L5 is a small haplogroup centered in East Africa. The highest frequency is in MbutiPygmies at 15%. It is present in relatively small frequencies in Tanzania (Sandawe and others), Kenya, Ethiopia, Sudan, Nubia, Egypt[Note 1] and Saudi Arabia.
Haplogroup L5 has been observed among specimens at the island cemetery in Kulubnarti, Sudan, which date from the Early Christian period (AD 550-800).
This phylogenetic tree of haplogroup L5 subclades is based on the paper by Mannis van Oven and Manfred Kayser Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation and subsequent published research.
^Stevanovitch, A; A. Gilles; E. Bouzaid; R. Kefi; F. Paris; R. P. Gayraud; J. L. Spadoni; F. El-Chenawi; E. Béraud-Colomb (29 Jan 2004). "Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Diversity in a Sedentary Population from Egypt". Annals of Human Genetics. 68 (1): 23–39. doi:10.1046/j.1529-8817.2003.00057.x. PMID14748828.