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HMCS Calgary in July 2014
|Operators:||Royal Canadian Navy|
|Preceded by:||Annapolis class|
|Succeeded by:||Single Class Surface Combatant|
|In commission:||29 June 1992-Present|
|Type:||Guided missile frigate|
|Displacement:||4,770 t (4,770.0 t)|
|Length:||134.1 m (439.96 ft)|
|Beam:||16.4 m (53.81 ft)|
|Draught:||4.9 m (16.08 ft)|
|Speed:||29 kn (54 km/h; 33 mph)|
|Range:||9,500 nmi (17,600 km; 10,900 mi)|
|TKWA/MASS (Multi Ammunition Softkill System)|
|Aircraft carried:||1 × CH-124 Sea King or 1 × CH-148 Cyclone helicopter|
The Halifax-class frigate (hull designation FFH) is a class of multi-role patrol frigates that have served the Royal Canadian Navy since 1992. The class is the product of the Canadian Patrol Frigate Project, which dates to the mid-1970s.
HMCS Halifax was the first of an eventual twelve Canadian-designed and -built vessels which combine traditional anti-submarine capabilities with systems to deal with surface and air threats as well. Known as the Halifax class, they are the work horse of the Royal Canadian Navy (RCN), which deploys them extensively in task groups. All ships of the class are named after a major city in each province (St. John's, Halifax, Charlottetown, Fredericton, Ville de Québec, Toronto, Winnipeg, Regina, Calgary and Vancouver) plus the cities of Ottawa and Montreal.
In 2007 the Canadian government announced a planned refit of the Halifax class which known as the Halifax Class Modernization Project (HCMP) of which the Frigate Life Extension (FELEX) project is a part. In November 2008, a Lockheed Martin Canada -led team including Saab AB, Elisra, IBM Canada, CAE Professional Services, L-3 Electronic Systems and xwave, was awarded the contract. The Halifax-class modernization program is currently underway and is scheduled to complete the refit and modernization of all 12 ships of the class by 2018.
In October 2011 the Canadian government launched the National Shipbuilding Procurement Strategy which aims to replace the Halifax class, as well as the capabilities of the Iroquois-class destroyers, with up to 15 (but likely fewer) new warships under the Single Class Surface Combatant Project. This replacement class is currently in the design stage and construction is anticipated to begin in the early 2020s.
One of the primary weapon systems deployed by Halifax-class vessels is the CH-124 Sea King helicopter, which acts in concert with shipboard sensors to seek out and destroy submarines at long distances from the ships. The ships have a helicopter deck fitted with a "bear trap" system allowing the launch and recovery of helicopters in up to sea state 6. It is anticipated that Royal Canadian Air Force's new maritime helicopter, the CH-148 Cyclone, which is slated to replace the Sea King, will be deployed on board the frigates with only minimal alterations to the ships' structure required. The Halifax class also carries a close-in anti-submarine weapon in the form of the Mark 46 torpedo, launched from Mark 32 Mod 9 torpedo tubes in launcher compartments either side of the forward end of the helicopter hangar.
The anti-shipping role is supported by the RGM-84 Harpoon Block 1C surface-to-surface missile, mounted in two quadruple launch tubes at the main deck level between the funnel and the helicopter hangar. For anti-aircraft self-defence the ships are armed with the Sea Sparrow vertical launch surface-to-air missile in two Mk-48 Mod 0 eight-cell launchers placed to port and starboard of the funnel. A Raytheon/General Dynamics Phalanx Mark 15 Mod 21 Close-In Weapon System (CIWS) is mounted on top of the helicopter hangar for "last-ditch" defence against targets that evade the Sea Sparrow. The CIWS includes a thermal imaging camera which provides a surface capability, improved Ku-band radar and optimized gun barrels with a dual firing rate of 3000 or 4500 rounds/min.
The main gun on the forecastle is a 57 mm 70 Mark 3 gun from Bofors. The gun is capable of firing 2.4 kg shells at a rate of 220 rounds/min at a range of more than 17 km. The Bofors is a multi-purpose weapon usable against surface and air targets. The 57 mm main gun has limited ship-to-shore bombardment capability.
The decoy system comprises Two BAE Systems Shield Mark 2 decoy launchers which fire chaff to 2 km and infrared rockets to 169 m in distraction, confusion and centroid seduction modes. The torpedo decoy is the AN/SLQ-25A Nixie towed acoustic decoy from Argon ST. The ship's radar warning receiver, the CANEWS (Canadian Electronic Warfare System), SLQ-501, and the radar jammer, SLQ-505, were developed by Thorn and Lockheed Martin Canada.
Two Thales Nederland (formerly Signaal) SPG-503 (STIR 1.8) fire control radars are installed one on the roof of the bridge and one on the raised radar platform immediately forward of the helicopter hangar. The ship is also fitted with Raytheon AN/SPS-49(V)5 long-range active air search radar operating at C and D bands, Ericsson HC150 Sea Giraffe medium-range air and surface search radar operating at G and H bands, and Kelvin Hughes Type 1007 I-band navigation radar.
The sonar suite includes the CANTASS Canadian Towed Array supplied by General Dynamics – Canada (GD-C), formerly Computing Devices of Canada and GD-C AN/SQS-510 hull mounted sonar and incorporates an acoustic range prediction system. The sonobuoy processing system is the GD-C AN/UYS-503.
Halifax-class vessels are powered by a CODOG (combined diesel or gas) system with two GE LM2500 gas turbines and one SEMT-Pielstick 20PA6 V280 diesel engine. CAE provided the Integrated Machinery Control System (IMCS). The Halifax class is the first to employ this degree of computer control for the machinery plant, and variants of the CAE system are also installed in other ship classes such as the United States Navy's Arleigh Burke class.
The Government of Canada announced on 5 July 2007 a $3.1 billion refit program for the Halifax class which would take place from 2010–2018 and extend the ships' service lives through to the 2030s. The total cost of the program was set at $4.3 billion, with $2 billion for combat systems upgrades and $1.2 billion for the mid-life refits. A further $1 billion was paid to contractors for other projects.
Faced with delays and restrictions from the International Traffic in Arms Regulations, the Navy opted to modernize the Halifax class using as much non-American equipment as possible, including technology from Canada, Sweden, Germany, Netherlands and Israel. The International Traffic in Arms Regulations have also been blamed for the delay of the CH-148 Cyclone which is currently two years behind the original schedule The Halifax class received state of the art equipment able to handle modern threats through 2030. The modernization includes passive and active weapons, radars, and new combat architecture to meet the modern requirement of the Canadian Forces. First article acceptance of the first seven ships of the modernization has been achieved as of October 2015.
The refit program was completed formally announced as completed on the west coast by Victoria Shipyards on 29 April 2016 by the Minister of National Defence Harjit Sajjan when Regina was returned to the Royal Canadian Navy. As of 2016[update] the project was on budget. Calgary was the first to undergo work at Victoria, followed by Ottawa, Winnipeg and Regina.
As part of the refit Thales Canada supplied the Sirius long-range Infrared Search and Track (IRST) for the Halifax class. The IRST is currently in use on board the GermanSachsen-class frigates. The IRST is able to track low radar cross-section aircraft and ships.
The Halifax class received a combat system architecture and combat management system developed by Lockheed Martin Canada and associated subcontractors, notably Saab Sweden and Saab Australia. The new combat architecture provides a command, control, communications, computers, and intelligence (C4I) capability. Elements of the Saab 9LV Mk4 Combat Management System ( known as the "CanACCS-9LV" suite of components) are incorporated in the Lockheed Martin Canada developed "CMS330" Combat Management System. The CMS330 Combat management system has since been selected for use in the New Zealand Anzac-class frigate upgrade and a slimmed down version of CMS330 will also be used in the Canadian AOPS program. The program includes a new combat system and a modernized operations room.
Saab provided 26 CEROS 200 Fire Control Directors. The CEROS 200 is a Radar and Optronic Tracking system which interfaces with advanced anti-ship missiles and gun systems. It provides defence against modern threats including modern sea skimming anti-ship missiles or asymmetric threats in littoral environments. The CEROS 200 is part of the 9LV Mk4.
BAE Systems received a contract to upgrade the Bofors 57 mm Mk 2 to Bofors 57 mm Mk 3 configuration. The upgrades were performed at Karlskoga between 2010–2016, before being installed in Halifax and Victoria.
The Halifax class were fitted with a modified Sea Giraffe SG-150 multi-function search radar. The SG-150 HC will be upgraded and will secure a high level of operational availability as well improved functions.
The Halifax class were fitted with the Multi Ammunition Softkill System (MASS) developed by Rheinmetall. MASS is a fully computerized countermeasure. The system is connected to the ship's sensors and protects ships from attacks by advanced, sensor-guided missiles by launching decoys that operate in all relevant wavelengths. MASS is currently in use by 15 other navies worldwide.
Elbit Systems received a contract to supply Electronic Warfare equipment for the Halifax class, including active jamming and tracking systems.
Thales supplied 13 Smart-S Mk2 S-band radars, including one for training purposes. These radars are optimized for medium-to-long range search and target designation with a high degree of detection. The Smart-S Mk2 is a 3D multibeam radar which can detect hostile targets in near-shore environments. The deliveries began at the end of 2010 and were completed in 2015.
Raytheon Anschütz provided at least 12 Pathfinder ST MK 2 Radar systems. The Pathfinder Mark II is designed to provide a modern and flexible navigation tool. The Pathfinder ST Mk 2 radar system is part of the 9LV Mk4. In 2015, Canada acquired twelve sets of X and S-Band navigation radars from Raytheon Anschütz for the class. The new radars have advanced detection capability, new radiation control and pulse blanker interfaces and have improved interaction with the vessels' upgraded command and control system.
Rheinmetall Waffe Munition GmbH received a contract to provide 14 Passive Electronic Countermeasures Systems (ECM).
The Department of National Defence requested a tender to provide a naval remote weapon system (NRWS) defence capability to the Halifax and Iroquois classes. The Halifax class was to be fitted with a new close-in weapon system (CIWS) to replace the 12.7 mm M2HB heavy machine gun. Although not part of the refit, Raytheon Canada Limited was awarded a contract of $180 million for eight years to overhaul, convert and repair all Canadian CIWS to a Block 1B Baseline 1 configuration.
It was announced by the Department of National Defence that Hewitt Equipment was chosen to replace the diesel generators aboard the Halifax-class vessels in June 2015. The contract was awarded for 10 years, with options to extend it out to 22 years and covers ships on assigned to either coast.
- Type: Guided missile frigate with helicopter (FFH)
- Displacement: 4,770 tonnes (full load)
- Dimensions: 134.1 metres length x 16.4 metres width x 4.9 metres draft
- Missiles: 8 × MK 141 Harpoon SSM; 16 × RIM-162 ESSM SAM/SSM
- Torpedoes: 24 × Mk 46 torpedoes Mod 5
- Guns (pre HCM/FELEX):
- Guns (post HCM/FELEX):
- Decoys (pre HCM/FELEX): 24 shield Chaff/infrared decoys (flares)
- Decoys (post HCM/FELEX): Rheinmetall Multi Ammunition Softkill System (MASS)
- Sensors (pre HCM/FELEX):
- Air/Surface Search: Saab Sea Giraffe HC 150 (G band)
- Long Range Air Search: Raytheon AN/SPS-49 (C/D band)
- Fire Control: Signaal SPG-503 STIR 1.8 (K/I band)
- Navigational Radar: Kelvin Hughes Type 1007 I-band
- Active Sonar: AN/SQS-510 Hull-mounted variable depth (range to 27 nm)
- Passive Sonar: AN/SQR-501 CANTASS Passive towed array
- Sensors (post HCM/FELEX):
- Air/Surface Search: Saab Sea Giraffe HC 180 (G band)
- Long Range Air Search: Thales Smart-S Mk2 S-band radars
- Fire Control: Saab CEROS 200
- Navigational Radar: Raytheon Anschütz Pathfinder ST MK 2
- Active Sonar: AN/SQS-510 Hull-mounted variable depth (range to 27 nm)
- Passive Sonar: An upgraded AN/SQR-501 CANTASS Passive towed array
- Combat System: Lockheed Martin Canada designed “CMS 330”, incorporating elemets of Saab 9LV.
- Propulsion: Twin CODOG
- Speed: 29+ knots (54 km/h)
- 7,100 nautical miles (13,000 km) at 15 knots (28 km/h) (diesel)
- 4,500 nautical miles (8,300 km) at 15 knots (28 km/h) (turbine)
- Complement: 225 (including air detachment and firefighting unit).
- Range: 9,500 nautical miles (18,000 km)
Plans are underway to replace the Sea Sparrow missiles with the Evolved Sea Sparrow, upgrade the towed sonar arrays and fit newer propellers and anechoic tiles to reduce noise emission. HMCS Montréal has already been upgraded in the latter regard. Of note in the structural design of these ships is the distinctive funnel housing, designed to diffuse the vessels' heat signature.
Ships in class
There are twelve Halifax-class ships in Canadian service:
|Name||Pennant Number||Builder||Laid down||Launched||Commissioned||Status|
|Halifax||FFH 330||Saint John Shipbuilding, Saint John, NB||19 March 1987||30 April 1988||29 June 1992||Active in service|
|Vancouver||FFH 331||19 May 1988||8 July 1989||23 August 1993||Active in service|
|Ville de Québec||FFH 332||MIL Davie Shipbuilding, Lauzon, QC||16 December 1988||16 May 1991||14 July 1994||Active in service|
|Toronto||FFH 333||Saint John Shipbuilding, Saint John, NB||22 April 1989||18 December 1990||29 July 1993||Active in service|
|Regina||FFH 334||MIL Davie Shipbuilding, Lauzon, QC||6 October 1989||25 January 1992||29 December 1993||Active in service|
|Calgary||FFH 335||15 June 1991||28 August 1992||12 May 1995||Active in service|
|Montréal||FFH 336||Saint John Shipbuilding, Saint John, NB||8 February 1991||28 February 1992||21 July 1994||Active in service|
|Fredericton||FFH 337||25 April 1992||26 June 1993||10 September 1994||Active in service|
|Winnipeg||FFH 338||20 March 1993||25 June 1994||23 June 1996||Active in service|
|Charlottetown||FFH 339||18 December 1993||1 October 1994||9 September 1995||Active in service|
|St. John's||FFH 340||24 August 1994||26 August 1995||26 June 1996||Active in service|
|Ottawa||FFH 341||29 April 1995||31 May 1996||28 September 1996||Active in service|
Other FFH or similar class vessels:
Other Royal Canadian Navy vessels:
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- "Royal Canadian Navy Halifax-class Frigates Modernization and Life Extension Program". Navy Recognition. August 22, 2013. Retrieved 8 May 2015.[unreliable source?]
- Wilson, Carla (28 April 2016). "Navy marks end of frigate upgrades". Times Colonist. Retrieved 6 May 2016.
- Pugliese, David (25 January 2010). "Navy says no to buying American: U.S. restrictions on technology can lead to delays". The Ottawa Citizen. Retrieved 2010-01-25.
- Haun, Eric (29 April 2016). "Canadian Navy Frigate Refit Program Completed". marinelink.com. Retrieved 6 May 2016.
- "Canada & Holland Order 17 SIRIUS Shipboard Long-Range IRST Sensors". Defense Industry Daily. 26 April 2006. Retrieved 2006-04-26.
- "Lockheed Martin Canada Announces Team to Pursue Halifax Class Modernization Program". Ottawa, Ontario. Canadian News Wire. April 11, 2007. Retrieved 2015-05-08.
- "Lockheed Martin says critical design review on Frigate upgrade reached". Defence Watch. Retrieved 2010-08-17.[dead link]
- Pugliese, David (3 April 2009). "More Information on Softkill System for Halifax-Class Frigates". Ottawa Citizen. Retrieved 2013-08-07.
- "Elbit Systems awarded $55 million Lockheed Martin contract to Supply Electronic Warfare Equipment for Canadian Navy Frigate Upgrade Program" (DOC) (Press release). Haifa, Israel: Elbit systems. May 7, 2009. Retrieved 2015-05-08.
- Pugliese, David (July 3, 2009). "Canadian Frigate Modernization to Include Thales Smart-S Mk2 Radar". Ottawa Citizen. Retrieved 2015-05-08.
- "NSC Radars for Canadian Navy frigate modernization program" (Press release). Raytheon-Anschuetz. Retrieved 2015-05-08.
- "Raytheon Anschütz delivers navigation radars for Canada's Halifax-class frigates". naval-technology.com. 8 September 2015. Retrieved 9 September 2015.[unreliable source?]
- Pugliese, David (3 April 2009). "Rheinmetall Wins Contract for Halifax Class ECM Systems". Ottawa Citizen. Retrieved 2015-05-08.
- "NRWS: Naval Remote Weapon Station for Halifax class Frigates and Tribal Destroyers – MERX Letters of Interest/Industry Day". Retrieved 2013-08-08.
- "Raytheon Canada Limited: Private Company Information - Businessweek". Archived from the original on October 1, 2012. Retrieved 2013-08-08.
- "Hewitt Equipment to replace Canadian Halifax-class frigates’ generators". naval-technology.com. 16 June 2015. Retrieved 20 June 2015.[unreliable source?]
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