GE Evolution Series

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GE Evolution Series
Union Pacific 5304.jpg
Three of Union Pacific Railroad's Evolution Series locomotives leaving Hutchinson, Kansas, with AC45CCTE #5304 in the lead.
Type and origin
Power typeDiesel-electric
BuilderGeneral Electric Transportation
Build date2003-present
 • AARC-C (ES40DC, ES44DC,[1] ES44AC,[2] ES58ACi, ES59ACi)
A1A-A1A (ES44C4[3])
 • UICCo′Co′ (ES30ACi, ES40DC, ES44DC, ES44AC, ES44DCi, ES44ACi, ES58ACi, ES59ACi, ET44AC), (A1A)(A1A) (ES44C4, ET44C4)
 • CommonwealthCo-Co (ES30ACi, ES40DC, ES44DC, ES44AC, ES44DCi, ES44ACi, ES58ACi, ES59ACi, ET44AC), A1A-A1A (ES44C4, ET44C4)
Gauge1,000 mm (3 ft 3+38 in)
1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in)
4 ft 8+12 in (1,435 mm) standard gauge
1,520 mm (4 ft 11+2732 in) Kazakhstan
5 ft 3 in (1,600 mm) Brazil
5 ft 6 in (1,676 mm) India
Length73 ft 2 in (22.30 m) (ES44AC/DC) 74 ft 6 in (22.71 m) (ET44AC/AH/C4)
Fuel capacity5,000 US gal (19,000 l; 4,200 imp gal) (ES40DC, ES44DC, ES44AC, ES44C4)
Prime moverGEVO
Engine typeV12 (ES30ACi, ES40DC, ES44DC,[1] ES44AC,[2] ES44C4[3])
V16 (ES58ACi, ES59ACi)
4-stroke diesel engine
Cylinders12 (ES40DC, ES44DC,[1] ES44AC,[2] ES44C4[3])
16 (ES58ACi, ES59ACi)
Performance figures
Power output3,200 hp (2.4 MW) (ES30ACi)
4,000 hp (3.0 MW) (ES40DC)
4,400 hp (3.3 MW) (ES44DC, ES44AC, ES44C4, ET44AC, ET44AH, ET44C4)
6,200 hp (4.6 MW) (ES58ACi, ES59ACi)
Tractive effort:
 • Starting183,000 lbf (810 kN) (ES44AC)
200,000 lbf (890 kN) (ET44AC)
144,000 lbf (640 kN) (ES44C4, ET44C4)
 • Continuous166,000 lbf (740 kN) (ES44AC, ET44AC)
105,000 lbf (470 kN) (ES44C4, ET44C4)
DispositionMost were still in service in 2019 (Only ones retired have been involved in wrecks)

The Evolution Series is a line of diesel locomotives built by GE Transportation Systems (now owned by Wabtec), initially designed to meet the U.S. EPA's Tier 2 locomotive emissions standards that took effect in 2005. The first pre-production units were built in 2003. Evolution Series locomotives are equipped with either AC or DC traction motors, depending on the customer's preference. All are powered by the GE GEVO engine.[4]

The Evolution Series was named as one of the "10 Locomotives That Changed Railroading" in the January 2009 issue of Trains Magazine.[5] It was the only locomotive introduced after 1972 to be included in that list.[5]

The Evolution Series, mainly the ES44DC, ES44AC, and ET44AC, are some of the best-selling and most successful freight locomotives in United States history.


Currently, six different Evolution Series models have been produced for the North American market. They are all six axle locomotives and have the wheel arrangement C-C (AAR classification) or Co′Co′ (UIC classification), except for the ES44C4 which has an A1A-A1A wheel arrangement and the meter-gauge version developed for the Brazilian network ES43BBi which is B-B-B-B. All North American Evolution Series locomotives are equipped from the factory with a Nathan-Airchime K5HL-R2 "Evolution" airhorn, and most later models are equipped with a Graham-White 373 electronic bell.

ES40DC (2004-2008)[edit]

NS ES40DC #7698

The ES40DC (Evolution Series, 4000 HP, DC traction) replaced the Dash 9-40CW model in the General Electric catalogue and, like the former model, was delivered exclusively to Norfolk Southern Railway. ES44DCs owned by CSX Transportation were also given this designation in 2009 after being de-rated to 4,000 hp (3,000 kW). However, high-horsepower demand on Norfolk Southern made a mandatory repowering of several ES40DC engines into their former ES44DC power.[6]

ES44DC (2005-2010)[edit]

CSX ES44DC #5358

The ES44DC (Evolution Series, 4400 HP, DC traction) replaced the Dash 9-44CW model in the General Electric catalogue. Primary users are BNSF Railway, CSX Transportation, and Canadian National Railway. Pilbara Iron in Australia ordered a lengthened, international version designated ES44DCi. The extra length is used for a larger radiator to increase cooling capacity in the Australian outback.

ES44AC (2003-2019)[edit]

CN EF-644p #2869
Citirail (CREX) ES44AC #1203
UP C45ACCTE #7767

The ES44AC (Evolution Series, 4400 HP, AC traction) replaced the AC4400CW model in the General Electric catalogue. These locomotives have been ordered by every Class I railroad in North America: Union Pacific Railroad (who refers to these locomotives as the C45ACCTE), BNSF Railway, CSX Transportation, Norfolk Southern Railway, Kansas City Southern Railway, Kansas City Southern de Mexico, Ferromex, Canadian Pacific Railway, and Canadian National Railway.

ES44C4 (2009-2015)[edit]

BNSF ES44C4 #8013

The ES44C4 (Evolution Series, 4400 HP, C to denote 3 axles per truck, 4 traction motors) was introduced in 2009. While similar to the ES44AC, the ES44C4 has two traction motors per truck, instead of the conventional three such as on the ES44AC. No ES44C4s with DC traction were built. The center axle of each truck is unpowered, giving an A1A-A1A wheel arrangement. BNSF Railway is the launch customer for this model, ordering an initial batch of 25 units numbered 6600-6624.[7] As of 2020, BNSF Railway rostered 200 ES44C4 units. The 4200s and units 7921-7999 are certified as Tier 4 Credit units, while the others are Tier 2 or Tier 3. On 30 January 2014 Florida East Coast Railway announced that they would buy 24 ES44C4s, to be numbered 800-823, for heavy haul service and intermodal traffic. All were delivered by the end of 2014, in order to beat the EPA's deadline on exhaust-emissions standards for new-built Tier 3 locomotives.

A feature of these units is a variable traction control system in their computer systems. One of the differences between an ES44AC and an ES44C4 are the air cylinders and linkages on the truck sideframes of the ES44C4; these are part of the traction control system. Every time a variation in grade, traction, or wheel slip occurs, the computer adjusts the pressure in these cylinders to maintain sufficient adhesion, by varying the weight on the drive axles.[8][9]


Rio Tinto ES44DCi #8181

The ES44DCi (Evolution Series, 4400 horsepower, DC traction, international version) was built for the Rio Tinto railway in Australia. The ES44ACi was built for the Roy Hill and Rio Tinto Group.

Rio Tinto's units can be remotely driven, meaning nobody has to be in the cab as they can be controlled from a control center.[10]

The ES44ACi/DCi is essentially an ES44AC/DC in a GE AC6000CW's body, with the radiator at the end protruding out over the rear deck in the same way the AC6000CW does. The locomotive's large radiator allows it to handle the Australian outback's extreme temperatures.

Roy Hill has ordered 21 ES44ACi locomotives, and is currently in possession of all 21 locomotives (numbered 1001 "Ginny"-1021). Rio Tinto ordered 100 ES44DCi locomotives and has all 100 (numbered 8100-8199) and 21 ES44ACi locomotives (numbered 9100-9120) and more are on order.

Ferromex also acquired 50 ES44ACi. As the construction of these locomotives was subsequent to the new environmental laws of the US, GE cataloged them only as ES44ACi, although in the external technical specifications of the locomotives say ES44AC). These locomotives can no longer reenter the US operating.

ET44AC/ET44C4 (2012-Present)[edit]

Union Pacific ET44AC (C45AH) #2668
BNSF ET44C4 #3680

The ET44AC (Evolution Series Tier 4, 4400 HP, AC traction) replaces the ES44AC model. These locomotives have been ordered by most of the Class I railroads in North America, including Union Pacific, CSX Transportation, Norfolk Southern and Canadian National Railway. BNSF Railway will be receiving similar ET44C4 locomotives, which have no traction motor on the middle axle of each truck. CSX designates their ET44ACs as ET44AH, due to their locomotives being heavy-ballasted.


The TE33A is an export 1520 mm gauge locomotive in the GE Evolution Series.

Identifying features[edit]

The Evolution Series locomotives are visually similar to the AC4400CW, although small differences are evident. The most noticeable difference is the radiator section at the rear of the locomotive is larger to accommodate the GEVO's Air to air intercoolers. As with the AC6000CW, the radiators project beyond the end of the hood. On the ES44ACi and ES44DCi models, the radiator extends in the same way as the AC6000CW, protruding out over the rear deck. For the other Evolution Series locomotives, the radiator does not protrude completely over the rear deck, but rather sits nearly flush with the rear of the engine hood. Unlike previous GE locomotives, the grills under the radiator are at two different angles. The increase in radiator size is due to the necessity for greater cooling capacity in the locomotive in order to reduce emissions. The other major difference between the Evolution Series and earlier models are the vents below the radiators, which are larger than those on previous GE locomotives.[11] Also, all Evolution Series units have air conditioners mounted below the cab on the conductor's side.


Railroad Qty. Road Numbers Notes
CSX Transportation 302 5200–5501 Built as ES44DC units but were downgraded by 2010. 5488 was wrecked and retired. CSXT 5500 lettered "Spirit of Cincinnati".
BNSF 721 7200–7920 Built between 2005 and 2010.
Canadian National 125 2220–2344 N/A
GE Transportation[a] 1 2011
Norfolk Southern 220 7500–7719 Units were uprated from 4,000 to 4,400 HP in 2014.
ArcelorMittal, operated by Cartier Railway 2 301–302 Built 2010.[12]
BNSF 30 5718–5747 Built between October 2003 and April 2004, these are pre-production units.
685 5748–5837 Built 2005.
5844–6438 Built between 2005–2009, BNSF 5942 was wrecked at Cactus, Texas in October 2006 (along with SD70MAC 9939), but was rebuilt in 2009. 5958 was wrecked and retired in December 2013.
Canadian National 313 2800–2999, 3800–3912, 3913–3987 2800–2975 were built 2012 through 2015. The first 2015 order (2951–2975) was built to Tier 3 standards but after the Tier 4 cutoff date and therefore are restricted to operation in Canada only. More Tier 4-compliant ET44AC's were on order for 2015 delivery, with the first two, CN 3002 and 3004, entering service on 6 August 2015. 8 additional Tier 4 units (2976–2983) were built in 2016–2017. 2984–2999 and 3800–3805 built in late 2017. 3806–3835 built in 2018 and 3836–3875 built in 2018–2019. 3913–3987 are ex-CREX units.
Canadian Pacific 291 8700–8960, 9350–9379 N/A
Cerrejón 4 10015–10018
Citicorp Railmark Inc. (Citirail) CREX[b] 15 1201–1215 Delivered in December 2012.[13] Some sold to Canadian National.
50 1301–1350 Delivered in late 2013. Some sold to Canadian National.
35 1401–1435 Delivered during summer 2014. Some sold to Canadian National.
25 1501—1525 Delivered in December 2015, units are Tier 4 Credit units. Some sold to Canadian National.
Cemex 1 81[14] Built in March 2008 as an add-on to a CSXT order.
CSX Transportation 550 700–999, 3000–3249 847 and 963 have been wrecked and retired, 3112 renumbered to 1776. Three units have special names and paint schemes: 911 Spirit of Our First Responders, 3112 renumbered to 1776 Spirit of Our Armed Forces and 3194 Spirit of Our Law Enforcement. CSXT 3099 lettered "Spirit of West Springfield and Safety Train"; wrecked 2018 in Mexico and scrapped.
Ferromex 100 4600–4699[15] 1N/A
50 4800–4849 Delivery started on June 2016. Units numbered 4800–4818 were built at the GE plant in Erie, PA. Units numbered 4819–4849 were built at the GE plant in Fort Worth, Texas. 4815 was wrecked and retired in 2018. 4838 also wrecked and retired.
Ferrosur 23 4700–4722 Painted in Ferromex colors.
GE Transportation[a] 1 2012 Wears the same demonstration scheme as 2011, as well as GECX 2005 and UP 7605 (formerly).
1 2010 This is an ES44AC-H prototype, and was rebuilt in 2007 as a hybrid from GECX ES44AC 2005.
1 3000 Converted to operate on battery power, the unit was rebuilt from former NextFuel (liquid natural gas/diesel mixture) demonstrator ES44AC 3000.
Iowa Interstate Railroad 12 500–511 Delivered from 2008 to 2009, these are the first new units purchased by this railroad and were originally intended for CSX.[16]
2 512–513 Delivered in early 2010. 513 is painted in a Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railroad heritage scheme in honor of this Iowa Interstate predecessor.[16]
3 514–516 Delivered in 2015. 516 is painted in a Rock Island inspired 30th anniversary paint scheme.
3 517–519 These are Tier 4 Credit units. They were set for delivery in late 2019.
Kansas City Southern 135 4680–4709, 4765–4869[17] 4700 was wrecked and retired.
Kansas City Southern de México 85 4650–4679, 4710–4764 N/A
25 4870–4894 Built 2015.
25 4895–4919 Built 2019, these units are equipped with steerable trucks.
Norfolk Southern 166 8000–8165 8025, 8098–8105 and 8114 were painted in schemes of predecessor railroads as part of Norfolk Southern's 30th anniversary. 8120 has a Leslie RS5T instead of the Nathan Airchime K5HL found on most of Norfolk Southern’s GEVO locomotives.
3 8166–8168[18] These are Tier 4 Credit units, built concurrently with ET44AC's 3600–3646.
16 8169–8184 These are Tier 4 Credit units.
Sava Transportation (Savatran) SVTX 3 1912, 1982, 1986 Delivered February 2012, these units are numbered for the years that Penn State University won national college football championships.[19]
Union Pacific 5 5695–5699 Built between January and February 2003, these are pre-production units and classified as C45ACCTE by UP. They have since been renumbered to 5348–5352.
938 5248–5347, 5353–5553, 7345–7529, 7600–8051 These are classified as C45ACCTE by UP. 5359, 5412, 5482, 7421 and 7914 were wrecked and retired. UP 2010, an ES44AC Boy Scouts of America tribute unit, was unveiled on 31 March 2010, in Houston, Texas to commemorate 100 years of Boy Scouts. The unit was renumbered from 7469. However, in early 2022 it was repainted into the Union Pacific lettered scheme after months of sitting in storage. It kept its number of 2010. [20] In September 2010, UP 7400 was unveiled, featuring a pink ribbon on the side as a tribute to Susan G. Komen for the Cure.
296 8052–8267, 2520–2569, 2740–2769 These are the ES44AH model, classified as C45AH by UP. These units are 432,000 lb (196,000 kg) compared to the ES-series standard 416,000 lb (189,000 kg), and are supplied with all required equipment and computer software to be classified as "AH" heavy units. UP's "AH" types are similar to CSXT's, except for their Hi-Ad trucks, and are designated C45AH's by U.P.[21] 2520–2569 and 2740–2769 are Tier 4 Credit Units. 2542 wrecked in Texarkana, TX in 2015 and retired.
BNSF 1280 3250–3281, 4200–4299, 5533–5546, 6500–7199 Built 2009–2014. 6943 was wrecked and retired.
7921–8291 Built 2014–2015. 8153 was wrecked and retired.
8318–8399 Built 2015.
Florida East Coast 24 800–823 Built between November and December 2014. All units have since been converted to use a combination of standard diesel fuel/liquid natural gas mixture, supplied from an external tender towed behind the locomotives.[22]
Rio Tinto Group 100 8100–8118, 8119–8199 They ordered the locomotives for operation on their privately owned rail line, operated by Pilbara Iron.[23] The ES44DCi uses the AC6000CW's longer frame to allow space for a heavy duty cooling system to cope with the hot desert environment that the locomotives operate in.[24] Units 8100–8118 were delivered in a predominantly grey paint scheme,[25] while units 8119–8199 feature additional red lettering and striping.[26]
21 9100–Onwards These units are numbered from 9100 onwards and more are on order. They are the ES44ACi and are painted in the Rio Tinto silver with red stripes and numerals.
Roy Hill 21 TBA Took delivery of the first 14 out of a total order for 21 ES44ACis in January 2015.[27]
BNSF 275 3725–3999 Built between 2015 and 2017. 3967 was wrecked and retired. Additional units, numbered 3721–3724 were built in late 2019. More units, numbered 3675–3706, (built early through mid-2020). 14 Units, numbered 3707–3720 (will be built 2021–2022).
Canadian National 286 3000–3285 N/A
CSX Transportation 225 3250–3474 3440 lettered "Spirit of Ravenna" along with L&N and KSHC markings after attending the announcement of Kentucky Steam buying the Ravenna yard property from CSX. 3438 and 3374 were involved in a derailment in Georgia. It is unknown whether CSX will repair the locomotives or send them for scrap.
Kansas City Southern 25 5000–5024 N/A
Norfolk Southern 47 3600–3646[18] 3633 wrecked in 2019.
34 3647–3680 N/A
Union Pacific 200 2570–2769 These are the ET44AH model, classified as C45AH by UP.
Kazakhstan Temir Zholy 310 TBA Ordered on the 28 September 2006, they signed an agreement with GE Transportation Systems, ordering the locomotives. The first ten of these were built in GE's Erie, Pennsylvania, plant while the remaining 300 will be assembled at a new plant in Astana, Kazakhstan which was opened by President Nursultan Nazarbayev on 3 July 2009[28] Delivery is expected between 2009 and 2012. The locomotives are built with dual cabs and are among the first diesel-electric locomotives with AC traction motors to operate in the Commonwealth of Independent States and Ukraine[29] (besides the 2TE25A built by Bryansk Engineering Works, Transmashholding, Russia).[30]
China Railway 700 TBA Ordered October 2005 and delivered between 2008 and 2009. They were ordered from GE Transportation Systems and Qishuyan Locomotive and Rolling Stock Works. Two have been built at Erie, Pennsylvania, the rest will be assembled by Qishuyan at Changzhou.[31]
Carajás Railroad 70 TBA The units were built at GE's Erie plant and delivered in 2009. The prime mover is a GEVO-16. They are wide gauge (1,600 mm (5 ft 3 in)).
Egyptian National Railways 80 TBA Delivered 2009. There are two versions: Painted blue for passenger trains and red/black for freight trains.[32][33][34]
Egyptian National Railways 100 TBA Ordered 2017, They are valued at $575 million that can be used for both passengers or freight rail.[35] The first 10 units were delivered in November 2019.[36][37]
Pakistan Railways 55 TBA They are made for 1,676 mm gauge. Deliveries are expected during 2017.[38] See Locomotives of Pakistan.

Licensed production[edit]

South Africa[edit]

TFR Class #44-005

Transnet Engineering in South Africa has a license to manufacture 233 4,200 hp (3,100 kW) 3 ft 6 in (1,067 mm) Cape gauge ES40ACi locomotives for Transnet Freight Rail, with core components including GEVO-12 engines supplied from the United States.[39]

The first six of these Class 44-000 locomotives were built in Erie, Pennsylvania in April and July 2015. In October 2015, the first of the 227 South African-built locomotives was nearing completion at Transnet Engineering's Koedoespoort shops in Pretoria.[40]


IR Class WDG-4G #49145
IR Class WDG-6G #69004

In November 2015, it was announced Indian Railways and GE would engage in a 11-year joint venture in which GE would hold a majority stake of 74%, to provide a mix of 1,000 diesel locomotives of type ES 43ACmi which are 4,500 horsepower and type ES 58ACi which are 6,000 horsepower each. Indian Railways designated these 1,676 mm (broad gauge) locomotives as the WDG-4G class and WDG-6G class respectively. General Electric has invested ₹2,052 crore (US$305 million) for its construction. In the $2.6 Billion deal, Indian Railways would purchase 1000 goods locomotives a year for 10 years beginning in 2017; the locomotives would be modified versions of the GE Evolution series.[1] Diesel Locomotive Factory, Marhowrah was built by GE for the manufacture of the locomotives.[2]

See also[edit]

  • EMD SD70 series, a similarly powerful locomotive produced by EMD in response to GE's predecessor of the Evolution Series, the Dash 9 Series.



  1. ^ a b These locomotives are most often used in GE Transportation/Wabtec's small test fleet on a nearly 3-mile-long (4.8 km) test track in Erie, PA, to test new locomotives before delivery.
  2. ^ Most units have been sold to Canadian National as of 2021. "Canadian National". The Diesel Shop. Retrieved 14 January 2022.
  1. ^ a b c ES44DC Datasheet, The Diesel Shop
  2. ^ a b c ES44AC Datasheet, The Diesel Shop
  3. ^ a b c ES44C4 Datasheet, The Diesel Shop
  4. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 7 February 2015. Retrieved 29 January 2014.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  5. ^ a b Lustig, David (2010). "10 Locomotives That Changed Railroading". Trains.
  6. ^ Solomon 2011, p. 64
  7. ^ "GE unveils ES44C4 locomotive". Railway Gazette International. 27 May 2009. Retrieved 25 January 2012.
  8. ^ "GE Transportation unveils new Evolution Series locomotive".
  9. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 31 October 2014. Retrieved 11 January 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  10. ^ "Rio Tinto train completes first crewless trip | Trains Magazine". Trains. Retrieved 4 May 2022.
  11. ^ Solomon, Brian (2005). Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railway. MBI. ISBN 978-0-7603-2108-9.
  12. ^ Smith, Rob (September 2010). "GEVOs head to Cartier". Trains Magazine. Kalmbach Publishing: 17.
  13. ^ Diesel Era Magazine, Jan./Feb. 2013, pg. 2.
  14. ^ "81"
  15. ^ "Ferrocaril Mexicano (Ferromex)". The Diesel Shop. Retrieved 11 July 2010.
  16. ^ a b Richard Marsh (April 2010). "Iowa Interstate salutes Rock Island". Trains Magazine. Kalmbach Publishing.
  17. ^ "Kansas City Southern". The Diesel Shop. 2 January 2010. Retrieved 31 March 2010.
  18. ^ a b "Norfolk Southern ET44ACs on the way". Trains. 19 May 2016. Retrieved 20 May 2016. (subscription required)
  19. ^ Diesel Era Magazine, March/April 2012, pg. 8.
  20. ^ "Union Pacific Railroad Unveils No. 2010 Boy Scouts of America Commemorative Locomotive". Enhanced Online News. 31 March 2010. Archived from the original on 12 March 2012. Retrieved 8 May 2010.
  21. ^ Diesel Era Magazine, July/August 2013, pg. 2
  22. ^ "Florida East Coast Railway converts locomotive fleet to LNG". International Rail Journal. 13 November 2017. Retrieved 23 August 2020.
  23. ^ "Rail". Rio Tinto Iron Ore. Archived from the original on 1 July 2013. Retrieved 31 March 2010.
  24. ^ Closeup of the radiator on Rio Tinto 8110
  25. ^ Rio Tinto 8118 prior to delivery
  26. ^ Rio Tinto 8120 prior to delivery
  27. ^ Issue 01.02 Western Australian Rail January 2015
  28. ^ "President opens Astana locomotive plant". Railway Gazette International. 6 July 2009. Archived from the original on 13 September 2009. Retrieved 22 July 2009.
  29. ^ "Evolution grabs hold in Kazakhstan". Late Breaking Industry News. Railway Age. 28 September 2006. Archived from the original on 22 August 2006. Retrieved 3 October 2006.
  30. ^ "Photo of the ТЭ33А-0007 in Almaty". Archived from the original on 11 September 2012. Retrieved 4 August 2015.
  31. ^ "GE ships first CML diesel locomotive to China". Railway Gazette International. 21 August 2008. Archived from the original on 13 September 2009. Retrieved 21 August 2008.
  32. ^ GE Transportation and Egyptian National Railways Announce the Completion of Commissioning of 80 Evolution Series Locomotives Archived 2013-08-17 at the Wayback Machine (2009-07-13)
  33. ^ Photos of ES40ACi for Egypt at delivery
  34. ^ "Now Arriving: The World's Oldest Trading Empire is Getting New Trains | GE News".
  35. ^ "King138: Situs Live Slot Online Game Judi Pola Slot Gacor Hari Ini".
  36. ^ "Egypt receives first batch of General Electric locomotives in November". 5 October 2019.
  37. ^ "Erie built locomotives arrive in Egypt". 5 December 2019.
  38. ^ "First GE Evolution loco for Pakistan completed".
  39. ^ "Transnet: 1,064 locomotives, $5 billion". Railway Age. 17 March 2014. Archived from the original on 15 June 2015.
  40. ^ Railways Africa, 11 Feb 2015: New Transnet Diesel-Electric Locomotives (Accessed 22 Nov 2015)


  • Graham-White, Sean (2007). GE Evolution Locomotives. St. Paul, MN, USA: MBI. ISBN 9780760322987.
  • Lamb, J. Parker (2007). Evolution of the American Diesel Locomotive. Railroads Past and Present. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0-253-34863-0.
  • McDonnell, Greg (2008). Locomotives: The Modern Diesel and Electric Reference. Erin, Ontario: Boston Mills Press. ISBN 978-1550464931.
  • Solomon, Brian (2003). GE Locomotives: 110 Years of General Electric Motive Power. St. Paul, MN, USA: MBI Publishing. ISBN 9780760313619.
  • Solomon, Brian (2010). Modern Locomotives: High Horsepower Diesels 1966–2000. New York: Crestline. ISBN 978-0785826811.
  • Solomon, Brian (2011). Modern Diesel Power. Minneapolis, MN: Voyageur Press. ISBN 978-0-76-033943-5.
  • Solomon, Brian (2012). North American Locomotives: A Railroad-by-Railroad Photohistory. Minneapolis, Minnesota: Voyageur Press. ISBN 978-0-7603-4370-8.

External links[edit]