Haplogroup W (mtDNA)

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Haplogroup W
Possible time of origin 23,900 ybp[1]
Possible place of origin Western Asia
Ancestor N2
Descendants W1, 194
Defining mutations 195 204 207 1243 3505 5460 8251 8994 11947 15884C 16292[2]

Haplogroup W is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup.

Origin[edit]

Haplogroup W is believed to have originated around 23,900 years ago in Western Asia.[1] It is descended from the haplogroup N2.

Distribution[edit]

Projected spatial distribution of haplogroup W.

Haplogroup W is found in Europe, West Asia and South Asia.[3] It is widely distributed at low frequencies, with a high concentration in Northern Pakistan.[4]

Haplogroup W is also found in the Maghreb among Algerians (1.08%-3.23%).[5]

Additionally, the clade has been observed among ancient Egyptian mummies excavated at the Abusir el-Meleq archaeological site in Middle Egypt, which date from the Ptolemaic era.[6]

Subclades[edit]

Tree[edit]

Phylogenetic tree of haplogroups I (left) and W (right). Kya in the left scale bar stands for thousand years ago.

This phylogenetic tree of haplogroup W subclades is based on the paper by Mannis van Oven and Manfred Kayser Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation[2] and subsequent published research.

  • W
    • W1
      • W1a
      • W1b
      • 119
        • W1c
      • W1d
      • W1e
      • W1f
      • W1g
    • 194
      • W3
        • W3a
          • W3a1
            • W3a1a
      • W4
        • W4a
      • W5
        • W5a
          • W5a1
      • W6

See also[edit]

Phylogenetic tree of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups

  Mitochondrial Eve (L)    
L0 L1–6  
L1 L2   L3     L4 L5 L6
M N  
CZ D E G Q   O A S R   I W X Y
C Z B F R0   pre-JT   P   U
HV JT K
H V J T

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Soares, Pedro; Luca Ermini; Noel Thomson; Maru Mormina; Teresa Rito; Arne Röhl; Antonio Salas; Stephen Oppenheimer; Vincent Macaulay; Martin B. Richards (4 Jun 2009). "Supplemental Data Correcting for Purifying Selection: An Improved Human Mitochondrial Molecular Clock". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 84 (6): 82–93. PMC 2694979Freely accessible. PMID 19500773. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2009.05.001. Retrieved 2009-08-13. 
  2. ^ a b van Oven, Mannis; Manfred Kayser (13 Oct 2008). "Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation". Human Mutation. 30 (2): E386–E394. PMID 18853457. doi:10.1002/humu.20921. Retrieved 2009-05-20. 
  3. ^ Petraglia, Michael D.; Bridget Allchin The Evolution and History of Human Populations in South Asia Springer (26 Mar 2007) ISBN 978-1-4020-5561-4 [1]
  4. ^ Meit Metspalu et al., Most of the extant mtDNA boundaries in South and Southwest Asia were likely shaped during the initial settlement of Eurasia by anatomically modern humans. BMC Genetics, 2004
  5. ^ Asmahan Bekada; Lara R. Arauna; Tahria Deba; Francesc Calafell; Soraya Benhamamouch; David Comas (September 24, 2015). "Genetic Heterogeneity in Algerian Human Populations". PLoS ONE. 10 (9): e0138453. PMC 4581715Freely accessible. PMID 26402429. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0138453. Retrieved 10 May 2016. ; S5 Table
  6. ^ Schuenemann, Verena J.; et al. (2017). "Ancient Egyptian mummy genomes suggest an increase of Sub-Saharan African ancestry in post-Roman periods". Nature communications. 8: 15694. 

External links[edit]