of Paris(1763)
- "Goree and the Atlantic Slave Trade", Philip Curtin, History Net, accessed 9 Jul 2008
- Les Guides Bleus: Afrique de l'Ouest(1958 ed.), p. 123
- *Chafer, Tony. Page 145. The End of Empire in French West Africa: France's Successful Decolonization. Berg (2002). ISBN 1-85973-557-6
- Auchnie, Ailsa "The commandement indigène" in Senegal. 1919–1947, Londres, SOAS, 1983, 405 pages (Thèse)
- Chafer, Tony. The End of Empire in French West Africa: France's Successful Decolonization. Berg (2002). ISBN 1-85973-557-6
- Gellar, Sheldon. Senegal: an African nation between Islam and the West (Boulder: Westview Press, 1982).
- Idowu, H. Oludare The Conseil General in Senegal, 1879–1920, Ibadan, University of Ibadan, 1970 (Thèse)
- Leland, Conley Barrows Général Faidherbe, the Maurel and Prom Company, and French Expansion in Senegal, University of California, Los Angeles, 1974, XXI-t.1, pp. 1–519 ; t.2, pages 520–976, (thèse)
- Nelson, Harold D. et al. Area Handbook for Senegal (2nd ed. Washington: American University, 1974) full text online, 411pp;
- Robinson Jr, David Wallace Faidherbe, Senegal and Islam, New York, Columbia University, 1965, 104 pages (thèse)
- Wikle, Thomas A., and Dale R. Lightfoot. "Landscapes of the Slave Trade in Senegal and The Gambia." Focus on Geography (2014) 57#1 pp: 14-24.
- Michel Adanson, Histoire naturelle du Sénégal. Coquillages. Avec la relation abrégée d'un voyage fait en ce pays pendant les années 1749, 50, 51, 52 et 53, Paris, 1757, réédité partiellement sous le titre Voyage au Sénégal, présenté et annoté par Denis Reynaud et Jean Schmidt, Publications de l'Université de Saint-Étienne, 1996.
- Stanislas, chevalier de Boufflers, Lettres d'Afrique à Madame de Sabran, préface, notes et dossier de François Bessire, s. l., Babel, 1998, 453 pages (coll. Les Épistolaires)
- Marie Brantôme, Le Galant exil du marquis de Boufflers, 1786
- Jean Baptiste Léonard Durand, Voyage au Sénégal 1785–1786, Paris, Agasse, 1802.
- Georges Hardy, La mise en valeur du Sénégal de 1817 à 1854, Paris, Larose, 1921, XXXIV + 376 pages (Thèse de Lettres)
- André Charles, marquis de La Jaille, Voyage au Sénégal pendant les années 1784 et 1785, avec des notes jusqu’à l'an X par P. Labarthe, Paris, Denter,1802.
- Saugnier, Relation des voyages de Saugnier à la côte d'Afrique, au Maroc, au Sénégal, à Gorée, à Galam, publiée par Laborde, Paris, Lamy, 1799.
- René Claude Geoffroy de Villeneuve, L’Afrique ou Histoire, mœurs, usages et coutumes des Africains : le Sénégal, orné de 44 planches exécutées la plupart d'après des dessins originaux inédits faits sur les lieux, Paris, Nepveu,1814.
- Gravrand, Henry, "La Civilisation Sereer - Pangool", vol.2, Les Nouvelles Editions Africaines du Senegal, 1990. pp, 9, 20 & 77, 91, ISBN 2-7236-1055-1
- Gravrand, Henry, "La civilisation Sereer, VOL.1, Cosaan : les origines", Nouvelles Editions africaines, 1983, ISBN 2-7236-0877-8
- University of Calgary, Dept. of Archaeology, Society of Africanist Archaeologists in America, Society of Africanist Archaeologists, "Newsletter of African archaeology, Issues 47-50", Dept. of Archaeology, University of Calgary, 1997, pp 27, 58
- Becker, Charles, "Vestiges historiques, trémoins matériels du passé clans les pays sereer", Dakar (1993), CNRS – ORS TO M
- Foltz, William J., "From French West Africa to the Mali Federation, Volume 12 of Yale studies in political science, p136, Yale University Press, 1965
- Diop, Cheikh Anta, Modum, Egbuna P., "Towards the African renaissance: essays in African culture & development", 1946–1960, p 28, Karnak House (1996). ISBN 0-907015-85-9
- Coifman, Victoria Bomba, "History of the Wolof state of Jolof until 1860 including comparative data from the Wolof state of Walo", p 276, University of Wisconsin–Madison, 1969
- Diouf, Niokhobaye. "Chronique du royaume du Sine" par suivie de Notes sur les traditions orales et les sources écrites concernant le royaume du Sine par Charles Becker et Victor Martin. Bulletin de l'Ifan, Tome 34, Série B, n° 4, 1972. p706
- Sarr, Alioune, "Histoire du Sine–Saloum", Introduction, bibliographie et Notes par Charles Becker, BIFAN, Tome 46, Serie B, n° 3-4, 1986–1987
- Rodolphe Alexandre, La Révolte des tirailleurs sénégalais à Cayenne, 24–25 février 1946, 1995, 160 pages ISBN 2-7384-3330-8
- Jean-Luc Angrand, Céleste ou le temps des signares, Éditions Anne Pépin, 2006
- Boubacar Barry, La Sénégambie du XVe au XIXe siècle. Traite négrière, Islam et conquête coloniale, Paris, L'Harmattan, 1991 (rééd.), 544 pages ISBN 2-85802-670-X
- Boubacar Barry, Le Royaume du Waalo : le Sénégal avant la Conquête, Karthala, 2000 (rééd.), 420 pages ISBN 2-86537-141-7
- Abdoulaye Bathily, Les Portes de l'or : le royaume de Galam (Sénégal) de l'ère musulmane au temps des négriers (VIIIe-XVIIIe siècles), Paris, L'Harmattan, 1989.
- Claire Bernard, Les Aménagements du bassin fleuve Sénégal pendant la colonisation française (1850–1960), ANRT, 1996, ISBN 2-284-00077-0
- Germaine Françoise Bocandé, L’implantation militaire française dans la région du Cap-Vert : causes, problèmes et conséquences des origines à 1900, Dakar, Université de Dakar, 1980, 112 pages (Mémoire de Maîtrise)
- Jean Boulègue, Le Grand Jolof : XIIIe-XVIe siècles, les Anciens royaumes Wolof, t. 1, Karthala, 1987, 207 pages
- Paul Bouteiller, Le Chevalier de Boufflers et le Sénégal de son temps (1785–1788), Lettres du Monde, Paris, 1995.
- Bruno A. Chavane, Villages de l'ancien Tekrour : recherches archéologiques dans la moyenne vallée du fleuve Sénégal, Karthala-CRA, 2000 (rééd.)
- Sékéné Mody Cissoko, Le Khasso face à l'empire Toucouleur et à la France dans le Haut- Sénégal 1854–1890, Paris, L'Harmattan, 1988, 351 pages ISBN 2-7384-0133-3
- Catherine Clément, Afrique esclave, Agnès Vienot, 1999, 200 pages ISBN 2-911606-36-1
- Cyr Descamps, Contribution à la préhistoire de l'Ouest-sénégalais, Paris, Université de Paris, 1972, 345 pages (Thèse de 3e cycle publiée en 1979, Dakar, Travaux et Documents Faculté des Lettres : 286 pages
- Falilou Diallo, Histoire du Sénégal : de la conférence de Brazzaville à la fondation du bloc démocratique sénégalais : 1944–1948, Paris, Université de Paris I, 1983, 318 pages (Thèse de 3rd cycle)
- Papa Momar Diop, Les administrateurs coloniaux au Sénégal. 1900–1914, Dakar, Université de Dakar, 1985, 107 pages (Mémoire de Maîtrise)
- Mamadou Diouf, Le Kajoor au XIXe, Karthala, 1989
- Mamadou Diouf, Le Sénégal sous Abdou Diouf, Karthala, 1990
- Mamadou Diouf, Une histoire du Sénégal : le modèle islamo-wolof et ses périphéries, Paris, Maisonneuve & Larose, 2001, 250 pages ISBN 2-7068-1503-5
- Babacar Fall, Le Travail forcé en Afrique Occidentale Française (1900–1946), Karthala, 2000, 336 pages ISBN 2-86537-372-X
- Denys Ferrando-Durfort, Lat Dior le résistant, Paris : Chiron, 1989. – 45 pages ISBN 2-7027-0403-4
- Jean Girard, L'Or du Bambouk : du royaume de Gabou à la Casamance une dynamique de civilisation ouest-africaine, Genève, Georg, 1992, 347 pages
- Bernard Grosbellet, Le Moniteur du Sénégal et dépendances comme sources de l'histoire du Sénégal pendant le premier gouvernement de Faidherbe (1856–1861), Dakar, Université de Dakar, 1967, 113 pages (Diplôme d'Etudes Supérieures)
- Gerti Hesseling, Histoire politique du Sénégal : institutions, droit et société (traduction Catherine Miginiac), Karthala, 2000, 437 pages ISBN 2-86537-118-2
- Abdoulaye Ly, La Compagnie du Sénégal, Karthala, 2000, 448 pages ISBN 2-86537-406-8
- Mahamadou Maiga, Le Bassin du fleuve Sénégal – De la traite négrière au développement, Paris, L’Harmattan, 1995, 330 pages ISBN 2-7384-3093-7
- Laurence Marfaing, Évolution du commerce au Sénégal : 1820–1930, Paris, L’Harmattan, 1991, 320 pages ISBN 2-7384-1195-9
- Saliou Mbaye, Le Conseil privé du Sénégal de 1819 à 1854, Paris, Université de Paris, 1974, 431 pages (Thèse de l'École des Chartes)
- Djibril Tamsir Niane, Soundjata ou l'épopée Mandingue, Présence africaine, 2000 (rééd.) 160 pages ISBN 2-7087-0078-2
- Jean-Pierre Phan, Le Front Populaire au Sénégal (1936–1938), Paris, Université de Paris I, 1974, 176 pages (Mémoire de Maîtrise)
- Christian Roche, Histoire de la Casamance : Conquête et résistance 1850–1920, Karthala, 2000, 408 pages ISBN 2-86537-125-5
- Christian Roche, Le Sénégal à la conquête de son indépendance, 1939–1960. Chronique de la vie politique et syndicale, de l'Empire français à l'Indépendance, Paris, Karthala, 2001, 286 pages
- Yves-Jean Saint-Martin, Une source de l'histoire coloniale du Sénégal. Les rapports de situation politique (1874–1891), Dakar, Université de Dakar, 1964, 147 pages (Dipôme d'Etudes Supérieures)
- Yves-Jean Saint-Martin, La formation territoriale de la colonie du Sénégal sous le Second Empire 1850–1871, Nantes, Université de Nantes, 1980, 2 vol. 1096 pages (Thèse d'État)
- Yves-Jean Saint-Martin, Le Sénégal sous le Second Empire, Karthala, 2000, 680 pages ISBN 2-86537-201-4
- H. Y. Sanchez-Calzadilla, A l'origine de l'expansion française, la commission des comptoirs du Sénégal, Paris, Université de Paris I, 1973 (Mémoire de Maîtrise)
- Alain Sinou, Comptoirs et villes coloniales du Sénégal : Saint-Louis, Gorée, Dakar, Karthala, 1999, 344 pages ISBN 2-86537-393-2
- Charles Uyisenga, La participation de la colonie du Sénégal à l'effort de guerre 1914–1918, Dakar, Université de Dakar, 1978, 216 pages (Mémoire de Maîtrise)
- Nicole Vaget Grangeat, Le Chevalier de Boufflers et son temps, étude d'un échec, Paris, Nizet, 1976
- Baïla Wane, Le Conseil colonial du Sénégal, 1920–1946, Paris, Université de Paris VII, 1978, 20 pages (Diplôme d'Études Approfondies).
- VIIe Colloque euroafricain Aline Robert – Les sources écrites européennes du XVe au XIXe s : un apport complémentaire pour la connaissance du passé africain
- Uniformes des tirailleurs sénégalais