Demographics of Senegal

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This article is about the demographic features of the population of Senegal, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

About 42% of Senegal's population is rural. In rural areas, population density varies from about 77 per square kilometer (200/mile²) in the west-central region to 2 per square kilometer (5/mile²) in the arid eastern section. The average population density for the country is 68 people per square kilometer (169/sq mi).[1] French is the official language but is used regularly only by the literate minority. Almost all Senegalese speak an indigenous language, of which Wolof has the largest usage. Many Senegalese live in Europe, particularly in France, Italy and Spain.

Population[edit]

Demographics of Senegal, From UN estimates; Number of inhabitants in millions.

According to the 2018 revision of the World Population Review[1] the total population was 16,302,789 in May 2018, compared to only 2,416,000 in 1950. The proportion of children below the age of 15 in 2017 was 41.5%, between 15 and 54 years of age was 31.1%, while 55 years or older was 6.9%. .[2]

Total population Population aged 0–14 (%) Population aged 15–64 (%) Population aged 65+ (%)
1950 2,416,000 41.6 55.0 3.4
1955 2,684,000 41.5 55.6 2.9
1960 3,048,000 41.9 55.5 2.6
1965 3,505,000 43.0 54.6 2.4
1970 4,096,000 44.3 53.5 2.3
1975 4,786,000 45.3 52.5 2.2
1980 5,414,000 47.2 50.5 2.2
1985 6,232,000 47.7 50.0 2.3
1990 7,242,000 47.2 50.4 2.4
1995 8,369,000 46.2 51.3 2.5
2000 9,506,000 45.4 52.1 2.5
2005 10,872,000 44.4 53.1 2.5
2010 12,434,000 43.7 53.9 2.4
2017 14,668,522 41.5 55.5 2.9

Vital statistics[edit]

Registration of vital events in Senegal is not complete. The Population Department of the United Nations prepared the following estimates.[2]

Period Live births per year Deaths per year Natural change per year CBR* CDR* NC* TFR* IMR*
1950–1955 115,000 68,000 47,000 45.2 26.8 18.4 6.05 131
1955–1960 137,000 73,000 64,000 47.7 25.4 22.3 6.42 128
1960–1965 163,000 82,000 81,000 49.7 24.9 24.8 6.85 123
1965–1970 193,000 92,000 101,000 50.8 24.2 26.6 7.25 117
1970–1975 224,000 100,000 125,000 50.5 22.4 28.1 7.45 108
1975–1980 251,000 99,000 153,000 49.3 19.3 29.9 7.50 99
1980–1985 274,000 93,000 181,000 47.1 16.0 31.0 7.28 89
1985–1990 303,000 92,000 211,000 45.0 13.6 31.4 6.90 80
1990–1995 335,000 98,000 237,000 42.9 12.5 30.3 6.36 72
1995–2000 365,000 104,000 261,000 40.8 11.6 29.2 5.77 66
2000–2005 405,000 108,000 297,000 39.8 10.6 29.2 5.36 60
2005–2010 450,000 111,000 339,000 38.6 9.5 29.1 5.03 55
* CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births; TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman)

Births and deaths [3]

Year Population Live births Deaths Natural increase Crude birth rate Crude death rate Rate of natural increase TFR
2009 498 714 138 182 360 532 41,0 11,4 29,6 4,91
2010 456 212 132 218 323 994 36,5 10,6 25,9 4,86
2011 464 464 134 450 330 014 36,2 10,5 25,7
2012 471 629 135 468 336 161 35,7 10,3 25,5
2013 12 874 000 478 898 136 460 342 438 35,3 10,1 25,2

Fertility and births[edit]

Total Fertility Rate (TFR) (Wanted Fertility Rate) and Crude Birth Rate (CBR):[4]

Year CBR (Total) TFR (Total) CBR (Urban) TFR (Urban) CBR (Rural) TFR (Rural)
1980-82 7,4 6,3 7,9
1983-85 6,6 5,4 7,1
1992-93 40,8 6,03 (5,1) 37,4 5,06 (3,8) 42,9 6,74 (5,9)
1997 37 5,67 (4,6) 31 4,29 (3,2) 42 6,74 (5,6)
1999 36 5,2 30 3,9 40 6,1
2005 39,3 5,3 (4,5) 33,4 4,1 (3,3) 44,0 6,4 (5,7)
2008–2009 37,3 4,9 33,4 4,0 40,1 5,8
2010–2011 37,4 5,0 (3,2) 32,3 3,9 (2,6) 41,6 6,0 (3,8)
2012–2013 38,6 5,3 32,9 4,1 42,7 6,3
2014 37,6 5,0 (3,7) 33,4 4,0 (3,1) 41,6 6,3 (4,4)
2015 35.7 4.9 (4.3) 28.1 3.5 (3.1) 41.5 6.1 (5.4)
2016 34.6 4.7 (4.2) 27.2 3.5 (3.1) 40.8 5.9 (5.2)
2017 33.7 4.6 (4.0) 27.1 3.4 (3.0) 39.2 5.9 (5.1)

Life expectancy[edit]

Period Life expectancy in
Years[5]
1950–1955 35.47
1955–1960 Increase 37.49
1960–1965 Increase 38.62
1965–1970 Decrease 38.41
1970–1975 Increase 40.91
1975–1980 Increase 46.50
1980–1985 Increase 51.27
1985–1990 Increase 56.05
1990–1995 Increase 57.59
1995–2000 Decrease 57.25
2000–2005 Increase 58.93
2005–2010 Increase 62.41
2010–2015 Increase 65.71

Ethnic groups[edit]

Wolof 41.6%, Pular 28.1%, Serer 15.3%, Mandinka 5.4%, Jola 3.4%, Soninke 0.8%, Other 5.4% (includes 50,000 Europeans and persons of Lebanese descent) (2010–2011 est.)[6]
About 50,000 Europeans -represents the 0.003% of the population of Senegal- (mostly French) and Lebanese and Vietnamese reside in Senegal, mainly in the cities.
Population of Senegal according to ethnic group in 1976 and 1988
Ethnic
group
census 1976 [7] census 1988[8]
Number % Number %
Wolof 2,001,416 41.0 2,890,402 42.7
Serer 716,919 14.7 1,009,921 14.9
Peul 605,584 12.4 978,366 14.4
Toucouleur 528,490 10.8 631,892 9.3
Diola 265,353 5.4 357,672 5.3
Mandingue 179,050 3.7 245,651 3.6
Soce 42,751 0.6
Sarakhole 84,102 1.7 113,184 1.7
Bambara 65,096 1.3 91,071 1.3
Maure 59,784 1.2 67,726 1.0
Mandjaag 41,628 0.9 66,605 1.0
Lebou 94,837 1.9 56,758 0.8
Balant 33,915 0.7 54,398 0.8
Malinke 202,472 4.1 28,643 0.4
Mancagne 23,180 0.3
Laobe 18,250 0.3
Bassari 6,195 0.1
Khassonke 1,752 0.0
Coniagui 1,119 0.0
Fula 108 0.0
Other 87,773 1.3
Total 4,879,103 6,773,417

Languages[edit]

French (official), Wolof, Pulaar, Serer, Jola, Mandinka, Soninke

Religion[edit]

The religion beliefs of the 2016 population of Senegal are: Muslim 96.1% (mostly Sufi), Christian 3.6% (mostly Roman Catholic), animist 0.3%.[6]

Other general statistics[edit]

The following demographic statistics of Senegal are from the World Population Review.[1]

  • One birth every 57 seconds
  • One death every 6 minutes
  • Net gain of one person every 1 minutes
  • One net migrant every 26 minutes
  • About 43% of the population lives below the national poverty line.

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.[9]

Life expectancy at birth[edit]

Total population: 62.1 years (2017 est.), 59.78 years (2011 est.), 59.25 years (2006 est.)
Male: 60 years (2017 est.), 57.85 years (2011 est.), 57.7 years (2006 est.)
Female: 64.3 years (2017 est.), 61.77 years (2011 est.), 60.85 years (2006 est.)

Median age[edit]

Total: 18.8 years
Male: 18 years
Female: 19.7 years (2017 est.)

Population growth rate[edit]

2.39% (2017 est.). Country comparison to the world: 25th

Birth rate:[edit]

33.4 births/1,000 population (2017 est.). Country comparison to the world: 28th

Death rate:[edit]

8.1 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.). Country comparison to the world: 90th

Mother's mean age at first birth[edit]

21.5 years (median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2016 est.))

Dependency ratios[edit]

Total: 85.4
Youth: 79.8
Elderly: 5.6
Potential support ratio: 18 (2015 est.)

Literacy[edit]

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write

Total population: 57.7%
Male: 69.7%
Female: 46.6% (2015 est.)

Urbanization[edit]

urban population: 47.2% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 3.73% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio[edit]

315 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Drinking water source[edit]

improved
total: 78.5% of population
urban: 92.9% of population
rural: 67.3% of population
unimproved
total: 21.5% of population
urban: 7.1% of population
rural: 32.7% of population (2015 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)[edit]

total: 9 years
male: 9 years
female: 9 years (2015)

Gender ratio[edit]

At birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.87 male(s)/females
Total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Emigration[edit]

Senegal aforetime was a destination country for neighboring economic migrants, but in recent decades West African migrants more often use Senegal as a transit point to North Africa and also to illegally onward to Europe.[6] The country also has been host to several thousand black Mauritanian refugees since they were expelled from Mauritania during the 1989 border conflict with Senegal. The country’s economic crisis in the 1970s stimulated emigration; departures accelerated from the 1990s. Destinations shifted from neighboring countries to Libya and Mauritania, because of their booming oil industries, and to France, Italy and Spain.[6]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c World Population Review: Senegal Population 2018, 14 June 2018
  2. ^ a b Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision Archived 6 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  3. ^ "United Nations Statistics Division - Demographic and Social Statistics". unstats.un.org.
  4. ^ "MEASURE DHS: Demographic and Health Surveys". microdata.worldbank.org.
  5. ^ "World Population Prospects - Population Division - United Nations". esa.un.org. Retrieved 2018-08-26.
  6. ^ a b c d "Africa :: SENEGAL". The World Factbook. CIA.
  7. ^ Rapport National de Présentation du Recensement Général de la Population 1976 (RGP I)[1]
  8. ^ "United Nations Statistics Division - Demographic and Social Statistics". unstats.un.org.
  9. ^ "The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov.

External links[edit]