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A gift or a present is an item given to someone without the expectation of payment or return. An item is not a gift, if that item, itself, is already owned by the one to whom it is given. Although gift-giving might involve an expectation of reciprocity, a gift is meant to be free. In many countries, the act of mutually exchanging money, goods, etc. may sustain social relations and contribute to social cohesion. Economists have elaborated the economics of gift-giving into the notion of a gift economy. By extension the term gift can refer to anything that makes the other happier or less sad, especially as a favor, including forgiveness and kindness. Gifts are also first and foremost presented on occasions - birthdays and, in Western cultures, Christmas being the main examples and other occasions like birthdays.
In many cultures gifts are traditionally packaged in some way. For example, in Western cultures, gifts are often wrapped in wrapping paper and accompanied by a gift note which may note the occasion, the recipient's name, and the giver's name. In Chinese culture, red wrapping connotes luck. Although inexpensive gifts are common among colleagues, associates and acquaintances, expensive or amorous gifts are considered more appropriate among close friends, romantic interests or relatives.
Gift giving occasions
Gift giving occasions may be:
- An expression of love or friendship
- An expression of gratitude for a gift received.
- An expression of piety, in the form of charity.
- An expression of solidarity, in the form of mutual aid.
- To share wealth.
- To offset misfortune.
- Offering travel souvenirs.
- Custom, on occasions (often celebrations) such as
- A birthday (the person who has his or her birthday gives cake, etc. and/or receives gifts).
- A potlatch, in societies where status is associated with gift-giving rather than acquisition.
- Christmas (throughout the history of Christmas gift giving, people have given one another gifts, often pretending they are left by Santa Claus, the Christ child or Saint Nicholas).
- Feast of Saint Nicholas (people give each other gifts, often supposedly receiving them from Saint Nicholas).
- Easter baskets with chocolate eggs, jelly beans, and chocolate rabbits are gifts given on Easter.
- Greek Orthodox Christians in Greece, will give gifts to family and friends on the Feast of Saint Basil.
- Muslims give gifts to family and friends, known as Eidi, on Eid al-Fitr (the end of Ramadan) and on Eid al-Adha.
- Jews give Hanukkah gifts to family and friends.
- Hindus give Diwali and Pongal gifts to family and friends.
- Buddhists give Vesak gifts to family and friends.
- Gifts are given to among African American families and friends on Kwanzaa.
- A wedding (the couple receives gifts and gives food and/or drinks at the wedding reception).
- A wedding anniversary (each spouse receives gifts).
- A funeral (visitors bring flowers, the relatives of the deceased give food and/or drinks after the ceremonial part).
- A birth (the baby receives gifts, or the mother receives a gift from the father known as a push present).
- Passing an examination (the student receives gifts).
- Father's Day (the father receives gifts).
- Mother's Day (the mother receives gifts).
- Siblings Day (the sibling receives gifts)
- Exchange of gifts between a guest and a host, often a traditional practice.
- Retirement Gifts
- Congratulations Gifts
- Engagement Gifts
- Housewarming party Gifts
As reinforcement and manipulation
Giving a gift to someone is not necessarily just an altruistic act. It may be given in the hope that the receiver reciprocates in a particular way. It may take the form of positive reinforcement as a reward for compliance, possibly for an underhand manipulative and abusive purpose.
At common law, for a gift to have legal effect, it was required that there be (1) intent by the donor to give a gift, and (2) delivery to the recipient of the item to be given as a gift.
In some countries, certain types of gifts above a certain monetary amount are subject to taxation. For the United States, see Gift tax in the United States.
In some contexts, gift giving can be construed as bribery. This tends to occur in situations where the gift is given with an implicit or explicit agreement between the giver of the gift and its receiver that some type of service will be rendered (often outside of normal legitimate methods) because of the gift. Some groups, such as government workers, may have strict rules concerning gift giving and receiving so as to avoid the appearance of impropriety.
Lewis Hyde remarks in The Gift that Christianity considers the Incarnation and subsequent death of Jesus to be the greatest gift to humankind, and that the Jataka contains a tale of the Buddha in his incarnation as the Wise Hare giving the ultimate alms by offering himself up as a meal for Sakka. (Hyde, 1983, 58-60)
In the Eastern Orthodox Church, the bread and wine that are consecrated during the Divine Liturgy are referred to as "the Gifts." They are first of all the gifts of the community (both individually and corporately) to God, and then, after the epiklesis, the Gifts of the Body and Blood of Christ to the Church.
- Brigham, John Carl (1986). Social Psychology. p. 322.
- Braiker, Harriet B. (2004). Who's Pulling Your Strings ? How to Break The Cycle of Manipulation. ISBN 0-07-144672-9.
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- Marcel Mauss and W.D. Halls, Gift: The Form and Reason for Exchange in Archaic Societies, W. W. Norton, 2000, trade paperback, ISBN 0-393-32043-X
- Lewis Hyde: The Gift: Imagination and the Erotic Life of Property, 1983 (ISBN 0-394-71519-5), especially part I, "A Theory of Gifts", part of which was originally published as "The Gift Must Always Move" in Co-Evolution Quarterly No. 35, Fall 1982.
- Jean-Luc Marion translated by Jeffrey L. Kosky, "Being Given: Toward a Phenomenology of Giveness", Stanford University Press, 2002 by the Board of Trustees of the Leland Stanford Junior University, (cloth : alk. paper) ISBN 0-8047-3410-0.
- Suzie Gibson: "Give and take: the anxiety of gift giving at Christmas," The Conversation, 16 December 2014.
- (in French) Alain Testart, Critique du don : Études sur la circulation non marchande, Paris, Collection Matériologique, éd. Syllepse, 268 p., 2007
- Review of the "World of the Gift"